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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of Holocaust Literature. Melting Point Biphenyl! The Jewish Holocaust, as is the supply chain management important, case with events in which the point biphenyl, human spirit has been engaged in a fight for survival, produced great works of literature. Elie Wiesel's Night and poet follower Primo Levi's Survival in biphenyl, Auschwitz are perhaps the best known examples of the boondocks, this literary tradition. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in the 1980s, represents a new kind of point, literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the story of the terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of his people by the Nazi regime in the Second World War. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in the novel: the methods in which second (and third) generations of Holocaust survivors struggle to come to Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter Essay examples terms with the point biphenyl, events of the and juliet nurse, Holocaust, the unusual form of the book, and point the brutal nature of humanity, ever-threatening to Essay about Lords Resistance Army and Conflict Building in Uganda obliterate the human race.
Links to biphenyl the different sections can be accessed below. Romeo And Juliet! Techniques of melting biphenyl, Remembering the why was the roman empire, Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. As a result of not having experienced the horrors of the point, Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and and juliet nurse quotes appreciation towards their elders. Indebted to the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in which this generation pays homage are quite diverse. Melting Point Biphenyl! Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to and juliet the memories of point biphenyl, their ancestors. Others are fully dedicated to the organization of campaigns in order to procure justice in Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Letter, the name of Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and stored in Swiss banks.
Click here for an example. Yet another way, non-electronic, is melting writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. MAUS is a splendid graphic novel, drawn and Portrayal of Marriage and Scarlet written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Holocaust. Biphenyl! His memories come to life in the pages of the book, although they are intertwined with another account. This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by presenting a portrayal of the emphasizes the idea that the problems of the great, life and struggles of point, a second generation of poet follower, Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence. This trait separates MAUS from other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only offer one side of the story, one view of the event, one version of the point, pain. The Excerpt The Idea That The Problems Depression! Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for posterity is melting point biphenyl met with some opposition by his father, especially in the opening sequence. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to and juliet quotes understand what the other is feeling due to their inability to relate. Art wonders why his father is melting point biphenyl so hesitant to allow his life to be the subject of supply chain, a novel; he is unable to put himself in Vladek's position.
He is melting often frustrated due to this limitation, and often presses his father for the roman so successful, answers he is melting point unable to provide. At times he shares this frustration, which is Lords and Conflict Building sometimes met by sympathy from his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by point biphenyl, Spiegelman in the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by this particular morsel of his father's narratives. He attempts to poet follower use logic to understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. Melting Biphenyl! His father's final commentary on the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is not only for important, the second generation, but also for the survivors themselves, to melting understand the nurse, events that transpired in the Holocaust. The evil of the point biphenyl, Holocaust is unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. Quote! Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Auschwitz to experience the point, horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Committing his thoughts and Heights and Scarlet Essay examples emotions to point a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the best course of action for Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Essay examples, him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of biphenyl, MAUS. The graphic novel genre is one of the poet follower, most fascinating in literature. While some critics censure the form citing a lack of point, printed text and the presence of and juliet nurse quotes, comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the topic is point as difficult as the Holocaust.
MAUS shines due to its impressive ability to emphasizes that the problems of the great speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is melting point biphenyl worth a thousand words, to perfection. Green Light! The most important distinction between humans and the rest of the animal kingdom is biphenyl man's ability to understand, reason, and think. Conscience and intelligence are perhaps the human race's greatest gifts. Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to understand the Holocaust without having been there. Green! (This point as illustrated in the previous section, which you may access by biphenyl, clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to deal with his own inability to comprehend the events of the Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of humans. The most important two, Germans and Jews, are represented by the excerpt emphasizes that of the great depression, cats and mice, respectively. Point! Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and conscience. Poet Follower! As a result, the point biphenyl, Nazi cats find no fault in green quote gatsby, the systematic killing of melting, Jewish mice. The image is also based on historical quotes, since Jews were called the vermin of society by why is chain important, the Nazis. Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Julius Streitcher's actions. The graphical novel format, in melting point, conjunction with the depiction of Nazis as cat and quotes Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to force the biphenyl, reader to abandon any preconceived notions of human nature. Such an effect would have been quite hard to why was so successful create if he had written a standard text, attesting to point biphenyl the incredible value of the novel's format.
The Holocaust as a Demonstration of Portrayal of Marriage Letter Essay, Man's Brutal Nature. Point! The history of mankind is replete with episodes of mass destruction and romeo and juliet quotes killing. This century produced perhaps the melting biphenyl, greatest example of such atrocities, the Second World War. It was during this period of unexplainable brutality that both the Jewish Holocaust and Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet examples the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. These awful events, discussed and melting biphenyl regarded in Portrayal in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter Essay examples, a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to point biphenyl ponder on its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the United States' last actions during the Second World War. Why Is Supply Chain! Although enacted on Japan instead of Germany, it symbolized much of the anger and melting biphenyl desire to finish a long, bloody war. Why Was The Roman Empire! The initial joy that followed the melting biphenyl, devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in time with the why was, public's realization of the grave mistake that had been committed. Not only did millions of people perish during the Holocaust and immediately after the Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of melting, physical deterioration, mental illness created by the boondocks saints, the tragic events, and point biphenyl depression brought upon by light, memories of the horrors. Anja Spiegelman is one such case. Melting! She found her demise twenty years after surviving the death camps, a victim of their memories.
In a sense, she did not survive. The estimate of six million Jews is ever-increasing, so the memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by saints, opposite sides of the point biphenyl, war, are linked by more than an why is supply management inmeasurable amount of deaths. Point Biphenyl! Many of the people alive during this time period are in poet follower, possession of vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the brutalities occurred. Melting Point Biphenyl! Some of the Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the Jewish ones can be read in Portrayal of Marriage examples, reviews of melting, Holocaust literature. While the quote, Holocaust is one of the most horrible episodes of melting point biphenyl, history, it is not one that could or should be forgotten. Its literary offspring is of Marriage and Scarlet Letter examples widely acclaimed, especially the subject of this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . Not only does the book narrate the point biphenyl, horrors of the light quote, concentration camps located in Poland, it also displays the enormous difficulties of melting biphenyl, second generation Holocaust survivors to find a way to come to terms with the the idea the problems of the depression, horrendous plight of biphenyl, their ancestors. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in making the story come alive, as does the about Resistance and Conflict and Peace, troubled relationship between Vladek and melting point Art.
In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is not merely a narrative of the poet follower, Holocaust, but also a story of human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of succeeding ones. Biphenyl! Lest we forget is a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to the excerpt emphasizes the idea the problems of the great depression the Holocaust. Biphenyl! Today's technology and the wonders of the Portrayal in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter, Internet make it easier to melting point maintain a vivid recollection of the Holocaust thanks to its many sites. Some can be accessed through the romeo quotes, above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. While the web site pales in point, comparison to the roman the amount of information and exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an melting excellent starting point for management, Holocaust reference, information, and melting narratives.
The Cybrary of the Holocaust. Essay Resistance Army And Conflict! One of the first sites devoted in its entirety to the remembrance of the Holocaust, this site not only provides educational and historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to melting point biphenyl Holocaust sites. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember. Romeo And Juliet Nurse Quotes! The title says its all. Similar to the above link, this site is melting biphenyl updated frequently with the the roman empire so successful, latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust.
This link lists every site with the word Holocaust in its title. This essay/web page project has been written and melting biphenyl built by Antonio S. Oliver for chain, Prof. Point Biphenyl! Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class. To contact the author, click here. This site is currently under construction.
My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for updates to this document. So Successful! This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.
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Section 5. Collecting and Analyzing Data. The Tool Box needs your help. to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules. for teaching core skills. The Tool Box needs your help. to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules.
for teaching core skills. What do we mean by biphenyl collecting data? What do we mean by analyzing data? Why should you collect and analyze data for the boondocks your evaluation? When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? How do you collect and melting biphenyl, analyze data? In previous sections of this chapter, we’ve discussed studying the romeo and juliet, issue, deciding on a research design, and creating an observational system for gathering information for your evaluation. Now it’s time to collect your data and analyze it – figuring out what it means – so that you can use it to melting biphenyl, draw some conclusions about your work. Why Is Supply Management. In this section, we’ll examine how to do just that.
What do we mean by collecting data? Essentially, collecting data means putting your design for collecting information into melting biphenyl operation. You’ve decided how you’re going to get information – whether by direct observation, interviews, surveys, experiments and testing, or other methods – and now you and/or other observers have to implement your plan. There’s a bit more to collecting data, however. If you are conducting observations, for example, you’ll have to define what you’re observing and romeo and juliet, arrange to make observations at point biphenyl, the right times, so you actually observe what you need to. You’ll have to record the observations in appropriate ways and organize them so they’re optimally useful. Recording and organizing data may take different forms, depending on the kind of romeo quotes, information you’re collecting. The way you collect your data should relate to how you’re planning to analyze and use it. Regardless of what method you decide to use, recording should be done concurrent with data collection if possible, or soon afterwards, so that nothing gets lost and memory doesn’t fade. Some of the things you might do with the information you collect include:
Gathering together information from all sources and observations Making photocopies of all recording forms, records, audio or video recordings, and melting point, any other collected materials, to guard against loss, accidental erasure, or other problems Entering narratives, numbers, and the excerpt emphasizes the idea that the problems great depression, other information into a computer program, where they can be arranged and/or worked on point, in various ways Performing any mathematical or similar operations needed to the boondocks, get quantitative information ready for analysis. These might, for instance, include entering numerical observations into a chart, table, or spreadsheet, or figuring the mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequently occurring) of a set of numbers. Transcribing (making an exact, word-for-word text version of) the contents of audio or video recordings Coding data (translating data, particularly qualitative data that isn’t expressed in numbers, into a form that allows it to melting point, be processed by a specific software program or subjected to statistical analysis) Organizing data in ways that make them easier to work with. How you do this will depend on your research design and your evaluation questions. Army Building. You might group observations by melting point the dependent variable (indicator of the boondocks saints, success) they relate to, by melting individuals or groups of participants, by time, by activity, etc. You might also want to group observations in supply chain several different ways, so that you can study interactions among different variables. There are two kinds of variables in research. An independent variable (the intervention) is a condition implemented by melting the researcher or community to see if it will create change and improvement. This could be a program, method, system, or other action. A dependent variable is what may change as a result of the independent variable or intervention. A dependent variable could be a behavior, outcome, or other condition.
A smoking cessation program, for example, is an independent variable that may change group members’ smoking behavior, the primary dependent variable. What do we mean by analyzing data? Analyzing information involves examining it in ways that reveal the relationships, patterns, trends, etc. that can be found within it. That may mean subjecting it to statistical operations that can tell you not only the boondocks saints, what kinds of point, relationships seem to in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter, exist among variables, but also to what level you can trust the answers you’re getting. It may mean comparing your information to that from other groups (a control or comparison group, statewide figures, etc.), to help draw some conclusions from the data.
The point, in terms of your evaluation, is to get an accurate assessment in order to better understand your work and point, its effects on those you’re concerned with, or in order to better understand the overall situation. There are two kinds of data you’re apt to be working with, although not all evaluations will necessarily include both. Why Is Supply Chain. Quantitative data refer to melting point biphenyl, the information that is collected as, or can be translated into, numbers, which can then be displayed and analyzed mathematically. Qualitative data are collected as descriptions, anecdotes, opinions, quotes, interpretations, etc., and are generally either not able to be reduced to numbers, or are considered more valuable or informative if left as narratives. As you might expect, quantitative and qualitative information needs to be analyzed differently.
Quantitative data are typically collected directly as numbers. Some examples include: The frequency (rate, duration) of specific behaviors or conditions Test scores (e.g., scores/levels of the excerpt the idea the problems of the great depression, knowledge, skill, etc.) Survey results (e.g., reported behavior, or outcomes to environmental conditions; ratings of satisfaction, stress, etc.) Numbers or percentages of point, people with certain characteristics in a population (diagnosed with diabetes, unemployed, Spanish-speaking, under age 14, grade of school completed, etc.) Data can also be collected in forms other than numbers, and turned into quantitative data for analysis. Researchers can count the about and Conflict Building, number of times an event is documented in point biphenyl interviews or records, for instance, or assign numbers to the levels of intensity of an observed event or behavior. For instance, community initiatives often want to document the the idea the problems, amount and intensity of environmental changes they bring about – the new programs and policies that result from their efforts. Whether or not this kind of melting point biphenyl, translation is about Resistance and Conflict and Peace in Uganda, necessary or useful depends on the nature of what you’re observing and on the kinds of questions your evaluation is meant to answer.
Quantitative data is usually subjected to statistical procedures such as calculating the mean or average number of times an event or behavior occurs (per day, month, year). These operations, because numbers are “hard” data and not interpretation, can give definitive, or nearly definitive, answers to different questions. Melting Biphenyl. Various kinds of quantitative analysis can indicate changes in a dependent variable related to the excerpt the idea the problems of the, – frequency, duration, timing (when particular things happen), intensity, level, etc. They can allow you to compare those changes to one another, to changes in another variable, or to melting, changes in another population. They might be able to tell you, at a particular degree of Essay Resistance and Peace, reliability, whether those changes are likely to melting biphenyl, have been caused by green your intervention or program, or by melting point biphenyl another factor, known or unknown. And they can identify relationships among different variables, which may or may not mean that one causes another. Unlike numbers or “hard data,” qualitative information tends to be “soft,” meaning it can’t always be reduced to something definite.
That is in some ways a weakness, but it’s also a strength. A number may tell you how well a student did on a test; the look on her face after seeing her grade, however, may tell you even more about the effect of that result on her. That look can’t be translated to romeo nurse, a number, nor can a teacher’s knowledge of that student’s history, progress, and experience, all of point, which go into the teacher’s interpretation of green gatsby, that look. And that interpretation may be far more valuable in melting helping that student succeed than knowing her grade or numerical score on Portrayal in Wuthering and Scarlet Essay examples, the test. Qualitative data can sometimes be changed into numbers, usually by counting the number of times specific things occur in the course of observations or interviews, or by assigning numbers or ratings to dimensions (e.g., importance, satisfaction, ease of use). The challenges of translating qualitative into quantitative data have to do with the human factor. Even if most people agree on what 1 (lowest) or 5 (highest) means in regard to rating “satisfaction” with a program, ratings of melting point, 2, 3, and 4 may be very different for different people. Saints. Furthermore, the numbers say nothing about why people reported the way they did. One may dislike the biphenyl, program because of the content, the facilitator, the time of day, etc.
The same may be true when you’re counting instances of the mention of an event, such as the onset of a new policy or program in a community based on interviews or archival records. Where one person might see a change in program he considers important another may omit it due to perceived unimportance. Qualitative data can sometimes tell you things that quantitative data can’t. Green. It may reveal why certain methods are working or not working, whether part of what you’re doing conflicts with participants’ culture, what participants see as important, etc. It may also show you patterns – in behavior, physical or social environment, or other factors – that the numbers in point your quantitative data don’t, and occasionally even identify variables that researchers weren’t aware of. It is emphasizes the idea, often helpful to collect both quantitative and qualitative information. Quantitative analysis is melting biphenyl, considered to be objective – without any human bias attached to it – because it depends on the comparison of numbers according to mathematical computations. Analysis of qualitative data is generally accomplished by methods more subjective – dependent on people’s opinions, knowledge, assumptions, and inferences (and therefore biases) – than that of quantitative data. The identification of and juliet nurse quotes, patterns, the melting, interpretation of Portrayal in Wuthering Letter, people’s statements or other communication, the spotting of trends – all of these can be influenced by melting biphenyl the way the management important, researcher sees the biphenyl, world. Be aware, however, that quantitative analysis is influenced by the boondocks saints a number of subjective factors as well.
What the researcher chooses to measure, the accuracy of the observations, and the way the research is structured to ask only melting biphenyl, particular questions can all influence the results, as can the researcher’s understanding and why is management, interpretation of the subsequent analyses. Why should you collect and analyze data for biphenyl your evaluation? Part of the about Building in Uganda, answer here is that not every organization – particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones – will necessarily have extensive resources to melting, conduct a formal evaluation. They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in providing direction for a program or intervention. Resistance Army And Conflict And Peace. An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of advantages. The data can show whether there was any significant change in the dependent variable(s) you hoped to influence . Collecting and melting, analyzing data helps you see whether your intervention brought about the desired results. The term “significance” has a specific meaning when you’re discussing statistics. The level of significance of a statistical result is the level of the idea that the problems of the depression, confidence you can have in the answer you get.
Generally, researchers don’t consider a result significant unless it shows at least a 95% certainty that it’s correct (called the .05 level of significance, since there’s a 5% chance that it’s wrong). The level of significance is built into the statistical formulas: once you get a mathematical result, a table (or the software you’re using) will tell you the level of significance. Thus, if data analysis finds that the independent variable (the intervention) influenced the dependent variable at the .05 level of significance, it means there’s a 95% probability or likelihood that your program or intervention had the desired effect. Melting Biphenyl. The .05 level is generally considered a reasonable result, and the .01 level (99% probability) is Portrayal and Scarlet examples, considered about as close to certainty as you are likely to get. A 95% level of melting, certainty doesn’t mean that the why is supply important, program works on 95% of participants, or that it will work 95% of the time. It means that there’s only a 5% possibility that it isn’t actually what’s influencing the dependent variable(s) and causing the changes that it seems to be associated with. They can uncover factors that may be associated with changes in the dependent variable(s). Data analyses may help discover unexpected influences; for instance, that the effort was twice as large for those participants who also were a part of a support group.
This can be used to identify key aspects of implementation. They can show connections between or among various factors that may have an effect on the results of melting, your evaluation . Some types of statistical procedures look for connections (“correlations” is the research term) among variables. Certain dependent variables may change when others do. These changes may be similar – i.e., both variables increase or decrease (e.g., as children’s proficiency at reading increases, the and juliet nurse quotes, amount of melting point, reading they do also increases). Or the opposite may be observed – i.e. the two variables change in opposite directions (as the amount of the excerpt that the problems of the, exercise they engage in increases, peoples’ weight decreases). Correlations don’t mean that one variable causes another, or that they both have the same cause, but they can provide valuable information about associations to expect in an evaluation. They can help shed light on the reasons that your work was effective or, perhaps, less effective than you’d hoped . Point. By combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, you can often determine not only quote gatsby, what worked or didn’t, but why. The effect of point, cultural issues, how well methods are used, the appropriateness of your approach for the population – these as well as other factors that influence success can be highlighted by careful data collection and analysis. This knowledge gives you a basis for adapting and why is supply, changing what you do to make it more likely you’ll achieve the desired outcomes in the future. Melting Point Biphenyl. They can provide you with credible evidence to show stakeholders that your program is successful, or that you’ve uncovered, and are addressing limitations . Portrayal Letter Essay Examples. Stakeholders, such as funders and community boards, want to know their investments are well spent.
Showing evidence of intermediate outcomes (e.g. new programs and policies) and longer-term outcomes (e.g., improvements in education or health indicators) is becoming increasingly important to receiving – and retaining – funding. Melting Point. Their use shows that you’re serious about evaluation and about improving your work. Portrayal And Scarlet Letter Essay. Being a good trustee or steward of community investment includes regular review of data regarding progress and improvement. They can show the field what you’re learning, and thus pave the way for others to implement successful methods and approaches . Biphenyl. In that way, you’ll be helping to green quote, improve community efforts and, ultimately, quality of life for people who benefit. When and by whom should data be collected and point biphenyl, analyzed? As far as data collection goes, the “when” part of this question is and juliet nurse quotes, relatively simple: data collection should start no later than when you begin your work – or before you begin in order to establish a baseline or starting point – and continue throughout. Ideally, you should collect data for a period of time before you start your program or intervention in point biphenyl order to determine if there are any trends in supply chain important the data before the onset of the intervention. Melting Biphenyl. Additionally, in order to gauge your program’s longer-term effects, you should collect follow-up data for a period of time following the conclusion of the program.
The timing of analysis can be looked at in at least two ways: One is about Lords and Conflict, that it’s best to analyze your information when you’ve collected all of biphenyl, it, so you can look at it as a whole. The other is the boondocks saints, that if you analyze it as you go along, you’ll be able to adjust your thinking about what information you actually need, and to adjust your program to respond to the information you’re getting. Which of these approaches you take depends on your research purposes. If you’re more concerned with a summative evaluation – finding out whether your approach was effective, you might be more inclined toward the point, first. If you’re oriented toward improvement – a formative evaluation – we recommend gathering information along the way. Both approaches are legitimate, but ongoing data collection and review can particularly lead to improvements in your work. The “who” question can be more complex. If you’re reasonably familiar with statistics and statistical procedures, and you have the supply chain management important, resources in time, money, and personnel, it’s likely that you’ll do a somewhat formal study, using standard statistical tests. (There’s a great deal of biphenyl, software – both for sale and supply chain important, free or open-source – available to help you.) If that’s not the case, you have some choices:
You can hire or find a volunteer outside evaluator, such as from biphenyl, a nearby college or university, to take care of data collection and/or analysis for Letter examples you. Melting Biphenyl. You can conduct a less formal evaluation. Your results may not be as sophisticated as if you subjected them to rigorous statistical procedures, but they can still tell you a lot about your program. Portrayal Of Marriage In Wuthering And Scarlet Letter. Just the numbers – the number of dropouts (and when most dropped out), for biphenyl instance, or the characteristics of the saints, people you serve – can give you important and usable information. You can try to learn enough about statistics and statistical software to conduct a formal evaluation yourself. (Take a course, for example.) You can collect the data and then send it off to point, someone – a university program, a friendly statistician or researcher, or someone you hire – to Lords Resistance and Conflict and Peace Building in Uganda, process it for you. You can collect and rely largely on qualitative data.
Whether this is an option depends to a large extent on what your program is about. You wouldn’t want to conduct a formal evaluation of effectiveness of melting, a new medication using only emphasizes the idea that the problems of the depression, qualitative data, but you might be able to draw some reasonable conclusions about use or compliance patterns from qualitative information. If possible, use a randomized or closely matched control group for comparison. Melting Point. If your control is green, properly structured, you can draw some fairly reliable conclusions simply by comparing its results to biphenyl, those of your intervention group. The Boondocks Saints. Again, these results won’t be as reliable as if the comparison were made using statistical procedures, but they can point you in the right direction.
It’s fairly easy to tell whether or not there’s a major difference between the point, numbers for light gatsby the two or more groups. Point. If 95% of the students in your class passed the test, and only 60% of those in a similar but uninstructed control group did, you can be pretty sure that your class made a difference in some way, although you may not be able to tell exactly what it was that mattered. By the same token, if 72% of your students passed and 70% of the control group did as well, it seems pretty clear that your instruction had essentially no effect, if the groups were starting from approximately the same place. Who should actually collect and analyze data also depends on the form of your evaluation. If you’re doing a participatory evaluation, much of the emphasizes the idea that the problems of the great, data collection - and analyzing - will be done by community members or program participants themselves. If you’re conducting an evaluation in which the observation is melting point biphenyl, specialized, the romeo nurse, data collectors may be staff members, professionals, highly trained volunteers, or others with specific skills or training (graduate students, for example). Analysis also could be accomplished by a participatory process. Even where complicated statistical procedures are necessary, participants and/or community members might be involved in sorting out what those results actually mean once the math is done and the results are in. Another way analysis can be accomplished is by melting biphenyl professionals or other trained individuals, depending upon the nature of the data to the boondocks, be analyzed, the methods of analysis, and the level of sophistication aimed at in the conclusions. How do you collect and analyze data?
Whether your evaluation includes formal or informal research procedures, you’ll still have to collect and analyze data, and there are some basic steps you can take to do so. Implement your measurement system. We've previously discussed designing an melting point biphenyl, observational system to gather information. Now it’s time to put that system in place. Clearly define and describe what measurements or observations are needed . The definition and saints, description should be clear enough to melting point, enable observers to agree on what they’re observing and reliably record data in the same way. Select and train observers . Particularly if this is part of a participatory process, observers need training to know what to record; to recognize key behaviors, events, and conditions; and to Essay Lords Resistance Army and Peace Building, reach an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability (agreement among observers). Conduct observations at the appropriate times for the appropriate period of time . Melting Biphenyl. This may include reviewing archival material; conducting interviews, surveys, or focus groups; engaging in direct observation; etc. Record data in the agreed-upon ways . These may include pencil and paper, computer (using a laptop or handheld device in of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples the field, entering numbers into a program, etc.), audio or video, journals, etc. Organize the data you’ve collected. How you do this depends on what you’re planning to do with it, and on what you’re interested in.
Enter any necessary data into the computer . This may mean simply typing comments, descriptions, etc., into a word processing program, or entering various kinds of information (possibly including audio and melting, video) into a database, spreadsheet, a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) program, or some other type of software or file. Transcribe any audio- or videotapes . This makes them easier to work with and saints, copy, and allows the opportunity to clarify any hard-to-understand passages of speech. Score any tests and record the scores appropriately. Point. Sort your information in ways appropriate to your interest . This may include sorting by category of observation, by the excerpt emphasizes that the problems great event, by place, by individual, by group, by melting biphenyl the time of observation, or by a combination or some other standard. When possible, necessary, and appropriate, transform qualitative into quantitative data . This might involve, for romeo nurse example, counting the melting point, number of times specific issues were mentioned in interviews, or how often certain behaviors were observed. Conduct data graphing, visual inspection, statistical analysis, or other operations on management, the data as appropriate. We’ve referred several times to statistical procedures that you can apply to quantitative data. If you have the right numbers, you can find out a great deal about melting, whether your program is causing or contributing to romeo and juliet nurse, change and improvement, what that change is, whether there are any expected or unexpected connections among variables, how your group compares to another you’re measuring, etc. There are other excellent possibilities for analysis besides statistical procedures, however. A few include:
Simple counting, graphing and visual inspection of frequency or rates of point biphenyl, behavior, events, etc., over time . Using visual inspection of the excerpt emphasizes the idea that of the, patterns over time to identify discontinuities (marked increases, decreases) in the measures over time (sessions, weeks, months). Point. Calculating the mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequent) of the excerpt the problems of the great, a series of measurements or observations . What was the average blood pressure, for instance, of melting, people who exercised 30 minutes a day at least five days a week, as opposed to the excerpt that the problems of the great, that of people who exercised two days a week or less? Using qualitative interviews, conversations, and participant observation to observe (and track changes in) the people or situation . Journals can be particularly revealing in this area because they record people’s experiences and reflections over time. Finding patterns in qualitative data . If many people refer to similar problems or barriers, these may be important in understanding the point biphenyl, issue, determining what works or doesn’t work and why, or more. About And Conflict. Comparing actual results to previously determined goals or benchmarks . One measure of success might be meeting a goal for planning or program implementation, for example.
Take note of biphenyl, any significant or interesting results. Depending on the boondocks saints, the nature of your research, results may be statistically significant (the 95% or better certainty that we discussed earlier), or simply important or unusual. Melting Point Biphenyl. They may or may not be socially significant (i.e., large enough to green light, solve the problem). There are a number of different kinds of results you might be looking for. Differences within people or groups . If you have repeated measurements for individuals/groups over melting, time, we can see if there are marked increases/decreases in the (frequency, rate) of behavior (events, etc.) following introduction of the emphasizes that of the, program or intervention. Point. When the effects are seen when and only when the intervention is supply management important, introduced – and if the intervention is staggered (delayed) across people or groups – this increases our confidence that the intervention, and not something else, is producing the observed effects. Differences between or among two or more groups . Point. If you have one or more randomized control groups in a formal study (groups that are drawn at random from the same population as the emphasizes that of the, group in your program, but are not getting the same program or intervention, or are getting none at all), then the statistical significance of differences between or among the groups should tell you whether your program has any more influence on the dependent variable(s) than what’s experienced by the other groups. Results that show statistically significant changes . With or without a control or comparison group, many statistical procedures can tell you whether changes in dependent variables are truly significant (or not likely due to chance). These results may say nothing about the melting biphenyl, causes of the change (or they may, depending on how you’ve structured your evaluation), but they do tell you what’s happening, and saints, give you a place to start. Correlations . Correlation means that there are connections between or among two or more variables.
Correlations can sometimes point to important relationships you might not have predicted. Sometimes they can shed light on the issue itself, and melting point biphenyl, sometimes on Portrayal in Wuthering Essay, the effects of a group’s cultural practices. In some cases, they can highlight potential causes of an issue or condition, and thus pave the melting point biphenyl, way for future interventions. Correlation between variables doesn’t tell you that one necessarily causes the other, but simply that changes in one have a relationship to changes in the other. Among American teenagers, for instance, there is probably a fairly high correlation between an increase in body size and an understanding of algebra. This is not because one causes the other, but rather the result of the fact that American schools tend to begin teaching algebra in the seventh, eighth, or ninth grades, a time when many 12-, 13-, and 14-year-olds are naturally experiencing a growth spurt.
On the other hand, correlations can reveal important connections. A very high correlation between, for instance, the use of a particular medication and the onset of depression might lead to the withdrawal of that medication, or at least a study of green light quote gatsby, its side effects, and biphenyl, increased awareness and caution among doctors who prescribe it. Green Quote Gatsby. A very high correlation between gang membership and having a parent with a substance abuse problem may not reveal a direct cause-and-effect relationship, but may tell you something important about who is melting point biphenyl, more at risk for substance abuse. Patterns . In both quantitative and qualitative information, patterns often emerge: certain health conditions seem to cluster in particular geographical areas; people from supply important, a particular group behave in similar ways; etc. These patterns may not be specifically what you were looking for or expected to find, but they may either be important in themselves or shed light on the areas you’re interested in. In some cases, you may need to subject them to melting biphenyl, statistical procedures (regression analysis, for example) to see if, in fact, they’re random, or if they constitute actual patterns. Obvious important findings . Whether as a result of statistical analysis, or of examination of in Wuthering Letter examples, your data and point biphenyl, application of logic, some findings may stand out. If 70% of romeo and juliet quotes, a group of overweight participants in a healthy eating and physical activity program lowered their weight and point biphenyl, blood pressure significantly, compared to only 20% of green quote gatsby, a similar group not in the program, you can probably assume that program may have been effective. If there’s no change whatsoever in education outcomes after two years of your education program, then you’re either running an ineffective program, or you’re simply not reaching those who are most likely to have poorer outcomes (which can also be interpreted to mean you’re running an ineffective program.) Not all important findings will necessarily tell you whether your program worked, or what is the most effective method. Melting Biphenyl. It might be obvious from your data collection, for instance, that, while violence or roadway injuries may not be seen as a problem citywide, they are much higher in one or more particular areas, or that the rates of diabetes are markedly higher for particular groups or those living in green light gatsby areas with greater disparities of income.
If you have the resources, it’s wise to look at the results of point, your research in a number of different ways, both to find out chain management important how to improve your program, and to learn what else you might do to affect the melting point biphenyl, issue. Once you’ve organized your results and run them through whatever statistical or other analysis you’ve planned for, it’s time to Portrayal in Wuthering and Scarlet, figure out what they mean for melting biphenyl your evaluation. Green Quote Gatsby. Probably the most common question that evaluation research is directed toward is whether the program being evaluated works or makes a difference. In research terms, that often translates to “What were the effects of the biphenyl, independent variable (the program, intervention, etc.) on the boondocks, the dependent variable(s) (the behavior, conditions, or other factors it was meant to change)?” There are a number of possible answers to this question: Your program had exactly the effects on melting point biphenyl, the dependent variable(s) you expected and hoped it would . Why Is Supply Chain. Statistics or other analysis showed clear positive effects at point, a high level of significance for the people in your program and – if you used a multiple-group design – none, or far fewer, of the same effects for a similar control group and/or for a group that received a different intervention with the same purpose. The Excerpt Emphasizes The Idea Great. Your early childhood education program, for melting biphenyl instance, greatly increased development outcomes for children in the community, and also contributed to an increase in of the the percentage of children succeeding in school. Biphenyl. Your program had no effect . Your program produced no significant results on the dependent variable, whether alone or compared to other groups. This would mean no change as a result of chain management, your program or intervention. Your program had a negative effect . For instance, intimate partner violence increased (or at least appeared to) as a result of point, your intervention. (It is relatively common for reported events, such as violence or injury, to increase when the why is chain important, intervention results in improved surveillance and melting biphenyl, ease of reporting).
Your program had the nurse quotes, effects you hoped for and other effects as well . These effects might be positive . Your youth violence prevention program, for instance, might have resulted in greatly reduced violence among teens, and melting point biphenyl, might also have resulted in significantly improved academic performance for the kids involved. These effects might be neutral . Essay About Lords Resistance Army And Peace Building. The same youth violence prevention program might somehow result in youth watching TV more often after school. These effects might be negative . (These effects are usually called unintended consequences.) Youth violence might decrease significantly, but the incidence of teen pregnancies or alcohol consumption among youth in the program might increase significantly at the same time. These effects might be multiple , or mixed .For instance, a program to melting point, reduce HIV/AIDS might lower rates of unprotected sex but might also increase conflict and instances of partner violence. Your program had no effect or a negative effect and other effects as well.
As with programs with positive effects, these might be positive, neutral, or negative; single or multiple; or consistent or mixed. If your analysis gives you a clear indication that what you’re doing is accomplishing your purposes, interpretation is relatively simple: You should keep doing it, while trying out ways to make it even more effective, or while aiming at other related issues as well. As we discuss elsewhere in the Community Tool Box, good programs are dynamic -- constantly striving to improve, rather than assuming that what they’re doing is as good as it can be. If your analysis shows that your program is ineffective or negative, however – or, for that matter, if a positive analysis leaves you wondering how to make your successful efforts still more successful – interpretation becomes more complex. Are you using an absolutely wrong approach? Are you using an quote gatsby, approach that could be effective, but is poorly implement? Is there a particular contributing factor you’re failing to take into account? Are there barriers to success – of melting point, culture, experience, personal characteristics, systematic discrimination – present in Essay and Peace the population from which participants are drawn? Are there particular components or elements you can change to make your program more effective, or should you start again from melting biphenyl, scratch? What should you address to make a good program better? Careful and Essay about Resistance and Conflict and Peace Building, insightful interpretation of your data may allow you to answer questions like these.
You may be able to use correlations, for instance, to point biphenyl, generate hypotheses about your results. If positive or negative changes in particular variables are consistently associated with positive or negative changes in the excerpt the idea the problems of the depression other variables, the two may be connected. (The word “may” is important here. Biphenyl. The two may be connected, but they may not, or both may be related to a third variable that you’re not aware of or that you consider trivial.) Such a connection can point the way toward a factor (e.g., access to support) that is causing the changes in both variables, and that must be addressed to make your program successful. Correlations may also indicate patterns in your data, or may lead to nurse, an unexpected way of looking at the issue you’re addressing. You can often use qualitative data to understand the meaning of an melting biphenyl, intervention, and Lords Resistance Army in Uganda, people’s reactions to melting point, the results.The observation that participants are continually suffering from a variety of romeo, health problems may be traced, through qualitative data, to nutrition problems (due either to poverty or ignorance) or to lack of access to health services, or to cultural restrictions (some Muslim women may be unwilling – or unable because of family prohibition – to accept care and treatment from male doctors, for example). Once you have organized your data, both statistical results and anything that can’t be analyzed statistically need to melting biphenyl, be analyzed logically.
This may not give you convincing information but it will almost undoubtedly give you some ideas to follow up on, and some indications of connections and examples, avenues you might not yet have considered. It will also show you some additional results – people reacting differently than before to the program, for example. The numbers can tell you whether there is point biphenyl, change, but they can’t always tell you what causes it or why (although they sometimes can), or why some people benefit while others don’t. Those are often matters for logical analysis, or critical thinking. You have to become a cultural detective to understand your initiative, and, in Portrayal and Scarlet examples some ways, every evaluation is an anthropological study. The heart of point, evaluation research is gathering information about the program or intervention you’re evaluating and analyzing it to determine what it tells you about the saints, effectiveness of what you’re doing, as well as about how you can maintain and melting, improve that effectiveness. Collecting quantitative data – information expressed in numbers – and subjecting it to a visual inspection or formal statistical analysis can tell you whether your work is romeo and juliet nurse, having the desired effect, and may be able to point, tell you why or why not as well. It can also highlight connections (correlations) among variables, and call attention to why is supply chain management, factors you may not have considered. Collecting and analyzing qualitative data – interviews, descriptions of environmental factors, or events, and circumstances – can provide insight into point biphenyl how participants experience the issue you’re addressing, what barriers and advantages they experience, and what you might change or add to improve what you do.
Once you’ve gained the knowledge that your information provides, it’s time to of Marriage and Scarlet Essay, start the process again. Use what you’ve learned to continue to evaluate what you do by collecting and analyzing data, and continually improve your program. My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant (MEERA) provides extensive information on point, how to Analyze Data . Within their guide, they answer various questions such as: What type of analysis do I need?, How do I analyze qualitative/quantitative data?, and What software can I use to romeo and juliet nurse, analyze qualitative/quantitative data? The Pell Institute offers user-friendly information on melting, how to why is chain important, Analyze Qualitative Data as a part of melting point biphenyl, their Evaluation Toolkit. The site provides a simple explanation of qualitative data with a step-by-step process to that of the, collecting and point, analyzing data. Through the Evaluation Toolkit, the Pell Institute has compiled a user-friendly guide to easily and efficiently Analyze Quantitative Data . In addition to explaining the basis of light, quantitative analysis, the point biphenyl, site also provides information on data tabulation, descriptives, disaggregating data, and moderate and advanced analytical methods. CDC’s Analyzing Quantitative Data for nurse Evaluation provides steps to planning and melting, conducting quantitative analysis, as well as the and juliet nurse quotes, advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative methods. Charts and Graphs to Communicate Research Findings , from the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC), will provide guidance on melting biphenyl, which chart types are best suited for which types of data and for chain important which purposes, shows examples of biphenyl, preferred practices and practical tips for each chart type, and provides cautions and examples of misuse and poor use of each chart type and how to make corrections. Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data , 2 nd edition, provided by saints the National Library of point biphenyl, Medicine, provides information on collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data. This booklet contains examples of commonly used methods, as well as a toolkit on using mixed methods in evaluation. Compiled for the Adolescent and School Health sector of the supply management, CDC, Data Collection and biphenyl, Analysis Methods is an extensive list of emphasizes the idea the problems of the great depression, articles pertaining to the collection of various forms of data including questionnaires, focus groups, observation, document analysis, and melting biphenyl, interviews.
Free Statistics is a guide to free and open source software for statistical analysis that includes a comparison, explaining what operations each program can perform. Provided by emphasizes the idea that the problems the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, this HRSA Toolkit offers advice on successfully collecting and melting, analyzing data. An extensive list of of Marriage Heights and Scarlet, both for collecting and analyzing data and on computerized disease registries is available. This Human Development Index Map is a valuable tool from Measure of America: A Project of the Social Science Research Council . It combines indicators in three fundamental areas - health, knowledge, and standard of living - into a single number that falls on a scale from 0 to 10, and is presented on an easy-to-navigate interactive map of the melting point, United States.
Research Methods Knowledge Base is the excerpt the idea the problems of the great, a comprehensive web-based textbook that provides useful, comprehensive, relatively simple explanations of how statistics work and how and when specific statistical operations are used and help to interpret data. Bazeley, P. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: Practical strategies. New York, NY: SAGE. Brown, M. Melting Biphenyl. Hale, K. (2014).
Applied research methods in public nonprofit organizations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Word limits and requirements of your Degree Committee. Candidates should write as concisely as is possible, with clear and adequate exposition. Each Degree Committee has prescribed the melting point biphenyl, limits of about Resistance Army and Peace length and stylistic requirements as given below. On submission of the dissertation you must include a statement of length confirming that it does not exceed the word limit for your Degree Committee. These limits and requirements are strictly observed by the Board of melting Graduate Studies and the Degree Committees and, unless approval to romeo and juliet nurse, exceed the prescribed limit has been obtained beforehand (see: Extending the point biphenyl, Word Limit below), a dissertation that exceeds the limit may not be examined until its length complies with the prescribed limit. Dissertation word limits are set by Degree Committees.
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These limits include all text, figures, tables and photographs, but exclude the bibliography, cited references and appendices. More detailed specifications should be obtained from the Division concerned. Permission to exceed these limits will be granted only after a special application to the Degree Committee. The application must explain in detail the reasons why an extension is being sought and the nature of the additional material, and must be supported by romeo and juliet nurse, a reasoned case from the melting point biphenyl, supervisor containing a recommendation that a candidate should be allowed to exceed the word limit by a specified number of words. Such permission will be granted only under exceptional circumstances.
If candidates need to apply for permission to light quote, exceed the word limit, they should do so in good time before the date on which a candidate proposes to submit the dissertation, by application made to the Graduate Committee. The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words for the PhD and 60,000 words for the MSc or MLitt degree. Footnotes, references and text within tables are to biphenyl, be counted within the word-limit, but captions, appendices and bibliographies are excluded. Appendices should be confined to such items as catalogues, original texts, translations of texts, transcriptions of interview, or tables. The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words for the PhD and 60,000 words for the MLitt degree. To include: footnotes, table of contents and list of illustrations, but excluding acknowledgements and the bibliography. Appendices (of no determined word length) may be permitted subject to the boondocks saints, the approval of the candidate's Supervisor (in consultation with the Degree Committee); for example, where a catalogue of works is germane to the work. Permission to include such appendices must be requested from the candidate's Supervisor well in advance of the submission of the final thesis.
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The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words including footnotes, references, and the boondocks, appendices but excluding bibliography; a page of point biphenyl statistics shall be regarded as the equivalent of 150 words. Only under exceptional circumstances will permission be granted to exceed this limit. Candidates must submit with the thesis a signed statement giving the length of the thesis. Clinical Medicine and romeo and juliet quotes, Clinical Veterinary Medicine. For the biphenyl, PhD degree, not to exceed 60,000 words (or 80,000 by special permission of the Degree Committee), and for the MSc degree, not to exceed 40,000 words.
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Only under exceptional circumstances will permission be granted to exceed this limit. Candidates must submit with the melting point, thesis a signed statement giving the length of the thesis. If, under exceptional circumstances, candidates wish to apply for permission to and juliet quotes, exceed this limit, they should do so at least three months before the melting point biphenyl, anticipated submission date. Permission may be granted for the inclusion of an appendix of a substantial quantity of text which is necessary for romeo nurse the understanding of the thesis. Permission may also be given if a candidate's application is supported by a letter from the supervisor certifying that such exemption from the prescribed limit of length is absolutely necessary in the interests of the total presentation of the subject. The thesis is point not to exceed, without the the excerpt that the problems of the great depression, prior permission of the Degree Committee, 80,000 words for melting point the PhD degree and 60,000 words for the MSc or MLitt degree, including the summary/abstract. The table of contents, photographs, diagrams, figure captions, appendices, bibliography and acknowledgements to not count towards the word limit. Footnotes for both will not be included in supply chain important, the word limit where they are a necessary part of the referencing system used. The thesis is point biphenyl not to exceed, without the prior permission of the Degree Committee, 275 numbered pages of which not more than 225 pages are text, appendices, illustrations and bibliography.
A page of text is A4 one-and-a-half-spaced normal size type. The additional 50 pages may comprise tables of Essay about Lords Building data and/or computer programmes reduced in size. If a candidate's work falls within the melting, social sciences, candidates are expected to observe the limit described in the Department of Geography above; if, however, a candidate's work falls within the light gatsby, natural sciences, a candidate should observe the point biphenyl, limit described in the Department of Earth Sciences. Applications for the limit of length of the thesis to be exceeded must be early — certainly no later than the time when the application for the appointment of examiners and the approval of the why is supply chain important, title of the melting biphenyl, thesis is about and Conflict and Peace in Uganda made. Any thesis which, without the prior permission of the Degree Committee, exceeds the permitted limit of length will be referred back to melting point, the candidate before being forwarded to the examiners. The thesis is not to exceed, without the prior permission of the Degree Committee, 60,000 words including tables, footnotes, bibliography and appendices. The Excerpt Emphasizes The Idea The Problems Of The Depression. The Degree Committee points out that some of the best thesis extend to only half this length.
Each page of statistical tables, charts or diagrams shall be regarded as equivalent to a page of text of the same size. The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words for melting biphenyl the PhD Degree and 60,000 words for the MSc and MLitt degrees, in Essay Lords Resistance Building, all cases excluding appendices, footnotes, reference list or bibliography. Only in the most exceptional circumstances will permission be given to exceed the stated limits. In such cases, you must make an application to the Degree Committee as early as possible -and no later than three months before it is proposed to submit the thesis, having regard to the dates of the Degree Committee meetings. Point. Your application should (a) explain in detail the reasons why you are seeking the extension and (b) be accompanied by a full supporting statement from your supervisor showing that the extension is absolutely necessary in the interests of the and juliet quotes, total presentation of the subject. For the PhD degree, not to exceed, without prior permission of the Degree Committee, 65,000 words, including appendices, bibliography, footnotes, tables and equations not to contain more than 150 figures. A candidate must submit with their thesis a statement signed by the candidate themself giving the length of the thesis and the number of figures. Melting Point. Any thesis which, without the prior permission of the Degree Committee, exceeds the permitted limit will be referred back to the idea, the candidate before being forwarded to the examiners. The thesis is biphenyl not to exceed 80,000 words for the PhD degree and 60,000 words for the MLitt degree, both including all notes and appendices but excluding the bibliography.
A candidate must add to the preface of the thesis the following signed statement: 'The thesis does not exceed the regulation length, including footnotes, references and appendices but excluding the bibliography.' In exceptional cases (when, for example, a candidate's thesis largely consists of an light gatsby, edition of a text) the Degree Committee may grant permission to exceed these limits but in melting point biphenyl, such instances (a) a candidate must apply to green light gatsby, exceed the length at least three months before the date on which a candidate proposes to submit their thesis and (b) the application must be supported by point, a letter from a candidate's supervisor certifying that such exemption from the prescribed limit of length is the boondocks saints absolutely necessary. It is a requirement of the Degree Committee for the Faculty of English that thesis must conform to either the MHRA Style Book or the MLA Handbook for the Writers of Research papers, available from major bookshops. There is one proviso, however, to the use of melting point biphenyl these manuals: the Faculty does not normally recommend that students use the author/date form of citation and recommends that footnotes rather than endnotes be used. The Idea The Problems Of The Depression. Bibliographies and biphenyl, references in thesis presented by candidates in ASNaC should conform with either of the above or to the practice specified in why is supply important, Cambridge Studies in Anglo-Saxon England. Thesis presented by melting biphenyl, candidates in the Research Centre for English and Applied Linguistics must follow as closely as possible the printed style of the journal Applied Linguistics and referencing and spelling conventions should be consistent. A signed declaration of the style-sheet used (and the edition, if relevant) must be made in the preliminary pages of the thesis. PhD. dissertations MUST NOT exceed 80,000 words, and will normally be near that length.
A minimum word length exists for PhD dissertations: 70,000 words (50,000 for MLitt dissertations [Introduced from 1 October 2014] The word limit includes appendices and the contents page but excludes the abstract, acknowledgments, footnotes, references, notes on transliteration, bibliography, abbreviations and glossary. The Contents Page should be included in the word limit. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per table. Maps, illustrations and other pictorial images count as 0 words. Graphs, if they are the only representation of the Essay about Army and Peace Building in Uganda, data being presented, are to be counted as 150 words. However, if graphs are used as an illustration of statistical data that is also presented elsewhere within the thesis (as a table for instance), then the graphs count as 0 words. Only under exceptional circumstances will permission be granted to exceed this limit.
Applications for permission are made via CamSIS self-service pages. Applications must be made at least four months before the thesis is bound. Exceptions are granted when a compelling intellectual case is made. History and Philosophy of Science. The thesis is not to biphenyl, exceed 80,000 words for the PhD degree and 60,000 words for of Marriage in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet the MLitt degree, in all cases including footnotes and point biphenyl, appendices but excluding bibliography. Permission to submit a thesis falling outside these limits, or to submit an appendix which does not count towards the word limit, must be obtained in light quote, advance from the Degree Committee. The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 for the PhD degree and melting, 60,000 words for the MSc or MLitt degree, both including footnotes, references and the excerpt emphasizes the idea the problems of the, appendices but excluding bibliographies. Point. One A4 page consisting largely of statistics, symbols or figures shall be regarded as the equivalent of 250 words. A candidate must add to the preface of their thesis the following signed statement: 'This thesis does not exceed the regulation length, including footnotes, references and appendices.' For the PhD degree not to management, exceed 80,000 words exclusive of footnotes, appendices and bibliography but subject to an overall word limit of 100,000 words exclusive of bibliography, table of contents and biphenyl, any other preliminary matter.
For the MLitt degree not to exceed 60,000 words inclusive of footnotes but exclusive of bibliography, appendices, table of contents and any other preliminary matter. A candidate must add to the preface of the thesis the following signed statement: 'This thesis, including footnotes, does not exceed the Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Letter Essay, permitted length.' There is no standard format for the dissertation in Mathematics . Melting Point Biphenyl. Candidates should discuss the format appropriate to their topic with their supervisor. The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words for management important the PhD degree and point biphenyl, 60,000 words for the MLitt degree, including footnotes, references and appendices, but excluding bibliographies. Essay Army Building. The Degree Committee point out that some very successful doctoral dissertations have been submitted which extend to no more than three-quarters of the maximum permitted length. Where appropriate and where prior approval has been granted by the Degree Committee, it is permitted to exceed the limit in the case of dissertations presented in the form of critical editions of texts and melting biphenyl, dissertations requiring large amounts of and juliet linguistic data.
Only under the most exceptional circumstances will permission be granted to exceed the limit in other cases. In all cases (a) a candidate must give notice of their application to exceed the prescribed maximum length at least three months before the melting, date on which a candidate proposes to quote, submit their dissertation and (b) the application must be accompanied by a full supporting statement from the candidate's supervisor showing that such exemption from the melting, prescribed limit of length is absolutely necessary. It is the boondocks a requirement of the Degree Committee for the Faculty of Modern and point, Medieval Languages that dissertations presented must conform with the advice concerning abbreviations, quotations, footnotes, references, and other matters published in the 'Style Book of the Modern Humanities Research Association (Notes for Authors and Editors).' The thesis is not to exceed 80,000 words for the PhD degree and 60,000 words for the MLitt degree, both excluding notes, appendices, and bibliographies, musical transcriptions and examples, unless a candidate make a special case for greater length to the satisfaction of the Degree Committee. Candidates whose work is practice-based may include as part of the doctoral submission either a portfolio of substantial musical compositions, or one or more recordings of their own musical performance(s).
The thesis must be not less than 50,000 and not more than 80,000 words for the PhD degree, and Portrayal of Marriage Heights and Scarlet Essay, not less than 30,000 and not more than 60,000 words for the MLitt degree, in all cases including appendices and notes of reference. Melting. Permission to submit a thesis falling outside these limits must be obtained in advance from the Degree Committee (but is unlikely to be granted). Institute of Astronomy, Department of the excerpt emphasizes that of the Materials Science Metallurgy, Department of melting point biphenyl Physics: The thesis is not to exceed, without prior permission of the Degree Committee, 60,000 words, including summary/abstract, tables, footnotes and appendices, but excluding table of contents, photographs, diagrams, figure captions, list of figures/diagrams, list of abbreviations/acronyms, bibliography and romeo and juliet nurse, acknowledgements. The thesis is melting point not to exceed, without prior permission of the Degree Committee, 60,000 words, including summary/abstract, tables, and footnotes, but excluding table of contents, photographs, diagrams, figure captions, list of figures/diagrams, list of about Lords Resistance Army and Peace abbreviations/acronyms, bibliography, appendices and acknowledgements. Appendices are relevant to the material contained within the dissertation but do not form part of the connected argument. Specifically, they may include derivations, code and spectra, as well as experimental information (compound name, structure, method of formation and data) for non-key molecules made during the PhD studies. Politics and International Studies. Applicable to the PhDs in melting point, Politics International Studies, Latin American Studies, Multi-disciplinary Studies and Development Studies for all submissions from the boondocks saints candidates admitted prior to melting, October 2017.
A PhD dissertation must not exceed 80,000 words, and will normally be near that length. The word limit includes appendices but excludes footnotes, references and bibliography. Essay Resistance And Conflict And Peace Building In Uganda. Footnotes should not exceed 20% of the dissertation. Discursive footnotes are generally discouraged, and under no circumstances should footnotes be used to include material that would normally be in the main text, and thus to circumvent the word limits. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per biphenyl, table. Only under exceptional circumstances, and after prior application, will the Degree Committee allow a student to Essay Lords Resistance in Uganda, exceed these limits. A candidate must submit, with the dissertation, a statement signed by her or himself attesting to the length of the dissertation. Any dissertation that exceeds the limit will be referred back to melting point, candidate for revision before being forwarded to the examiners. Applicable to the PhDs in Politics International Studies, Latin American Studies, Multi-disciplinary Studies and Development Studies for all submissions from candidates admitted after October 2017. A PhD dissertation must not exceed 80,000 words, including footnotes.
The word limit includes appendices but excludes the bibliography. Discursive footnotes are generally discouraged, and under no circumstances should footnotes be used to include material that would normally be in the main text. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per table. Only under exceptional circumstances, and after prior application, will the Essay Resistance and Peace, Degree Committee allow a student to exceed these limits. A candidate must submit, with the point, dissertation, a statement signed by her or himself attesting to about Lords Army Building in Uganda, the length of the dissertation.
Any dissertation that exceeds the melting biphenyl, limit will be referred back to candidate for revision before being forwarded to the examiners. Only applicable to students registered for the degree prior to 1 August 2012; all other students should consult the guidance of the Faculty of Biological Sciences. Applicable to the PhD in Psychology (former SDP students only) for all submissions made before 30 November 2013. A PhD dissertation must not exceed 80,000 words, and will normally be near that length. The word limit includes appendices but excludes footnotes, references and bibliography.
Footnotes should not exceed 20% of the romeo nurse, dissertation. Discursive footnotes are generally discouraged, and under no circumstances should footnotes be used to include material that would normally be in the main text, and thus to circumvent the word limits. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per table. Only under exceptional circumstances, and after prior application, will the Degree Committee allow a student to exceed these limits. A candidate must submit, with the dissertation, a statement signed by her or himself attesting to the length of the dissertation. Any dissertation that exceeds the limit will be referred back to candidate for melting biphenyl revision before being forwarded to green light quote gatsby, the examiners. Applicable to the PhD in melting biphenyl, Psychology (former SDP students only) for all submissions from 30 November 2013. A PhD dissertation must not exceed 80,000 words, and will normally be near that length.
The word limit includes appendices but excludes footnotes, references and bibliography. Footnotes should not exceed 20% of the dissertation. Discursive footnotes are generally discouraged, and under no circumstances should footnotes be used to the excerpt of the, include material that would normally be in the main text, and thus to circumvent the word limits. Point. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per table. Only under exceptional circumstances, and green quote, after prior application, will the Degree Committee allow a student to exceed these limits. Applications should be made in good time before the date on which a candidate proposes to submit the dissertation, made to the Graduate Committee. A candidate must submit, with the melting point, dissertation, a statement signed by her or himself attesting to the length of the dissertation. Any dissertation that exceeds the limit will be referred back to candidate for revision before being forwarded to the examiners. Applicable to the PhD in Sociology for all submissions from 30 November 2013.
A PhD dissertation must not exceed 80,000 words, and will normally be near that length. The word limit includes appendices but excludes footnotes, references and quote gatsby, bibliography. Footnotes should not exceed 20% of the melting, dissertation. Discursive footnotes are generally discouraged, and under no circumstances should footnotes be used to the boondocks, include material that would normally be in the main text, and thus to circumvent the word limits. Statistical tables should be counted as 150 words per table. Only under exceptional circumstances, and after prior application, will the Degree Committee allow a student to exceed these limits. Applications should be made in good time before the date on melting point which a candidate proposes to submit the dissertation, made to the Graduate Committee.
A candidate must submit, with the dissertation, a statement signed by her or himself attesting to the length of the dissertation. Essay About Lords Army And Conflict And Peace. Any dissertation that exceeds the limit will be referred back to candidate for revision before being forwarded to the examiners.