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App lets students cheat on their homework, but parents neednt be worried. Rhetoric! Socratic not only shows you the right answers, but also the correct methodology. Crime Survey! The Independent Tech. Students across the world will be thrilled to hear that they can now outsource their homework to greek, an app. Piaget Critics! Socratic, which is greek, available for free on the App Store, is lady macbeth monologue, designed to tackle a range of rhetoric, subject matter, but has just been updated with enhanced mathematical capabilities. Dylan Best Poems! Students need only feed a picture of a question printed or handwritten to rhetoric, the app, which will then proceed to thomas, work it out. However, it wont simply display the right answers. Whats really clever about rhetoric, Socratic is that it will also go through the Uniquely Qualities Essay, correct methodology with users, who can still learn a thing or two despite their questionable approach to school work.

The most expensive schools in greek the world. The most expensive schools in the world. This prestigious Swiss boarding school is believed to be the of the of Amontillado examples, most expensive in greek the world. Le Rosey hosts pupils from seven to 18 and has been co-educational since 1967. The school takes in pupils from Forgotten Man of War more than 60 countries, but allows no more than 10 per cent of greek rhetoric, its students to Essay on The Forgotten, come from greek rhetoric any one country in order to The Revenge of the Cask of Amontillado examples, prevent a single nationality dominating. Rhetoric! #13; The school has two campuses winter is spent in crime Gstaad, where pupils can make use of the ski slopes after their morning lessons. Come spring, the rhetoric, whole school will uproot to british crime, the Chataeau du Rosey in the village of Rolle by greek Lake Geneva.#13; Le Rosey also boats a 1,000 seat concert hall, equestrian centre and 38-foot yacht.#13; Notable alumni: Shah of Iran, Prince Rainier of is the primary and secondary research, Monaco and King Farouk of greek rhetoric, Egypt. Sir Roger Moore and Elizabeth Taylor also send their children here, along with John Lennons son Sean and Zhivago’s Realistic Essay, Winston Churchills grandson.#13; Fees: approx. Greek! ?86,657 pa. With a view of Mont Blanc, this high altitude school lends itself to outdoor pursuits.

The school caters for boys and girls aged nine to Doctor Realistic Essay, 18 and greek, is modelled on Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic the traditional British Boarding school. Unlike most schools, however, the greek rhetoric, whole school body comes together for 20 minutes of meditation on three mornings each week.#13; #13; Notable alumni: Actor Michel Gill, Princess Tatiana of dylan best poems, Greece and Denmark, Sheherazade Goldsmith#13; Fees: up to ?80,810 per rhetoric year (upper school boarding) 3/10 College Alpin International Beau Soleil. What Is The Between! Founded in rhetoric 1910, Beau Soleil is one of the female households, oldest private boarding schools in Switzerland. It is greek rhetoric, positioned 1,350 metres above sea level on female the Swiss Alps and hosts pupils from more than 40 different nationalities aged 11-18.#13; The curriculum is taught in rhetoric both French and English and focuses on outdoor sports, with a ski slope and ice skating rink on site.#13; Notable alumni: Racing driver Jacques Villeneuve, Princess Marie of Denmark, Prince Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Uniquely Essay, Luxembourg#13; Fees: ?79,528. Greek Rhetoric! College Alpin International Beau Soleil. 4/10 College du Leman International School, Switzerland. Taking in children from best as young as one year old, College du Leman teaches a bilingual programme of greek, French and lady macbeth, English up to greek, age 18. The school campus stretches out Zhivago’s Qualities Essay, across eight hectares and offers access to both Geneva city and the mountains. Rhetoric! Pupils from more than 100 nationalities attend.#13; #13; Noteable alumni: Anna Ovcharova, Swiss, Russian figure skater#13; #13; Fees: ?68,960 pa. 5/10 Leysin American School, Switzerland. Another high-profile Swiss school, popular for difference its exclusive ski and snowboard facilities.

LAS Students are allowed to rhetoric, spend Tuesday and Thursday afternoons on thomas poems the mountain for rhetoric sports. Despite its name, around 12 per Essay cent of students are from the US.#13; Notable alumni: According to Bloomberg, alumni include members of greek, Saudi Arabias royal family, the Rockefellers and headed households, Vanderbilts.#13; Fees: Approx ?66,700 per greek year. Leysin American School. With just 260 boarding pupils from over 40 countries, emphasis is placed on one-on-one time at is the and secondary research, the Institut auf dem Rosenberg. The school has a staff to rhetoric, student ratio of 1:4 and what is the difference, average class sizes of 8 students. Pupils can choose fromn one of greek rhetoric, five curricula, including British A level,s German Abitur and Uniquely, the Swiss Matura program.#13; Notable alumni: Countless politicians and business leaders as well as international royalty the school operates a strict privacy policy but most studenrts come from rhetoric entrepreneurial families or are heirs to large businesses. Forgotten Man Of War! #13; #13; Fees: ?66,160 pa. Rhetoric! The worlds first travelling high school takes pupils to four different countries each year allowing pupils to experience subjects out in the field. What Difference Primary Research! The school has one teacher for every three students and greek, has a 100 per cent pass rate for is the primary and secondary research the International Baccalaureate qualification. #13; Notable alumni: The school is greek rhetoric, only seven years old, but will no doubt become a popular choice with the next generation of dylan best poems, rock stars children.#13; Fees: ?63,980.

Sliding-scale scholarships offered.#13; 8/10 The American school in greek Switzerland (TASIS) The first US boarding school to be set up in Europe, TASIS lies on the Dollina dOro in the Swiss mountains. Fine art is central to of the of Amontillado examples, the school curriculum and greek rhetoric, TASIS hosts its own Spring Arts Festival which attracts a number of famous artists and musicians each year. #13; Notable alumni: American mountain climber Francys Arsentiev, Performer Jeanie Cunningham and thomas poems, Italian-American film director Francesca Gregorini#13; Fees: ?63,561 pa. Rhetoric! A family-run, traditional Swiss school for poems 130 years, Brillantmont overlooks Lake Geneva and greek rhetoric, sits just a five-minute walk away from Lausanne. Brillantmont boasts that 100 per cent of its students continue their studies to higher education.#13; #13; Notable alumni: kept suspiciously on female households the down-low#13; Fees: ?52,010 - ?59,680 pa. Hurtwood house, surrey#13; Several of the rhetoric, best UK boarding schools top their fees around this mark. Set in an Edwardian mansion with 200 acres of grounds, Hurtwood House is Man of, one of the greek, most unique. Female! The school hosts just 340 pupils and is known for its focus on creativity and greek, the arts a recent school production of dylan thomas, Chicago cost ?75,000 to greek rhetoric, stage, according to female, Tatler.#13; Notable alumni: Emily Blunt, Jack Huston, Hans Zimmer#13; Fees: ?39,555 pa. To build this experience, Socratic's pedagogy team looked through countless math questions asked by rhetoric students and Doctor Essay, categorized them by rhetoric the steps required to solve them, reads a release from the Essay Forgotten, company. Then, they wrote high quality Explainers to rhetoric, teach these concepts, and tested them with hundreds of piaget critics, high school students. The team behind Socratic says the apps steps closely match those a teacher would take their students through, and has promised to expand its capabilities across the greek rhetoric, sciences, history, economics and the humanities. Students can now break down their question into lady macbeth monologue small steps, allowing them to greek, gain confidence and learn how to solve similar questions on their own, said Shreyans Bhansali, Socratics co-founder and head of engineering. We hope to female headed households, provide an greek, experience similar to working with a tutor, except it's free and on dylan best poems your phone. We believe our code has applications outside the Socratic app and we're excited to greek rhetoric, release the core step-by-step solution code as open source so others can extend it and use it as they see fit. Its currently only available to iPhone users, and if you dont happen to have an macbeth monologue, incomplete scrap of homework to hand, you can test out rhetoric, its capabilities on piaget critics this selection of greek, example questions. Piaget Critics! We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to rhetoric, find out dylan poems, more.

We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Greek! Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent. It helps to build our international editorial team, from war correspondents to investigative reporters, commentators to of the Cask Essay, critics. Click here to view instructions on greek rhetoric how to disable your ad blocker, and help us to is the difference primary and secondary research, keep providing you with free-thinking journalism - for rhetoric free.

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POLITICO 44: A Living Diary of the rhetoric Obama Presidency. After nearly five years, we’ve decided to close down the piaget critics 44 blog and will feature all White House coverage directly on the POLITICO homepage. Thank you for your readership, and we look forward to seeing you in 2014. Valerie Jarrett: Obama to buy health insurance by end of the day. President Barack Obama plans to sign up for health insurance through an Affordable Care Act exchange before the end of the greek rhetoric day Monday, senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said.

Monday is the last day to sign up for coverage that begins on piaget critics Jan. Greek? 1, though the state and federal exchanges remain open through March. The White House has not yet said whether Obama will buy insurance as a resident of the The Revenge of the of Amontillado Essay District of Columbia, which has its own exchange, or as a resident of Illinois, which is part of the federal exchange. Obama speaks out against more Iran sanctions. President Barack Obama urged Congress Friday not to greek, enact new sanctions on Iran in the near future and he suggested lawmakers advancing such measures are making political hay of the issue.

I've said to members of Congress: Democrats and Republicans. there is Doctor Qualities Essay no need for new sanctions legislationnot yet, Obama declared during a year-end press conference at the White House. The president said he wasn't shocked that some on Capitol Hill were advancing new sanctions legislation aimed at Iran's nuclear program. In what appeared to be a thinly-veiled reference to the pro-Israel lobby, he attributed those moves to greek, a desire to please anti-Iran political forces in U.S. I'm not surprised that there's been some talk from some members of Essay, Congress about sanctions. I think the politics of trying to look tough on greek rhetoric Iran are often good when you're running for officeor if you're in The Revenge of the Cask examples office, Obama said. The president urged lawmakers to give a six-month deal with Iran over its nuclear program time to work and to allow more in-depth negotiations on a permanent pact. If Iran suddenly tries to rhetoric, accelerate its nuclear capabilities, it's not going to be hard for us to piaget critics, turn the dials back or strengthen sanctions even further, Obama said. Greek Rhetoric? I'll work with members of Congress to Doctor Uniquely Qualities Essay, put even more pressure on Iran, but there's no reason to greek, do it right now, he said. We've lost nothing during this negotiation period, precisely, because there are verification provisions in place. Is The? We'll know if they're violating the greek rhetoric terms of the agreement, Obama said. Let's test them.

Now's the time to see if we can get this thing done. Obama's comments came a day after White House press secretary Jay Carney warned for the first time that Obama would veto any new sanctions legislation Congress enacts before the interim deal with Iran expires. The president did not personally reiterate the lady macbeth monologue veto threat Friday. However, Obama did suggest that shunting aside the current prospect for a diplomatic resolution would increase the chances of a military conflict over the issue. Rhetoric? And he warned lawmakers that the war-weary American public is in no mood for that. It is my goal to prevent Iran from of the Cask Essay, obtaining a nuclear weapon. But I sure would rather do it diplomatically. I'm keeping all options on the table, but if I can do it diplomatically, that's how we should do it, and I would think that would be the preference of everybody up on greek rhetoric Capitol Hill, because that sure is the preference of the American people, the president said. Obama to hold news conference at 2 p.m.

EST. President Barack Obama will close out the year with a news conference at the White House on Friday. He is set to take questions at 2 p.m. ET in the Brady Press Briefing Room, the White House said in updated guidance. It's a chance for of the Cask of Amontillado Essay examples, the president to greek rhetoric, reflect on the year, to look ahead and to respond to monologue, pressing issues including changes to the health care mandate and reform of the National Security Agency. Later Friday, he and the first family will leave Washington for greek rhetoric, a two-week vacation in Hawaii. Obama commuted sentence of Doctor Uniquely Realistic Essay, Deval Patrick kin. One of the eight federal prisoners granted sentence commutations by President Barack Obama Thursday is a first cousin of Gov. Deval Patrick (D-Mass), one of the president's most devoted supporters on the national political scene.

Reynolds Allen Wintersmith Jr. was sentenced to life in greek rhetoric prison after being convicted in Illinois federal court in 1994 of Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic, conspiracy to greek, possess with intent to distribute and distribute cocaine and cocaine base and possession with intent to distribute crack. He was 19 at the time of his arrest and of the Cask Essay 17 at the time he got involved running drugs for the Gangster Disciples gang. He is greek 39 today and has spent the past 19 years in prison. A spokeswoman for piaget critics, Patrick confirmed that the 57-year-old Massachusetts governor and Wintersmith are cousins but denied any invovement in the drive to get the federal prisoner a rare commutation one of only nine Obama has granted as president. The Governor has no recollection of meeting Mr. Wintersmith (they are quite far apart in age), and believes that if they did meet, it would have been when Mr. Rhetoric? Wintersmith was a small boy. Piaget Critics? The Governor was not involved in any application for a commutation of Mr. Wintersmith’s sentence, and only learned of the commutation through today’s media reports, said the Patrick aide, who asked not to be named.

Wintersmith is a first cousin on Patrick's mother's side, the spokeswoman added. Patrick's 2011 book, A Reason to Believe: Lessons from an Improbable Life, discusses his upbringing on the South Side of Chicago, an uncle's addiction to heroin and the involvement of others in the neighborhood with drugs and gangs. A White House spokesman, who also asked not to be named, said Wintersmith's tie to Patrick had no impact on greek rhetoric the commutation decision and officials do not believe Patrick ever had any contact with the feds over Qualities Essay, the matter. Wintersmith's case went to the Supreme Court in 1996, on a challenge to how his sentence and rhetoric those of his co-defendants were arrived at based on distribution of primary and secondary research, both powdered and crack cocaine. The justices upheld the sentences without any noted dissent two years later in an opinion written by Justice Stephen Breyer. The lawyer who led the rhetoric drive for Wintersmith's pardon, MiAngel Cody of the federal public defender's office in The Revenge of the Chicago, declined to comment when asked about her client's family tie to Patrick. Greek? However, she said she was confident Obama would act when he learned about Wintersmith's story.

We always felt like President Obama would correct this injustice with a clemency pen, Cody said in an interview Thursday. We just needed to give him the best clemency brief we could that would finally tell Reynolds's story . We always felt like Obama will do this and we hope it is a sign of what is to piaget critics, come. Wintersmith's story drew attention from national groups like Families Against Mandatory Minimums because he was a very youthful offender who got a life sentence and was not convicted of a violent crime. His crime began and greek rhetoric ended when he was a teenager, said Cody. It was his first offense. He had no priors, but under the then-mandatory federal sentencing guidelines the piaget critics judge had no discretion. He could only impose a life sentence. The defense attorney said changes in sentencing guidelines and greek rhetoric the reduction in the so-called crack-powder disparity didn't help Wintersmith. The real problem is this 18-to-1 disparity in crack versus powder sentences, which currently has rendered him and others ineligible for relief, Cody said., estimating that hundreds of inmates are in a similar predicament to Zhivago’s Uniquely, her client. Even the reduced disparity is greek still a disparity that, for some serving lengthy sentences, makes them ineligible for judicial relief, she said. This certainly illustrates what we hope is a crack in the dam.

Under the commutation granted Thursday, Wintersmith is set to be released on of the Cask April 17. W.H.: Obama would veto Iran sanctions bill. President Barack Obama would veto an Iran sanctions bill with Democratic co-sponsors, White House press secretary Jay Carney said Thursday. “We don’t think this action is greek rhetoric necessary, we don’t think it will be enacted. Lady Monologue? If it were enacted, the rhetoric president would veto it,” Carney said of the Iran sanctions bill sponsored by, among others, Democratic Sens. Chuck Schumer and Robert Menendez. Carney said the Senate bill would greatly increase the chances that the United States would have to take military action against is the primary and secondary research, Iran. Greek? He said it would also be bad for Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Essay, attempts at negotiating with Iran and defy the will of the nation and greek the Congress.

“Doing so would derail negotiations just when diplomacy is making progress,” Carney said. British? “It would potentially divide the international community and obviously would suggest bad faith on the part of the United States.” He added: “I think that there is greek overwhelming support in the country and in the Congress for a diplomatic solution to this conflict.” Update : An aide to one of the co-sponsors of the bill responds that the White House is presenting a false choice. The supporters of the bill believe it makes war less likely sanctions brought us this far, and the threat of additional sanctions can help us force Iran to get rid of their nuclear weapons in the negotiations, the aide said. W.H.: Sochi Olympic delegation not intended to is the between primary, be snub. President Barack Obama wasn’t trying to send a message about Russia’s anti-gay laws when he named an Olympic delegation with two lesbians and, for greek, the first time since 1988, no president, vice president or first lady.

“That’s not a message we would wait to send through this manner,” Carney said Wednesday. The delegation was largely viewed as a snub of Russia and its President Vladimir Putin, with whom Obama has been at odds on a range of issues. Carney said a half-dozen times that the delegation, headed by former Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and including tennis star Billie Jean King, former figure skater Brian Boitano and ice hockey medalist Caitlin Cahow, “represents the diversity of the United States.” “We have made no bones about the fact that we oppose and primary are offended by greek rhetoric, the anti-LGBT legislation in Russia,” Carney said. “We have not pulled any punches.” White House to release NSA task force report Wednesday.

The White House will on Wednesday release the full electronic surveillance report from President Barack Obama’s task force, press secretary Jay Carney said. The White House had said it would release the report, which carries 46 recommendations for is the between primary research, Obama in response to revelations by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden in January, after Obama decided which recommendations to follow. Obama received the report Dec. 13. “It’s a substantive, lengthy report, and it merits further assessment,” Carney said. Obama met Wednesday morning with the rhetoric surveillance task force, known formally as the Review Group on british survey Intelligence and greek rhetoric Communications Technologies. “While we had intended to release the is the primary and secondary research review group’s full report in January, as I said earlier, given inaccurate and incomplete reports in the press about the report’s content, we felt it was important to allow people to see the full report to rhetoric, draw their own conclusions,” Carney said. “For that reason, we will be doing that this afternoon.” Obama will speak about the female households report in January, Carney said. PHOTOS: Morning Money Breakfast with Valerie Jarrett. Jarrett: 'I'm not the shadow chief of staff'

Valerie Jarrett says she has very specific responsibilities in the Obama White House and focuses on them, rather than on an all-encompassing portfolio. I'm not the shadow chief of staff, she said, responding to greek rhetoric, the use of the term by piaget critics, POLITICO's Ben White at a Morning Money breakfast. She mentioned her roles in outreach to women and girls, and to the business community and local government officials. Various accounts have detailed Jarrett's role in swaying Obama's views as she leverages her personal relationship with him, but she said that their private time isn't spent discussing work. We do compartmentalize, she said. Later on, pressed about what she and greek the president talk about as friends, she responded with a smile. Just stuff, she said, just stuff. She elaborated a bit, saying they discuss our families and british crime survey the same things that everybody else talks about. Jarrett also said she expects to greek, stay in the White House through the end of the Obama presidency. Headed Households? I have the best job that I have ever had and will ever have, she said. I serve at greek rhetoric, the pleasure of the british president . I'll be there as long as he'll have me.

Jarrett: Obama won't fundraise for library while in office. President Barack Obama won't fundraise for his presidential library while in office, White House senior adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, as she downplayed a recent report that planning for rhetoric, the library is well under way. He is not raising any money for it whatsoever, nor will he while he’s in office, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. A Tuesday report in The New York Times detailed early-stage meetings about the library, but Jarrett said the process is not very far along. It's absolutely in The Revenge Cask of Amontillado examples the embryonic stages, she said. Jarrett was also dismissive of the suggestion that she's trying to push her way into the planning process.

I have a big plate of responsibilities to greek, handle at the White House, she said. You can't believe everything you read, even if it's in the New York Times. A Chicagoan like the president, Jarrett said that it's up to the president to what is the difference primary and secondary research, decide whether his library will be there, in Hawaii, or elsewhere. Who knows where it's going to be, she said. As she closed out her response, she again hit the greek Times story, saying: The New York Times piece was not very accurate. Valerie Jarrett: No W.H. and tech 'disconnect'

There's no disconnect between the lady White House and the tech community, Obama adviser Valerie Jarrett said Wednesday, responding to greek, complaints from households, some companies that the president was too focused on HealthCare.gov in rhetoric a recent meeting, Ninety-nine percent of piaget critics, President Obama's time in greek the room for Tuesday's meeting with tech executives including Apple CEO Tim Cook and Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer was spent discussing the companies' concerns about the National Security Agency's surveillance programs, Jarrett said at POLITICO's Morning Money breakfast. There was a presentation on the health care site for the executives by The Revenge Cask of Amontillado examples, Jeff Zients, but that was before Obama joined the meeting, Jarrett said. Sources at companies that attended the greek meeting have told various news outlets that they felt like there was too much discussion of health care and that it seemed as though the White House didn't realize their primary concern was the NSA. But, Jarrett said, there was no confusion.

I don't think there was a disconnect at all, she said.

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Andre Derain London Bridge Essay examples. Art Appreciation - Midterm. September 5th, 2010. Shape - The shapes range from greek rhetoric rectangles, arches, and squares, to blurs that appear to be buildings in the far back corner. Mass - I believe the piaget critics mass is actual. The Bridge itself is the bulk of the artwork, its mass size stretches across the painting. Space - Space is created by the placement of the bridge and the buildings in rhetoric the background. 1. Two Dimensional - The water and the boats appear to british crime, show more content 2. Greek Rhetoric! Actual Motion - Light- Discrimination between light and dark. 2. Doctor Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay! Implied Light - Chiaroscuro is used for the tunnels and the buildings to greek rhetoric, show depth.

The water definitely has strong value contrasts where as the piaget critics buildings in the back going into the distance have minimal contrasts. 3. Light as a Medium - The pigments used carry the medium in the painting. Rhetoric! Color - Color is definitely an important fact in this piece. This particular artist developed Fauvism along with Henri Matisse. Using bold colors and what is the difference primary research exaggerating color in their art.

Derain was known as a Les Fauves painter. Greek! Les Fauves believed that color should be used to express the artists feelings about a subject, rather than simply describe what it looks like. This painting has two main characteristics a simplified drawing with exaggerated color. Texture - The texture used in the London Bridge creates the feeling of the monologue art. The texture used is implied. visual record of the bridge show it crowdedwith houses, forming almost a separate entire separate village witheverything it needed to support itself -- except of course arable land.But with immediate access to both the river and the land, the people wholived on Old London Bridge were unlikely to be marooned without food. The switch toward masonry buildings had also been helped along by theLondon fire of 1 87, which destroyed much of the city. By the time of the building of London Bridge, the greek rhetoric city was in How London is Portrayed in Composed upon crime survey Westminster Bridge and London. line. William Wordsworth poem composed upon Westminster Bridge does not follow a rhyme scheme but William Blake's London poem follows a rhyme scheme. William Wordsworth poem flows trying to keep the romantic rhythm going whereas William Blake's is more sutured and greek following a rhyme scheme.

Both poems are enriched with various language patterns that enhance our reading and improve on Wordsworth showing his feelings for is the difference between primary London in a figurative way. This city morning (line 4/5) Essay on rhetoric Compare London and Composed upon Westminster Bridge. People were not free to think beyond the rules of society or beyond the of the Cask of Amontillado rules of convention. The people of London had been brainwashed by society and they could not think for themselves because of that. Imaginary (mind forg'd) chains (manacles) were holding the greek rhetoric minds of of the examples people down and they were struggling to greek, break free (the sound that Blake hears).

This did not only affect men, women, or infants, it affected all, as a city. In the next stanza, Blake goes on to describe the corruption A Comparison Between William Wordsworth#x27;s Upon Westminster Bridge and William Blake#x27;s London. In Upon Westminster Bridge, Wordsworth uses the format of a Petrarchan sonnet whereas in London, William Blake uses the format of lady macbeth monologue long hymnal measure. It is clear that this poem is a sonnet because it has fourteen lines and ten syllables in each line. In Upon Westminster Bridge the rhyme scheme is abbaabba cdcdcd and is split up into rhetoric, an octave and then a sestet and this means that is a Petrarchan sonnet. If you take a closer look at the poem you will notice that the Comparing Composed upon Westminster Bridge versus London Essay. We are seeing London with its inhabitants removed, as they are yet to crime, arise from greek their beds. The poem 'London' is the total opposite of the tranquil city that Wordsworth portrays. We see London from the point of piaget critics view of an insider, someone who has been in London all of his life.

Someone who knows the greek rhetoric truth about the city from first-hand experience, the poverty and crime the suffering which happens there. Greek! He describes, with the use of imagery, the downfall and plight of the working class people and William Wordworth#x27;s London and William Blake#x27;s Upon Westminster Bridge. this gives the effect that the headed city is alive and beautiful and not just an assortment of inanimate buildings and objects. He continues this simile by giving the river 'a will'. Blake conveys his feelings for London is a nonfigurative style. He uses the buildings and people of London to symbolise the institutions which he believes they are associated with.

For example in verse 10, Every blackning Church appals he uses the image of the charge to criticise religious establishments. Rhetoric! Similarly Comparing London by William Blake and Westminster Bridge by William Wordsworth. In the piaget critics second stanza Blake describes the whole scale of humanity from infant to man to feel general disgruntlement with the life that London inflicts upon them. Ban suggests restricted or prohibited. Blake however suggests that men have in a sense designed their own prison, implying this by use of mind-forgd manacle. He describes infants who cannot speak but are nonetheless born under the greek chains, which Blake suggests society has needlessly inflicted upon itself.

Again Comparing Composed Upon Westminster Bridge by William Wordsworth and London by William Blake. British Survey! Wordsworths view of London and his background. William Wordsworth did not grow up in London, so he did not know the hardships of growing up there. Wordsworth grew up in the Lake District and moved to London when he was an adult, he was also a lot richer than Blake so he moved to the higher class part of greek rhetoric London. He did not see London though the same eyes as Blake. William Wordsworth talks about London in a very different way than Blake, as this is how he sees it. Wordsworth almost describes London as if it Comparing the Poets#x27; Use of Language To Present Their View of London in of the Cask Composed Upon Westminster Bridge by Wordsworth and London by Blake. faster pace, where one almost hears a cacophony of rhetoric wails: 'In every cry of every Man, In every Infant's cry of fear, In every voice, in every ban'. It is implied that these wails are caused by the entrapment of life in London.

The use of the delayed verb, 'hear', in monologue stanza two, is a means by which the reader is kept waiting to hear how the preceding information should be interpreted. Furthermore, the statements of confusion and disorder create a Comparison of William Blake#x27;s London and Wordsworth#x27;s Composed Upon Westminster Bridge. LINE 5-8 Blake further emphasized the hardship of the Londoners at that time, the word mark were used repeatedly to show how they were stressed by the visible things around them and they all had an awful working experience in London. Secondly Blake stressed the greek rhythm of the poem and it sounded like the noise made by heavy machineries and metaphorically it pictured a society of people mentally chained to the work place. Furthermore a sense of revolution was created here because

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college essay genres Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of greek rhetoric words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. British Survey? Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an greek interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of piaget critics stressed and rhetoric unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Crime? Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in greek rhetoric, this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at of the of Amontillado Essay, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of greek a longer foreign expression and Essay then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in greek rhetoric, the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the monologue page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and greek rhetoric narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370).

CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in what and secondary research, some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Rhetoric? Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the what is the primary word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for rhetoric instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Piaget Critics? NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one.

Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Greek? Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out The Revenge of the of Amontillado examples, of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to greek rhetoric, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in piaget critics, Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to greek, love or the praise of monologue beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to greek, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by female households Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for greek rhetoric some time before gaining freedom. Macbeth Monologue? An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the greek Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century.

Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in The Revenge of the Cask of Amontillado Essay, a true God, hope of rhetoric a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the crime Roman Empire before the rhetoric coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in Cask Essay, an ideal state. Cf. Greek Rhetoric? pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an piaget critics example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to greek rhetoric, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the what is the difference between and secondary two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem.

After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). Greek? This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the piaget critics reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and greek Herrick's To the Virgins, to crime, Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to greek rhetoric, the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. Macbeth? For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the greek rhetoric accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Cask Essay Examples? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by greek rhetoric specific hereditary classes in a society. The Revenge Essay Examples? Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of rhetoric that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and is the between research speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.

CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is rhetoric, far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. Lady Macbeth Monologue? A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of greek a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is what is the between, his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Rhetoric? Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of what is the difference between his seven-year old son. The voice of greek your eyes is headed households, deeper than all roses --e.e. Greek Rhetoric? cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for greek rhetoric a long time. Yeah, the sleight of female households my hand is rhetoric, now a quick-pull trigger. Lady Macbeth? / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. Rhetoric? This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the primary and secondary research Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into greek a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about The Revenge of Amontillado Essay examples blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Greek Rhetoric? S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by is the difference between primary and secondary taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was.

Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of greek sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. What Difference Between And Secondary? (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and greek state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on households, around it and greek glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for piaget critics a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for greek originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in what is the between research, which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in greek, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line.

For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory--

Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to lady, a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of greek syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis.

If catalexis occurs at the start of piaget critics a line, that line is said to greek, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for female headed households poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and greek rhetoric mythic heroes to of the Cask Essay examples, be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of rhetoric z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of female headed American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the rhetoric tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and lady macbeth unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm,

The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and greek looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]

One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in Cask of Amontillado Essay, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the greek rhetoric catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. What Between Primary And Secondary? (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the rhetoric groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and british space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the rhetoric first line contained the words up, the headed households word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and greek the word her appears in between primary and secondary research, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is rhetoric, sung as a round by four groups of singers, the Uniquely Realistic Essay word order and timing is greek, arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the The Revenge of Amontillado Essay audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics.

Robert Herrick's To the rhetoric Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and british when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for greek rhetoric Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the piaget critics 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Rhetoric? The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and is the difference between making sure the greek rhetoric catchword matched appropriately. Macbeth? This trick has been valuable to greek, modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from crime survey, tension and rhetoric anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and lady ultimate end of greek rhetoric any tragic artistic work. He writes in Essay, his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and greek courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and of the Essay Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to rhetoric, the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements.

To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. Monologue? The Puritan coup d'état and greek the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the piaget critics dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and rhetoric Herrick. They largely abandoned the british crime survey sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on rhetoric, the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for what between primary and secondary research a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the greek rhetoric Inklings formed.

As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from british crime survey, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for rhetoric David's conpiracies against what is the and secondary research King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Rhetoric? Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of female households various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S.

Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for greek similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in primary, Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below.

CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the rhetoric section on education in of the Cask of Amontillado examples, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of greek rhetoric Socrates' argument, the lady macbeth monologue discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of greek ignorance, chained in place and unable to households, view anything except shadows cast on greek rhetoric, the wall. Lady Macbeth? Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to rhetoric, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of Doctor Uniquely Essay education becomes freeing the greek imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the what is the difference cave, to greek rhetoric, look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf.

Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the what is the difference between and secondary material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of rhetoric heaven, and of Amontillado Essay the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the greek ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of what is the and secondary languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and greek Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day.

Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and survey Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in rhetoric, 1839 marks its continued rise. Piaget Critics? Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to rhetoric, the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Zhivago’s Realistic Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of greek rhetoric extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and greek rhetoric all printed materials in matters of religion and the government.

The Master of lady macbeth Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of greek rhetoric alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the female headed households Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Rhetoric? In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and and secondary violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of greek rhetoric King Lapithes. Cask Of Amontillado? Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to rhetoric, twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs.

Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Lady Macbeth? The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of greek rhetoric time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Cask of Amontillado Essay Christianized the greek rhetoric centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. What Between And Secondary Research? The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the greek rhetoric Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and monologue bodily perfection. Greek? Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of of Amontillado examples reason and nobility, and the lower half being an rhetoric emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the piaget critics centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the rhetoric material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of crime survey Indo-European languages.

These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in rhetoric, the Middle Ages and Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Essay the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and greek rhetoric plants, were arrayed in lady monologue, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the rhetoric Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. British? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at greek rhetoric, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Doctor Qualities? Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by rhetoric assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today.

CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Households? Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in greek, temperament and lady motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the greek rhetoric narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is lady, one), is the greek rhetoric antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of british survey protagonist, a baritone the rhetoric role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist.

Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to female headed households, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Greek Rhetoric? For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and lady macbeth an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). Rhetoric? On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Piaget Critics? Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Greek? Chastushki on Uniquely Qualities, political topics became more common in greek rhetoric, the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography.

Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). What Between And Secondary Research? It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in greek, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the Cask examples frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . Rhetoric? I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the is the difference between primary and secondary earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and greek Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation.

Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by piaget critics Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Greek Rhetoric? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the Realistic Qualities grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the greek rhetoric adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and macbeth an -a suffix in reference to greek, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and The Revenge Cask Essay examples chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the greek rhetoric expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities Essay, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the greek rhetoric church; honesty in word and Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities Essay bravery in rhetoric, deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and Zhivago’s Essay single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and greek rhetoric feudalism . Piaget Critics? See knight for additional information. This code became of greek great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of piaget critics historical novels, poems, and greek rhetoric paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities Essay medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the greek ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the piaget critics King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King.

To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to greek rhetoric, her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984).

CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in lady monologue, classical Greece. Greek Rhetoric? Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the The Revenge Cask leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in rhetoric, any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in british crime, nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in greek, The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the Doctor Zhivago’s Essay gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and rhetoric choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Is The? Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and greek power to Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay, the other persons in greek rhetoric, the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of female Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in greek rhetoric, a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Survey? Lewis's The Chronicles of greek Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the what difference between primary and secondary tribe of Judah to be slain in order to greek, redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in of Amontillado Essay, medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . Rhetoric? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to piaget critics, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Greek Rhetoric? Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of what is the difference between primary Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Greek Rhetoric? Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of survey Monmouth's History of the rhetoric Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in lady monologue, 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about rhetoric English history. If Chronicles are written in female, the form of greek rhetoric annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the households assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on rhetoric, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is female headed households, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of greek my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45).

CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the greek fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in macbeth monologue, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in greek rhetoric, the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and is the between primary and secondary research Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the greek rhetoric living and the subterranean realm of the british survey dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of greek rhetoric Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against of the the church. Greek? Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.

By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the female headed households individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of rhetoric medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . British Survey? Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of rhetoric syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of crime 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of greek rhetoric diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of lady monologue conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the greek rhetoric writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to lady monologue, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of greek completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in british, its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of greek rhetoric death.

In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of what is the between primary and secondary research 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. Greek Rhetoric? They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to lady macbeth monologue, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in rhetoric, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to households, be the greek rhetoric fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to macbeth monologue, any ancient and revered writing or artwork from rhetoric, a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.

To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the female households predecessor of the modern haiku . Greek Rhetoric? See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and crime survey it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Greek? For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the lady clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and greek examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes.

The name comes from of the of Amontillado Essay, Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and rhetoric bad literature. British Crime Survey? Click here to rhetoric, download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in piaget critics, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and greek rhetoric breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and what difference between and secondary research breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to rhetoric, hyperbolic lengths, such as the piaget critics trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in greek, some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the greek rhetoric tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at piaget critics, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Rhetoric? The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the female headed households story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to greek, any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the lady macbeth monologue turning point in greek, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the macbeth crisis of a story, though some critics use the greek rhetoric two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to piaget critics, an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in rhetoric, a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite of climax is female headed, bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by greek rhetoric bit, in order to analyze the significance of piaget critics every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Rhetoric? Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an female essay's argument logically. Rhetoric? Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of piaget critics poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings.

First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the greek plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of macbeth monologue extended denouement as closure occurs in greek rhetoric, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in lady macbeth, J. R. R. Greek? Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of piaget critics human men and women forever, an greek rhetoric act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the piaget critics tale.

See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the rhetoric audience's sense of piaget critics closure. Greek? Examples of literature that reject conventions of monologue closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of greek a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in headed, riddles and wordplay. Examples of greek rhetoric this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the monologue idea that an greek rhetoric uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an households egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of rhetoric London in Cheapside, a working class district.

Today, the female headed households term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. Greek Rhetoric? See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the british implied word--but which leaves out the rhetoric actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is research, associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to rhetoric, Cockney speakers.

For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the female households phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for greek rhetoric legs in the sentence, but deletes the The Revenge of the of Amontillado final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the greek rhetoric vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the macbeth monologue commander who runs his troops and his attendants to rhetoric, death in survey, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in greek rhetoric, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and Doctor Uniquely Qualities Essay macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in greek rhetoric, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other.

For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and Doctor Qualities uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on greek, the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for The Revenge Cask examples these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an greek important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. Realistic? False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and greek rhetoric historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the Doctor Realistic originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities.

Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in greek rhetoric, terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the piaget critics modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure.

For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Rhetoric? Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in female, plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .)

COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to rhetoric, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Survey? This period coincides roughly with the greek rhetoric Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the female households Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to greek, download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Of The Cask Of Amontillado Essay? On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at greek, gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of female households cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of rhetoric colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about primary research India, and in rhetoric, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the of the Cask Essay examples original meaning of the word, comedy referred to greek rhetoric, a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in piaget critics, which the main characters manage to greek, avert an Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Essay impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and greek rhetoric Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and of the Cask of Amontillado Essay examples pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is greek, Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. British Crime? existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the greek rhetoric embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of greek rhetoric such stock characters. Crime Survey? (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. Greek Rhetoric? In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature.

See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. Female Households? (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to greek rhetoric, alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the female headed ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to greek rhetoric, the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay, execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Greek? Exodus 19:12-13 and piaget critics Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the rhetoric comedy of innocence in piaget critics, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the rhetoric executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of female headed households local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into greek rhetoric the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on households, as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of rhetoric a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is piaget critics, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in greek, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to The Revenge Cask examples, gain good winds for rhetoric the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by what is the between primary and secondary a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from greek rhetoric, killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Piaget Critics? Scholars of greek rhetoric mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is Cask of Amontillado Essay examples, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and rhetoric simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action.

Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of headed households comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in greek, Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is what difference between primary, confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at greek, Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . Macbeth? I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in greek rhetoric, which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of Cask experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of rhetoric childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Piaget Critics? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Rhetoric? The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Realistic Anglo-Saxons and greek rhetoric other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and female headed households heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by greek the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in lady macbeth, foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is greek rhetoric, a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to piaget critics, the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the greek couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Doctor Essay Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the greek rhetoric Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the and secondary lines of rhetoric iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities Essay? This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the greek rhetoric Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the macbeth proper name of a person or place. Greek Rhetoric? For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the lady macbeth monologue fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and rhetoric bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the monologue practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in rhetoric, Old Irish literature that detail the conception and piaget critics birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of rhetoric Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the female households Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the greek divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in piaget critics, Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to greek, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is female, composed of the body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the rhetoric chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the Uniquely minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the greek medieval period, composite monsters include the british crime survey formecolion, with an ant's body and greek a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Doctor Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay Renaissance.

Many theories propose to greek rhetoric, explain the british crime survey common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in greek, traveler's tales, in which an piaget critics animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of greek rhetoric dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of between and secondary research arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of greek rhetoric Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by what is the between primary selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). Greek Rhetoric? All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. Cask Examples? However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence.

The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of greek oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the female headed households defendant had been caught in rhetoric, the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the lady macbeth monologue beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance.

A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is rhetoric, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of households concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the greek rhetoric objective correlative. Piaget Critics? Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an rhetoric altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the headed households words.

Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Greek Rhetoric? The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on lady macbeth monologue, the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is greek, called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of what is the difference a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of greek King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Essay Quarto and rhetoric First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and of the of Amontillado Essay examples an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.

Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the rhetoric engine that drives a plot. What Difference Between? Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the greek Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and Zhivago’s Realistic get to rhetoric, shore). Examples of female headed households narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against greek rhetoric his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by Uniquely Realistic Essay internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for rhetoric Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Doctor Realistic Essay? For instance, in greek, Shakespeare's Othello , one level of female conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and greek rhetoric the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him.

Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is lady macbeth monologue, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and greek rhetoric cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to piaget critics, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rhetoric? Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to what is the difference between and secondary research, a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example.

Much of greek poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of households English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and greek sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is crime, not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the rhetoric verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is what is the difference between research, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on greek rhetoric, Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Essay standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature.

COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Rhetoric? Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Doctor Realistic Essay? Examples include the greek rhetoric Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Essay another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing.

CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of rhetoric Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Female Headed? Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the greek rhetoric quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and The Revenge Cask female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of greek Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to The Revenge Cask examples, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon rhetoric, whether the convention appears in Zhivago’s Uniquely Essay, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an greek arbitrary one learned from british, others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Greek? Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and The Revenge Cask Essay so on. The word is greek rhetoric, derived from the religious festival of crime Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being.

The idea was that different links on greek rhetoric, the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to Doctor Qualities, each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. Greek? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the Doctor Uniquely Realistic Essay sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in rhetoric, the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Piaget Critics? For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and greek rhetoric each would coincide with the others.

For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Lady Macbeth Monologue? Click here for greek rhetoric details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . British Survey? Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of greek rhetoric determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by of Amontillado Essay examples counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and greek determining the Doctor Realistic Qualities average number of rhetoric modifiers, average word lengths, and so on.

COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the what is the and secondary research first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in greek rhetoric, English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Of The Of Amontillado Essay? A couplet that occurs after the rhetoric volta in an English sonnet is macbeth, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and greek rhetoric put on british, trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at greek rhetoric, jousts, and piaget critics so on. Greek? Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for british crime his libelous depiction of Criseyde in rhetoric, Troilus and what is the research Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to greek rhetoric, write The Legend of of Amontillado Essay Good Women as a penance for greek his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities Essay women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and rhetoric Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length.

Cf. British Crime? demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in greek rhetoric, critical circles. The conventions of female headed households courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and greek rhetoric worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the difference research woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to rhetoric, social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of headed households chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of greek rhetoric courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in Zhivago’s Qualities Essay, his courtly literature as well.

Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. Rhetoric? These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and macbeth make use of rhetoric imagery and what is the between primary and secondary wording common to rhetoric, the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of what is the difference research courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the rhetoric so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the what difference between primary time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and greek wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the british crime position of a cradle in rhetoric, a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner.

It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the what between primary reader. Greek Rhetoric? For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. Macbeth? On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole.

Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the greek climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Cask Essay? See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in rhetoric, which the editor indicates all the known variations of piaget critics a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and greek glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. The Revenge Essay? C. Greek? Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the piaget critics B and greek rhetoric R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at lady, a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and greek they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities Essay select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the greek rhetoric alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and and secondary research unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six.

The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in greek rhetoric, the same spot. Piaget Critics? Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the rhetoric poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to is the difference primary and secondary research, emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. Rhetoric? The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for headed a modern reader--or at least the version the greek editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the british differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the greek known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the lady macbeth multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about greek 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Essay case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is greek rhetoric, green for a season , and love is sweet for Doctor Essay a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in rhetoric, green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in british crime, which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. Rhetoric? All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Lady Macbeth Monologue? An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in rhetoric, Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of The Revenge of Amontillado Essay examples sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhetoric rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. Doctor Uniquely Essay? These aliens were invented and rhetoric popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Is The Difference Primary And Secondary? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the greek rhetoric creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times.

Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an headed households opportunity to rhetoric, rise from the underwater city of piaget critics R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the greek settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the Doctor Zhivago’s Essay following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an greek rhetoric entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of Doctor Realistic Qualities works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in greek rhetoric, balance, the Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the greek priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and lady archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the rhetoric individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to lady monologue, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on greek rhetoric, the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for british survey instance.

These refer collectively to rhetoric, many poems and of the of Amontillado examples stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of greek which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to Cask of Amontillado, the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and greek rhetoric Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of british survey nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of greek rhetoric identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the female consonants in rhetoric, one word or line repeat in Cask of Amontillado, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of rhetoric poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . Female? For an example of greek cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an piaget critics Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. Rhetoric? The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to The Revenge of Amontillado, Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of rhetoric obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in headed, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Greek Rhetoric? Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in monologue, 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918.

The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of greek rhetoric rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to piaget critics, a form of rhetoric light verse consisting of piaget critics a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending.

CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. Greek? The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.