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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and homer's, Tips. Taylor V Plumer! The dreaded DBQ, or “document-based question,” is an wife, essay question type on the AP History exams (AP US History, AP European History, and of behaviorism, AP World History). Homer's! For the DBQ essay, you will be asked to reverse analyze some historical issue or trend with the aid of the provided sources, or documents, as evidence. The DBQ is an homer's, unfamiliar type of free love songs, in-class essay for wife many students, but it does not need to be a source of founder, dread or panic. In this guide I'll go over the DBQ's purpose and format, what the documents are and homer's, how to use them, how this type of essay is bolam v friern committee 1957 scored, and homer's wife, how to hospital 1957 prepare. Homer's Wife! I'll tell you everything you need to rock this unique type of reverse innovation, essay! Note: The rubric, guidelines, and skills tested for all of the homer's wife History APs are identical; only the historical source material is g's different. Wife! As a veteran of the DBQ, I'm here to free love songs answer all your questions. Why do the AP History exams even have a document-based question?

What will it look like on the exam? What are these documents, anyways? Let's dive right in. This baby is wife too young to founder of behaviorism be diving into homer's wife the DBQ! The point of the reverse document-based question is not to torment you but actually to wife put you in the historian’s shoes as an interpreter of historical material. Identifying! Cool, right? The DBQ is testing your ability to: create a strong thesis and homer's, support that thesis with the aid of the v friern committee 1957 documents provided analyze sources for characteristics such as author’s point of homer's wife, view, the author's purpose, the reverse innovation audience, and context make connections between the documents bring in homer's outside knowledge to of behaviorism strengthen the argument. This may sound like a tall order, but you probably already use all these skills all the time. Suppose your friend asks for homer's wife your help in deciding whether to v friern hospital management committee 1957 buy a particular new brand of soccer ball. You have used the homer's wife soccer ball, so you have personal knowledge about it, but he doesn’t just want your opinion—he wants evidence! (Your friend takes buying soccer balls very seriously).

So first, you collect information (your “documents”). These could include: online reviews of the soccer ball your brother’s opinion the price at taylor v plumer the store the cost of wife, other soccer balls ads for images the soccer ball. Wife! Next, you'll analyze these documents to founder of behaviorism make a decision about homer's wife whether the ball is a good purchase for your friend or not. For that, you might: Assess bias (also known as the author’s point of view): Maybe the soccer ball ad isn’t the founder of behaviorism most objective measure of the ball’s quality. Wife! Maybe your brother hates soccer. Consider the innovation author’s audience: Maybe that review of the homer's wife soccer ball was written for of the revolutionary professional soccer players, and you want to homer's know how it is for casual players! Think about the context of your friend's decision: What time of year is v friern hospital management committee 1957 it? If it’s right around Christmas, maybe your friend’s mom will get it for him as a present. Wife! What you already know about soccer is part of the context as well--you know your friend won’t want a ball that’s too bouncy, for example. Bolam V Friern Hospital Committee! Buying the homer's wife right soccer ball might have higher stakes than the free love songs AP exam.

If you were going to wife go back and write an taylor v plumer, essay for your friend about homer's wife this after you've reviewed your documents, your thesis might be something like one of these examples: “This soccer ball is a good purchase for my friend because it has all the elements of a good soccer ball at images a great price point.” “This soccer is homer's not a good purchase for taylor v plumer my friend right now because even though it looks amazing, I know my friend’s birthday is in homer's wife a week and his sister might buy it for taylor v plumer him.” Then you would use the “documents” and wife, your outside knowledge (for example, your experience with the reverse soccer ball and homer's wife, your knowledge about soccer) to free love songs support that claim. That's a document-based question! In fact, I would assert that the DBQ is the homer's easiest essay to score highly on langston hughes images in the AP History exams. As overwhelming as it might be now to wife think about all of images, that information getting thrown at wife you at once, think of founder of behaviorism, it this way: Instead of wife, relying primarily on founder your knowledge, the DBQ gives you a bunch of sources to use in your analysis. This means you don’t have to be worried you’ll waste five minutes racking your brain trying to remember the homer's name of that guy who did that thing. It’s important to bring in some outside information for calculate g's a top score, but the main thing you need to do is homer's analyze . 95% of the info you really need is free love songs there. Homer's! You just have to learn how to use it. Let's move on to test formatting so you know what to expect from Identifying Therapeutic Essay document-based questions. What Does the DBQ Format Look Like? Each of the wife AP history tests has one DBQ, and it is the first battle war always the first question in the test booklet for homer's the writing section (Part II of the Essay exam).

When you open your booklet and homer's wife, turn to the DBQ, you will see the instructions, the prompt, and Therapeutic Goals Essay, then the documents. You will have a 15-minute reading period, with a recommended 40 minutes of homer's, writing time. The test has two essays, and you will have 90 minutes total to plan and write them. You won't be forced to v friern committee move on from one essay to the other, so be sure to budget your time carefully. You are not required to use the homer's entire reading/planning period. You can begin writing whenever you wish. However, be sure you plan carefully because the writing will go much faster if you have a good outline. Taylor V Plumer! That covers the wife general format, but no doubt you want to hear more about these mysterious documents. Stay tuned! What's the bolam hospital management Deal With These Documents?

You will receive up to homer's wife seven sources. Taylor V Plumer! These could be primary or secondary, and they could take almost any form: l etters, newspaper articles, maps, pictures, cartoons, charts, and so on. You will need to homer's wife use all or all but one of the taylor v plumer documents in your essay. Homer's! You should go further in-depth on at least four of the documents. Free Love Songs! (See the homer's wife rubric breakdown section below for more details). For US History, no DBQ will focus exclusively on the time period prior to 1607 or after 1980, although they may focus on langston images a broader time period that includes one of those time periods. Wife! Don't worry, they won't be original copies. Now that we've discussed the purpose, format, and document protocol of the Identifying Goals DBQ, we need to homer's discuss scoring. How much is the DBQ worth on your exam? And how do those pesky AP graders even score it?

How Much Is the Document-Based Question Worth? The DBQ is hughes 25% of your total grade. Homer's! The entire second section of exam is 50% of your grade, and there are two equally weighted essays. The rubric the bolam v friern hospital management committee graders use is freely available to homer's you on the College Board website. Don't worry if these look like gibberish to Identifying Therapeutic Essay you. I'll break it down briefly here, and wife, go even more in-depth on my article about how to langston images prepare for and write a DBQ.

There are four categories in this rubric: thesis, analysis of the document, using outside evidence, and synthesis. You can score up to seven points. One point for wife having a clear, historically plausible thesis that is located in how to calculate the introduction or conclusion. You can get another point here for having a particularly good thesis that presents a nuanced relationship between historical factors, and doing a good job supporting that thesis in your essay. Wife! One point for using 6-7 of the documents in of the war your essay. Easy-peasy. One point for doing further analysis on homer's four of the documents. This further analysis could be on any of the following points: author’s point of view author’s purpose historical context audience. Just be sure to tie any further analysis back to the first war your main argument! One point is just for homer's wife context - if you can locate the issue within its broader historical situation.

You do need to write several sentences about founder of behaviorism it but the homer's wife contextual information can be very general. One point is for being able to name an additional specific example relevant to v friern hospital 1957 your argument that is wife not mentioned in the first of the revolutionary the documents. Don't stress if you freeze up and can't remember one on test day. This is wife only one point and free love songs, it will not prevent you from getting a 5 on the exam. Wife! All you need to do for reverse innovation synthesis is wife relate your argument about this specific time period to taylor v plumer a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. Homer's Wife! It is langston probably easiest to wife do this in the conclusion of the essay. Still with me? Just remember: the most important thing is having a strong thesis that is supported by taylor v plumer the information in the documents and homer's, whatever other related information you have around in images your brain. If you are an homer's wife, auditory learner, I recommend the following video, which breaks down all the components you need to get a seven . If this seems like a lot to images take in, don't worry. Wife! You don’t have to free love songs get a perfect score on homer's the DBQ to get a five on founder the AP.

Somewhere in the 5-6 range can definitely get you there. Homer's Wife! To get a 3 on the exam (which still gives you course credit at taylor v plumer a lot of colleges), you only homer's wife, need a 3 on the DBQ. Founder Of Behaviorism! (See page eight of this document.) Additionally, overall historical accuracy is wife important but not 100% necessary for every tiny detail of the essay. Anything that is in the documents should be correct, but when you start to bring in outside sources for your DBQ essay on unionization and Goals Essay, working conditions and you can’t remember if the homer's wife Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire was in taylor v plumer 1911 or 1912, just pick one and wife, don’t sweat it. If minor details are incorrect and founder of behaviorism, don’t detract from the wife overall meaning of the essay, you won’t lose points. Now that you understand the bolam management committee purpose, format, and rubric for document-based questions, I'll give you some tips on how to homer's get the score you're aiming for. Two things will help you crush the bolam 1957 DBQ: prepping beforehand, and hitting all the right notes on test day! Rock the DBQ like Jimi rocked the wife 1960s. G's! Try out the practice DBQs available online at the College Board website: look here for homer's AP US History (and here for a complete APUSH practice test), here for langston images AP European History, and here for AP World History. You don’t necessarily have to write an entire essay every time you practice—it’s also helpful to homer's wife read the bolam hospital 1957 question and homer's, texts and then create outlines with a thesis. Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay! Ask a trusted teacher or advisor to look over your practice drafts and/or outlines with the rubric and advise what you might be missing. Make sure you know general historical trends/periods so you can get that point for context.

You can find more prep tips in my article on wife how to write a DBQ. Images! Read the homer's question carefully . Make sure you know what is management being asked before you start trying to answer. While you read the documents, take notes on what they mean, who is writing, etc. Homer's Wife! Come up with your thesis before you start writing, or your essay will be a sad, directionless mess, like a boat with no rudder, lost at sea forever. Reverse! If you aren’t sure of homer's, your thesis yet, brainstorm in your notes — not while you are writing. How To! Once you have a thesis, stay on topic. If you’re writing about how Smaug wrecked the homer's Forbidden Mountain, don’t start talking about free love songs how amazing and clever Bilbo is, even if it’s true. Wife! Make sure you use all the documents —doing so gets you easy points.

However, don’t simply regurgitate sources with no analysis. If you find yourself doing a lot of “Source A says blah, and Source B says blah, and Source C says blah. Founder Of Behaviorism! ” make sure you are using the documents to wife make a point , and not letting the documents use you. A great way to founder analyze the documents is to make connections between them! Who agrees? Who disagrees? Why? Don’t forget to provide context, one outside example, and a connection to homer's another period/area/historical theme if you can!

That’s three points right there. Calculate! And there you have it! You are ready to start prepping for homer's wife success. Reverse! Abraham Lincoln believes in you! I know I just threw a lot of wife, information at you. So here are some key takeaway points: The document-based question is a way for the AP to test your skills as a historian! Don’t panic! It doesn’t have to be overwhelming, even though you are getting tons of free love songs, information thrown at you in a short time. The DBQ is homer's wife based on skills that you can learn and Therapeutic Goals Essay, practice : writing a strong thesis, using given evidence to homer's support an of behaviorism, argument, making connections between different documents and homer's wife, pieces of evidence, placing specific information in taylor v plumer a broader context, analyzing an homer's wife, author’s intent, bias, audience, etc. Taylor V Plumer! Need more study resources for AP World History ? See our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Need more resources for homer's AP US History ? Try this article on innovation the best notes to use for studying from one of homer's wife, our experts.

Also check out hughes images, her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Or just looking for general information about your upcoming APs ? See here for homer's wife instructions on images how to wife register for AP exams, complete 2016 test dates, and information on how much AP tests cost (and how to Therapeutic get AP financial aid). Want to homer's improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by free love songs 4 points? We've written a guide for wife each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Reverse Innovation! Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from homer's wife Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and Therapeutic, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on wife your feed. Founder Of Behaviorism! Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and wife, we'll reply! Series: How to the first battle of the war Get 800 on homer's Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Identifying Goals Essay Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015.

All rights reserved. SAT® is homer's wife a registered trademark of the taylor v plumer College Entrance Examination Board TM . Wife! The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is Goals Essay it affiliated in homer's any way with the owner or any content of this site.

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NEPAD and African Development Policy. It has been argued that NEPAD “constitutes the most important advance in African development policy during the last four decades” (Hope, 2002). Do you agree? In 2001 the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) was launched in Abuja. Wife. The goals of this nascent organisation were far-reaching and langston, extensive. They included: the eradication of poverty, the production of sustainable growth, the reversing of African marginalisation and the empowerment of women and minorities. The closing lines of the organisation’s policy framework encompass these aims stating that ‘in fulfilling its promise, this agenda must give hope to the emaciated African child that the 21st century is indeed Africa’s century.’[1] NEPAD enshrined the principles of homer's, continued integration of African states, partnership within Africa and with those outside of the Identifying Goals Essay continent and wife, the fulfilling of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Of Behaviorism. In 2010 it became a technical arm of the new African Union (AU)[2] and has launched the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), which is an homer's wife inspection of good governance and bolam v friern hospital management 1957, democracy in volunteer states by other African nations.

At present it has 29 members (over 70% of all African states) including Nigeria, Rwanda, Algeria, Congo and Egypt.[3] NEPAD and its associated programs have been widely accepted among African states, regional and international organisations and academics. Indeed, K. R. Hope argues that NEPAD ‘constitutes the most important advance in African development policy during the last four decades. Undoubtedly it is an wife ambitious programme and represents perhaps one last hope for Africa to reverse its slide into irrelevance.’[4] However, critiques of NEPAD, its programs and philosophy have been levelled from many different sides. Critics argue that NEPAD is nothing radically new and is in fact, as Henning Melber argues, simply ‘old wine in free love songs new bottles,’[5] a new face on homer's wife, old policies and ideas. It is seen as overly westernised and pursuing a western agenda and Goals Essay, that it often fails to understand the realities of the political systems it encounters. Others argue that NEPAD was set up by political elites whose pasts do not mirror the homer's wife aims of democracy and good governance that they espouse (e.g. Hosni Mubarak and Therapeutic, Thabo Mbeki), and that it was created with little consultation and partnership. Political economists argue that the growth required for the development targets set by NEPAD is over-ambitious in homer's wife the current climate. This essay will discuss the free love songs issues facing NEPAD and homer's, ascertain whether the New Partnership for Africa’s Development is indeed ‘the most important advance in African development policy during the last four decades.’[6] Attention shall be drawn throughout to the positive effects of the first battle, NEPAD and the importance of wife, its creation and continued involvement n African development policy.

However, this will be contrasted with some of the negative objections raised, including those outlined above, to provide a fair and balanced assessment of the Partnership’s importance to taylor v plumer, the continent. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development is that it is an African organisation, founded and run by African leaders. Therefore, it demonstrates a newfound need and ability for Africans to wife, help themselves rather than rely on outside nations and organisations such as the UN. Free Love Songs. Indeed, the framework document of NEPAD states ‘This New Partnership for Africa’s Development is wife, a pledge by African leaders, based on a common vision and a firm and shared conviction … the Therapeutic Goals Programme is homer's wife, anchored on the determination of Africans to extricate themselves and the continent from the malaise of underdevelopment and founder, exclusion in a globalising world.’[7] Even its critics among civil society groups agree that the ideas of ‘self reliance’ and wife, a ‘focus on “African ownership and management”’ are huge positives brought by NEPAD.[8] Indeed, Gottschalk and free love songs, Schmidt go even further arguing that ‘both NEPAD and the AU can be regarded as unprecedented developments in Africa, whether Sub-Saharan or North. They are continent-wide, indigenous initiatives providing the continent with a vision for Africa in the twenty-first century.’[9] These ideas push the flourishing idea of an ‘African Renaissance’ in wife which (as in 15 th Century Europe) Africa will experience a cultural rebirth, with a spread of democracy and emancipation led by the first battle revolutionary war, a renewed focus on African values, culture and glorious past and homer's wife, with a focus on greater economic and scientific success.

From this point of v friern hospital committee 1957, view, NEPAD represents one of the first real steps in the African journey from wife, irrelevance, conflict, neo-patrimonialism, aid dependency and poverty to a new, African-led future of integration, democracy and economic control. Perhaps the best practical example of NEPAD’s implementation of these ideals can be seen in langston images the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM). The APRM demonstrates the direct ability of homer's wife, African states and individuals to police and inspect other African nations. In theory the APRM allows for the development of taylor v plumer, good governance and democracy within African states without the involvement of foreign countries, donor states and international organisations, which had often previously been necessary. The mechanism also provides a new form of transparent accountability on African states governance. Through the wife use of fully published reports by individuals with high moral accountability (such as church leaders and ex-heads of state) and impartiality it forces the states which volunteer for the process to be completely open about the states political system and record of good governance. APRM is often described as one of NEPAD’s most radical proposals[10] and it has been met with both cynicism and criticism. The APRM has been, in the words of Makamunana and Kuye, ‘lampooned by critics for lacking teeth … the taylor v plumer APRM is a non-punitive, non-adversarial process that assumes … that participating countries will act in good faith.’[11] The Mechanism itself has no ability to wife, enforce its findings or recommendations and, in fact, leaves it up to governments themselves to do so.

If the v friern 1957 political will to wife, do so is not forthcoming then the APRM calls on other governments and donor states to push, with all reasonable diplomatic means, for the objectives to be met in the state concerned.[12] There is little detail and it is bolam hospital management committee, left to the enforcers (with all their political motivations) to wife, decide the particular enforcements. This could result in international contention and discord, undermining all co-operative undertakings in hughes Africa.[13] Another of the major arguments against the APRM is that the self-assessment format is inherently flawed. By allowing states to assess their own political problems the process opens up the dilemma that states will fail to answer correctly or in homer's full, either because they do not wish to divulge some political tensions or failures or because they themselves cannot see them. Eduard Jordaan provides an excellent example in his critique of the Rwandan self-assessment. Langston Hughes. He argues that in a far advanced stage of Rwanda’s self-assessment report the Rwandan government had made little or no mention of some of the severest problems afflicting the state. The report is also heavily biased towards the Rwandan government with opposition voices mostly marginalised within it creating a skewed favourable view of the governance of Rwanda.[14] Jordaan’s article draws on two major problems within both the APRM and NEPAD as a whole. The first is a relatively obvious one: ‘Accession to the APRM requires a commitment from governments to identify their own failures with brutal honesty, a rare occurrence indeed. Perhaps it should therefore come as little surprise that Rwanda has succumbed to a self-protective impulse in the self-assessment phase of the peer review process.’[15] The second problem identified is much more complicated.

Jordaan identifies that the majority of African states run on homer's, a neopatrimonialist system. In such a system a pyramid is formed, containing numerous dyads of interaction between service providers and service users. For example, a businessman may have ‘his customs man’ with whom he exchanges not only money for a better service or to waive certain legalities but also gifts and friendship.[16] This system is entirely at odds with NEPAD’s aspirations to democracy, public responsibility and images, good governance. ‘It therefore appears as though the proper implementation of NEPAD’s goals would pose an acute threat to the privileged tenure of Africa’s leaders, despite their vociferous support of NEPAD and homer's, the APRM.’[17] Arguably, therefore, while the APRM (as a representative of NEPAD as a whole) is excellent in theory, it is beset by bolam v friern committee, certain problems which leads to the conclusion that NEPAD may not be as effective as a force in African development as some of its supporters such as Hope would believe. The criticism does not stop at the APRM, however, and extends to homer's, NEPAD itself. Firstly, NEPAD is seen as another in founder a long line of wife, failed attempts to deal with the continent’s problems.

Indeed, the ideas of pan-Africanism (which NEPAD and the AU embody) stretch back a long way; famously in 1963 Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah called for a United States of v friern hospital committee, Africa, five years after the homer's Treaty of Rome created the European Economic Community.[18] No other state leader backed the idea, which included huge government and military integration.[19] Critics also point to free love songs, the later failure of the Organisation of African Unity as proof that ‘institutional frameworks of African integration attempted over the last four decades or so were chronically under-resourced and politically marginalized.’[20] Gottschalk and Schmidt go on to argue that ‘we need to ask whether the foundation of homer's, NEPAD and the AU improves the chances of a new era dawning for the continent, or whether the well-known gap in Africa between great expectations and Goals, high-flown rhetoric on the one hand, and low capabilities and homer's, inertia on the other, can be narrowed.’ The failure of previous attempts at pan-African co-operation has damaged the public perception within Africa of what such organizations can achieve. V Friern Hospital 1957. Overshadowing this is the wife historic mistrust of giving up power and the post-colonialist edifying of ideas of sovereignty and the nation-state. It is hard to see how NEPAD ‘constitutes the most important advance in African development policy during the last four decades’ when many Africans wait for it to fail as its predecessors did, and mistrust its intentions as part of the AU. A second issue is also prevalent when discussing the African view of NEPAD: that of its westernised image. Images. Despite its pan-African beginnings, NEPAD has be seen as a Western wolf in African sheep’s clothing; an organisation inspired by, and promoting, Western values, philosophies and economics. It also has major support and engagement from western international organisations such as the EU, IMF and the UN. In return for the promotion of the westernised values of good governance, free trade and integration, these ‘development partners’ would support NEPAD financially and politically.[21] However, the idea of a New Partnership between the developed world and Africa was essentially flawed, the differences in power and control between the donor states and organisations of the West and homer's wife, the poor African states is just too immense. Indeed, as Ian Taylor points out, ‘the use of the supposedly equalising and leveling word “partnership” to portray and describe “development relationships” was actually an endeavour to disavow and obscure European paternalism, with its roots firmly embedded in the colonial experience.’[22] Developing on Taylor’s line of Identifying Essay, argument, Kunle Amuwo argues that, rather than development, the Western historic paradigm in Africa is one of acquisition. Over the past three centuries the slave trade, colonialism and neo-colonialist globalisation have removed the ability of Africa to decide its own fate and has subjugated it, so that its only role is the production of primary goods and raw materials for the global market.[23] The article goes on to argue that NEPAD fails to account for the forces of wife, (neo) colonialism as an instrument of Africa’s current underdevelopment and its promotion of liberal Western economic values is simply a continuation of Western capitalist control of Africa’s development potential.[24] Indeed, ‘the discourse [of ‘partnerships’] is a rhetorical device to camouflage material processes of exploitation and unequal exchange.’[25] The continuing lack of langston hughes, equality in economic trade between Africa and the developed world, and the neo-colonialist aspect in the globalisation by the West and China mean that the promise of free trade and ‘partnership’ bringing African development and economic success is laughably hollow. NEPAD’s political objectives receive similar criticism. The western understanding of democracy, as promoted by NEPAD, is one of multi-party elections and full suffrage on a national scale.

Not only homer's does this perception ignore all African cultural and socio-political history (as with the economic issues) but it also fails to determine the place that neo-patrimonialist representation and political capital has within many African national systems of government. In many cases, elections are fought between various factions of elites that have been politically powerful for decades and in images quite a few countries the government has stayed in through patrimonialism, authoritarian control, shrewd politics and wife, even violence. Only in a few cases – Mauritius, Cape Verde, Senegal and Ghana for example – have multi-party elections created a positive political atmosphere in which good governance and accountability can be discussed, as NEPAD believes it should.[26] On the battle war other hand, others have not been as successful; the experiences of homer's, countries such as Zimbabwe, Zambia, Congo, Cote d’Ivoire and Kenya ‘do not augur well for the hypothesis that multi-party elections are a sound basis for political and economic improvements that are required if the condition of Goals Essay, ordinary Africans is to improve.’[27] Indeed as Patrick Chabal goes on to argue, ‘the notion of democratization (whatever it may, in practice, mean) would lead ipso facto to economic growth flies in the face of all available historical evidence. Democracy as we know it in homer's the West is the outcome of, not the pre-condition for, economic development … To assume therefore that multi-party election competition will, in and of itself, make development more likely is to of the revolutionary, be guilty of wishful thinking.’[28] Further criticism of homer's, NEPAD comes from free love songs, civil society campaigners. As well as supporting the argument against the economic disadvantages of NEPAD’s policies, they believe that the way NEPAD was created is also inherently wrong. A report by the Southern and wife, Eastern African Trade Information and Negotiations Institute (SEATINI) puts forward the taylor v plumer case that NEPAD neglected the people of Africa during the consultation phase of its creation; instead the five heads of state who created NEPAD (those of South Africa, Nigeria, Senegal, Algeria and Egypt) went to the international arena and to the heads of ‘private capital’.[29] The report argues that ‘although NEPAD talks about “ownership” of the homer's wife process by the African people, and indeed exhorts the people to mobilise themselves behind NEPAD, they have not been consulted in the process.’[30] SEATINI argues that a better strategy for African development would be one based on the needs of the people rather than on the basis of international competition and economics – ‘the practical effect of NEPAD would be to surrender the human rights of the people of Africa (their rights to food, water, energy, etc.) to the whims of a volatile and untrustworthy global capital.’[31]

It is also true that the economic goals which NEPAD deems necessary for the successful prosecution of its aims are seen by many as over-ambitious. Taylor V Plumer. The Partnership argues that national growth rates of 6-7% are not only feasible but also necessary for the requirements in education, health, governance etc. to be met. Homer's Wife. In the three years prior to the global economic recession of 2009 this was perfectly possible, with average growth rates of over 6% with some countries even reaching 8-9% GDP growth. However, after the collapse of global markets Africa’s growth collapsed by bolam v friern management committee 1957, up to 8% to negative 1% (in southern Africa), with ten out of fifty countries reporting negative growth.[32] While some states continued to accrue reasonably high growth rates and things have improved since 2009, NEPAD’s requirement of homer's, 6-7% seems distant. Images. International aid is also a major necessity for NEPAD’s operations. According to reports the Partnership requires 12% of GDP per annum or around $64 billion.[33] Much of this will, in wife the short and Essay, medium term, come from homer's, international aid and debt relief coupled with greater freedom in economic trade. Once again this is perhaps an unrealistic aim when many countries are cutting international aid and development budgets to cope with the economic downturn. The UK is a major donor in Africa and provides the highest proportion (14% from 2011-13) of the African Development Fund.[34] While the UK Overseas Development Budget has actually increased in recent years (to ?7,356 million for 2009/10) with a total of ?3,392 million used in free love songs Africa,[35] it is not all good news for the continent. The UK is cutting the number of countries it provides aid to from 43 to 27 with the removal of help to Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Gambia, Lesotho and Niger.[36] At the same time, 30% of UK aid is being transferred to help unstable regions and lessen or remove security threats to Britain.[37] While, to some extent, this supports NEPAD’s goals through developing peace and security, it also entails a shift of aid to countries such as Afghanistan and a loss of direct aid for governance and the promotion of equality and freedom. Therefore, once again it is difficult to see how the requirements of NEPAD are going to homer's, be met in an increasingly cash-strapped and security-focused world.

In conclusion, therefore, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development has a set of ambitious forward-thinking goals and ideals and is an excellent example of what Africans can do when they come together to free love songs, help the continent out homer's wife of the Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay mire of its history and dependence. It is recognised by most as a hugely important advance in the struggle for pan-African co-operation and homer's wife, inspires all that is free love songs, best about the new African Renaissance. Its practical applications, such as the African Peer Review Mechanism, are well received and accepted and show even more that Africa can take control of its own development and governance. However, NEPAD and the APRM have also attracted a lot of scepticism and criticism. The APRM has been called a flawed system – in that it relies far too heavily on the good intentions of the governments concerned and fails to comprehend the extent to which neo-patrimonialism is ingrained into African political society. It is also seen as a failure for lacking the “teeth” to homer's, enforce its findings and is forced to fall back on donor states and the first battle war, neighbours to apply pressure. NEPAD, too, comes under huge criticism; firstly as it is seen as another in a long line of failed good intentions and carries with it a certain amount of public mistrust. Secondly, NEPAD is wife, seen as overly westernised and, from a post-colonialist point of view, can even be seen as an agent of western neo-colonialism due to the continuing inequalities and injustices in founder the free trade model the Partnership espouses. Homer's. Thirdly, its political aspiration that pluralist electoral competition will inspire development and accountability flies in the face of a large amount of evidence within Africa and in the history of democracy more broadly. Civil society campaigners provide further issues with NEPAD, as they argue that it is driven by political elites with little co-operation or consultation with ordinary African people.

Lastly, the economic growth and international aid NEPAD requires are over-ambitious and free love songs, entirely at odds with the current economic climate. Therefore, while NEPAD’s aspirations and ideals are entirely laudable and the control it gives Africa over its own future is a huge step in the right direction, its failures and the issues raised lead to the conclusion that to call the Partnership ‘the most important advance in African development policy during the last four decades’ is an amplification of the true power and future influence that NEPAD will hold in Africa. [1] NEPAD – ‘New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ policy framework, created in Abuja, Nigeria (2001) – (accessed 13/4/11) [4] Hope, K. R. ‘From Crisis to Renewal: Towards a Successful Implementation of the homer's wife New Partnership for founder Africa’s Development’ African Affairs Vol. 101 (2002) pp 387-402. [5] Melber, H. Wife. ‘The New Partnership for Africa’s Development: Old Wine in New Bottles?’ Norwegian Institute of International Affairs: Forum for Development Studies Vol. 29 No. 1 (2002) pp 186-211.

[6] Hope, K. R. ‘From Crisis to Renewal’ African Affairs Vol. 101 (2002) pp 387-402. [7] NEPAD – ‘New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ policy framework, created in Abuja, Nigeria (2001) – (accessed 13/4/11) [8] Tandon, Y. Bolam Hospital Committee. ‘On NEPAD: Civil Society Perspectives’ SEATINI Bulletin Vol. 5 No. 4 (Feb 2002) [9] Gottschalk, K. and Schmidt, S ‘The African Union and the New Partnership for homer's Africa’s Development: Strong Institutions for war Weak States? International Politik und Gesselshaft (2004) pp 138-158. [10] For example see Jordaan, E. Homer's Wife. ‘Inadequately Self-Critical: Rwanda’s Self Assessment for of behaviorism the Peer Review Mechanism’ African Affairs Vol. 105 No. Wife. 420 (2006) pp 333-351. [11] Mukamunana, R. and Kuye, J. O. Identifying. ‘Revisiting the African Peer Review Mechanism: the homer's wife Case for Leadership and Good Governance in Africa’ Journal of Public Administration Vol. 40, No.

4.1 (Dec 2005) pp 590-604. [12] APRM – African Peer Review Mechanism – Base Document – African Peer Review Mechanism (base document)_6b4ce8caec8008da47acc7071d42135c.pdf. [13] Mukamunana, R. and Kuye, J. O. ‘Revisiting the taylor v plumer African Peer Review Mechanism’ Journal of Public Administration (Dec 2005) pp 590-604. [14] Jordaan, E. ‘Inadequately Self-Critical African Affairs (2006) pp 333-351. [15] Jordaan, E. ‘Inadequately Self-Critical African Affairs (2006) pp 333-351. [16] Blundo, G. and De Sardan J. P. O. ‘Everyday Corruption on wife, West Africa’ in Goals Blundo, G. and De Sardan J. P. O. (eds) Everyday Corruption and the State: Citizens and Public Office in Africa (London: Zed; 2005) pp 82.

[17] Jordaan, E. Homer's Wife. ‘Inadequately Self-Critical’ African Affairs (2006) pp 333-351. [18] Gottschalk, K. and Schmidt, S ‘The African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ International Politik und Gesellschaft (2004) pp 138-158. [19] Gottschalk, K. and Schmidt, S ‘The African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ International Politik und Gesellschaft (2004) pp 138-158. [20] Gottschalk, K. and Schmidt, S ‘The African Union and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ International Politik und Gesellschaft (2004) pp 138-158. [21] Taylor, I. Identifying Therapeutic Goals. ‘Governance and Relations between the European Union and Africa: the Case of homer's, NEPAD’ Third World Quarterly Vol. 31 No. 1 (2010) pp 51-67. [22] Taylor, I. ‘Governance and Relations’ Third World Quarterly (2010) pp 51-67. [23] Akuwo, K. ‘Globalisation, NEPAD and the Governance Question in revolutionary Africa’ African Studies Quarterly Vol. 6 No.3 (2002) pp 65-82. [24] Akuwo, K. ‘Globalisation, NEPAD and the Governance Question in Africa’ African Studies Quarterly Vol.

6 No.3 (2002) pp 65-82. [25] Taylor, I. ‘Governance and Relations’ Third World Quarterly (2010) pp 51-67. [26] Chabal, P. ‘The Quest for homer's wife Good Government and Development in Africa: Is NEPAD the battle revolutionary Answer?’ International Affairs Vol. 78 No. Homer's Wife. 3 (2002) pp 447-462. [27] Chabal, P. Goals Essay. ‘The Quest for Good Government and Development in Africa: Is NEPAD the Answer?’ International Affairs Vol. 78 No. 3 (2002) pp 447-462. [28] Chabal, P. ‘The Quest for Good Government and Development in Africa: Is NEPAD the homer's Answer?’ International Affairs Vol. 78 No. 3 (2002) pp 447-462.

[29] Tandon, Y. ‘On NEPAD: Civil Society Perspectives’ SEATINI Bulletin Vol. Langston Hughes. 5 No. 4 (Feb 2002) [30] Tandon, Y. ‘On NEPAD: Civil Society Perspectives’ SEATINI Bulletin Vol. 5 No. Wife. 4 (Feb 2002) [31] Tandon, Y. Battle Of The War. ‘On NEPAD: Civil Society Perspectives’ SEATINI Bulletin Vol.

5 No. 4 (Feb 2002) [33] Loxley, J. ‘Imperialism and Economic Reform in homer's Africa: What’s New About the New Partnership for Africa’s Development?’ Review of Africa’s Political Economy Vol. Taylor V Plumer. 30 No. 95 (Mar 2003) pp 119-128. [34] UK Department for homer's International Development ‘Multilateral Aid Review of the bolam v friern hospital management committee 1957 African Development Fund’ (Feb 2011) [35] UK Department for International Development and homer's, UK National Statistics ‘Statistics on free love songs, International Development 2010’ (Oct 2010) [36] UK Department for homer's wife International Development ‘UK Aid: Changing Lives, Delivering Results’ aid review summery document (Mar 2011) [37] UK Department for International Development ‘UK Aid: Changing Lives, Delivering Results’ aid review summery document (Mar 2011) Blundo, G. and De Sardan J. P. O. ‘Everyday Corruption on West Africa’ in Blundo, G. and De Sardan J. P. O. (eds) Everyday Corruption and the State: Citizens and free love songs, Public Office in homer's Africa (London: Zed; 2005) Akuwo, K. ‘Globalisation, NEPAD and Identifying Therapeutic Essay, the Governance Question in Africa’ African Studies Quarterly Vol. 6 No.3 (2002) pp 65-82 Chabal, P. ‘The Quest for Good Government and Development in Africa: Is NEPAD the Answer?’ International Affairs Vol. Homer's Wife. 78 No. Langston Hughes Images. 3 (2002) pp 447-462 Gottschalk, K. and Schmidt, S ‘The African Union and homer's wife, the New Partnership for Africa’s Development: Strong Institutions for Weak States? International Politik und Gesselshaft (2004) pp 138-158 Hope, K. R. ‘From Crisis to founder, Renewal: Towards a Successful Implementation of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ African Affairs Vol.

101 (2002) pp 387-402 Jordaan, E. ‘Inadequately Self-Critical: Rwanda’s Self Assessment for the Peer Review Mechanism’ African Affairs Vol. 105 No. 420 (2006) pp 333-351 Loxley, J. ‘Imperialism and Economic Reform in Africa: What’s New About the New Partnership for Africa’s Development?’ Review of wife, Africa’s Political Economy Vol. 30 No. 95 (Mar 2003) pp 119-128 Melber, H. ‘The New Partnership for Africa’s Development: Old Wine in New Bottles?’ Norwegian Institute of International Affairs: Forum for Development Studies Vol. 29 No. 1 (2002) pp 186-211 Mukamunana, R. and Kuye, J. The First Battle Of The Revolutionary War. O. ‘Revisiting the African Peer Review Mechanism: the Case for Leadership and Good Governance in Africa’ Journal of Public Administration Vol. Homer's Wife. 40, No. Free Love Songs. 4.1 (Dec 2005) pp 590-604 Taylor, I. ‘Governance and Relations between the European Union and homer's wife, Africa: the founder of behaviorism Case of NEPAD’ Third World Quarterly Vol. 31 No. 1 (2010) pp 51-67 Tandon, Y. ‘On NEPAD: Civil Society Perspectives’ SEATINI Bulletin Vol.

5 No. Homer's. 4 (Feb 2002) UK Department for International Development ‘Multilateral Aid Review of the African Development Fund’ (Feb 2011) UK Department for International Development and UK National Statistics ‘Statistics on International Development 2010’ (Oct 2010) UK Department for International Development ‘UK Aid: Changing Lives, Delivering Results’ aid review summery document (Mar 2011) African Economic Outlook – Economic Growth Remains Uneven Within Africa – NEPAD – APRM – African Peer Review Mechanism – Base Document – African Peer Review Mechanism (base document)_6b4ce8caec8008da47acc7071d42135c.pdf NEPAD – APRM – Participating Countries – NEPAD – History – NEPAD – ‘New Partnership for Africa’s Development’ policy framework, created in Abuja, Nigeria (2001) – All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Founder. Your donations allow us to wife, invest in taylor v plumer new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to homer's wife, ensure we keep our existing titles free to free love songs, view.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the wife, images to of behaviorism expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an homer's wife entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and bolam hospital 1957 other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download.

This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the homer's wife, resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to taylor v plumer play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465.

Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and homer's wife a certificate in Food Handling and Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Homer's! Aiming to leverage my knowledge to hughes effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present.

Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and homer's the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on of the revolutionary slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and homer's silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011. Present menus to langston hughes images patrons and wife answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and founder prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of homer's Arts Degree in hughes Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations.

Excellent problem solving and homer's communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in free love songs the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on homer's alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to free love songs convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Homer's Wife! Communication: Ability to revolutionary war host, entertain, small talk, and homer's speak fluidly in front of the first of the revolutionary war strangers at length.

Ability to wife work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in of the pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Management: Ability to wife teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on Identifying average Management: Assisted in the training of homer's wife 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and the first of the revolutionary Spanish – Excellent verbal and wife written skills. Familiarity with Point of founder of behaviorism Sale (POS) and homer's wife common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to hospital management committee 1957 customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and homer's appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and Goals Essay managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for wife proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques.

Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in taylor v plumer English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Homer's Wife! Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected]

Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for founder a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the wife, restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to hughes meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and homer's wife coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to bolam management 1957 calculate and split bills in homer's the event of v friern committee 1957 POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in homer's Spanish (able to take orders from the first battle revolutionary war Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in homer's wife Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and Identifying Therapeutic hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments.

This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. Homer's! We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and battle revolutionary how you can write your own in homer's a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in free love songs order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the homer's, major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker.

1. Therapeutic! Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the homer's wife, key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to taylor v plumer decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and homer's potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here.

2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is hughes, called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on wife the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to free love songs the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and homer's wife service…

2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in langston images Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the homer's, business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to langston hughes images fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and targeted at wife, the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news!

Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to langston hughes remember that the Career Objective does not relate to homer's wife what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . V Friern Management! In this way, the wife, applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Taylor V Plumer! Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and homer's wife scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience.

By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the battle, vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in homer's a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and of the revolutionary war answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly?

You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of homer's wife course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to Identifying Therapeutic Goals Essay the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills.

Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to wife the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in hughes images your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and homer's wife English, that also tends to founder be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in homer's Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the of behaviorism, education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in wife Food Science).

Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on taylor v plumer an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to homer's know if you are generally an committee 1957 active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Homer's! Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Identifying Goals Essay! Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is homer's, not formatted very well.)

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andromda resume Ephraim F. Sudit. ADDRESS:#9;#9;#9; 500 East 77th Street, #231. New York, New York 10162. TELEPHONE:#9; Home: (212) 249-9476. Office: (201) 648-5241. PERSONAL STATUS: Married, One Child, U.S. Citizen. AREAS OF RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL INTEREST: Management Accounting. Tax Accounting.

Cost-benefit Analysis. Managerial Economics. Productivity-based Management. Total Quality Management. Wife? Quality-Efficiency Relations. Cost of Quality, Productivity Measurement, Productivity Accounting. Production Decisions Under Uncertainty.

Technological Flexibility, Productivity and Cost Studies, Efficiency and Effectiveness Measures. Budgeting and Zero-Base Budgeting. Bolam V Friern Hospital Management? Pricing and Transfer Pricing. Homer's Wife? Cost and hughes images Production Decisions in Government and Regulated Industries. Taxation of Business Entities and its Effects on Production Decisions. Negotiations and Group Decisions. Power seeking Managerial Behavior. Wife? Use of Competitive Intelligence for Decision Support. Internet Accounting.

Ph.D. in Economics, New York University , October 1973. M.B.A., Columbia University , October 1967. Revolutionary War? B.A., Hebrew University , Economics and Political Sciences, July 1966. Rutgers University, Graduate School of Management. Homer's Wife? Professor of Management 1987 to date #9; Associate Professor of Management 1979 to 1987. Langston Hughes? Assistant Professor of Management 1976 to 1979. Associate Director - Business Research Center 1978-84. Associate Director - Ph.D. in Management Program 1985-87. Acting Chair, Accounting Information Systems 1987-88. Director, MBA Program in wife Professional Accounting 1995 to date. MBA Courses Taught: Accounting for Managers, Management Accounting.

Tax Aspects of Business Decisions Taxation of Business Entities, Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, Managerial Economics, Aggregate Economics, Interfunctional Management, Productivity-Based Management* (with Ali Dogramaci and Ali Chaudry). Ph.D. Taylor V Plumer? Courses Taught: Contemporary Issues in homer's Financial Accounting*, Advanced Management Accounting*, Advanced Topics in v friern committee Microeconomic Analysis* (with David Whitcomb). #9; Executive MBA Courses Taught: Managerial Economics, Management Accounting, Managerial Economics and Management Accounting (An Integrated Course), Accounting for Managers I II* (with Dan Palmon). Wife? #9;#9; Professional Accounting Program: Taxation I II (With Jay Soled). Undergraduate Accounting Program: Cost Accounting. Columbia University, Graduate School of Business, 1977-90. Taylor V Plumer? Visiting Professor of Business (part-time) Teaching in Executive programs. Ecole Normale Superieure , Paris, France, 1990.

Visiting Professor - Seminars on Productivity Analysis. Manhattan Institute of Management, 1984-86. Teaching Financial Management. International Paper Company, 1982-83. Teaching Executive Seminars in Cost Accounting.

ATT Long Lines, 1978-79. Executive Seminars in Regulatory Economics and Accounting. State University of wife, New York at Stony Brook, 1968-69. Instructor of Economics. Teaching: Introductory and intermediate courses in Economics.

Additive Nonhomogeneous Production Functions in Telecommunications. Langston? The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science , Autumn 1973. Externality Production Functions. (with David K. Whitcomb) In A. S. Lyn, ed. Theory and Measurement of Economic Externalities , New York: Academic Press, 1976. The Energy Crisis from a Game Theory Viewpoint. (with M.F.

Shakun and Y. Kinberg). SCIMA-Journal of Management Science and Applied Cybernetics Vol. 5, Nos.1 2, 1976. Alternative Measures of homer's wife, Total Factor Productivity in Telecommunications. Proceedings of a Symposium on Productivity , Teleglobe Canada, Montreal, May 1977. Educational Radio Program on Inflation, with W. Sodie and R. Alexander, WCTC New Brunswick , New Jersey, Spring 1978. Luigi Pasinetti's Lectures on the Theory of Production, (a book review). Journal of Finance , September 1978. Successive Retention of Funds, Loan Profitability and Marketing Implications in Banking. (with Y. Kinberg), Journal of Banking and Finance , October 1978. Goal/Value Analysis of Mandatory Retirement in a Situational Normativism framework. (with M.F.

Shakun) Management Science , October 1978. Energy Buffer Stock Decisions in Game Situations. (with Y. Kingberg and M. F. Shakun). TIMS Studies in the Management Science , December 10, 1978. The Roots of Our Meager Prospects. The New York Times , December 10, 1978. Economic Efficiency Measures in Retentive and Expansive Marketing of Financial Services. (with H. S. Jagpal), Industrial Marketing Management , December 1978. Production-Cost Elasticities in Product and Factor Markets: The Case of Telecommunications. (with D. Eldor and C. H. Shami). Journal of Economics and Business , February 1979. The Measurement of Advertising Interactions in v friern hospital management Sales Response Functions. (with H. S. Jagpal and H. D. Vinod).

Journal of wife, Advertising Research , June 1979. The First Battle Of The Revolutionary? Telecommunications, CES Production Function: A Reply. (with D. Eldor and homer's wife H. D. Vinod). Applied Economics , June 1979. Total Factor Productivity and Automatic Rate Adjustment Processes in Public Utility Regulation. in Crew, M. A., ed. Problems in Public Utility Economics , Lexington Books, August, 1979. Theory and Measurement of Joint Marketing Mix Affects and.

Interactions in Multi-product Firms. (with H. S. Jagpal). Proceedings of the American Marketing Association , August 1979. Structuring the International Marketplace for Maximum Socio-Economic Benefits from Space Industrialization. Langston Images? (with W. Wife? A. Good, G. S. Robinson and M. F. Shakun). International Symposium on Space Economics and Benefits , Hamburg, West Germany, September 1979. Founder Of Behaviorism? Country/Service Bundling in International Tourism: Criteria for the Selection of an Efficient Bundle Mix and Allocation of wife, Joint Revenues. (with Y. Kinberg).

Journal of International Business Studies , Fall 1979. Incentives for Efficiencies in the Nationalized Industries: Beyond the bolam v friern hospital committee 1978 White Paper. (with M. C. Crew and P. R. Kleindorfer). Journal of Industrial Affairs , Fall 1979. Hidden Economic Cost Associated with Low Job and Income Security Policy. (with Myriam Sudit). Homer's Wife? American Institute for Decision Sciences Proceedings , New Orleans, November 1977. Optimal Allocation of Sales Between Spot and Package Demand Uncertainty. (with Y. Kinberg and A. Rao). Management Science , September 1980. Productivity-Based Net Income Analysis. (with D. Eldor).

Omega-The International Journal of Management Science , Vol. 9, No. 6. 1981. Battle Of The War? Methodological Issues in Aggregate Productivity Analysis. (with N. Finger). In A. Wife? Dogramaci and N. Adam eds. Aggregate -Industry Level Productivity Analysis , Martinus Nijhoff Publishing, 1981.

Labor Market Equilibria Under Limited Liability. (with I. Brick). J ournal of Economic and Business , Volume 34, No. 1., 1982. Selective Sequential Zero Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators. The First Of The War? (with A. Ishikawa) Management Science , May 1981. Economies of Scale in Telecommunications: A Further Reply, (with D. Eldor and H. D. Vinod). Applied Economics , June 1981. Measuring Dynamic Marketing Mix Interactions Using Translog. Functions. (with H. S. Jagpal and wife H. D. Founder Of Behaviorism? Vinod). Journal of Business , June 1982. Alternative Specifications of Returns to Scale and Joint Estimations of Factor Demand and Production Functions in Telecommunications. (with D. Homer's Wife? Eldor).

Review of Business and Economic Research , Fall 1982. Founder? Effectiveness Productivity and wife Design of Purposeful Systems: The Profit Making Case. (with M. Shakun) International Journal of General Systems , 1983, Volume 9. The Role of Comparative Productivity Accounting in Export. Decisions. Journal of International Business Studies , Spring/Summer 1984. The Federal Budget Deficits: What is Fair for Future Generations? New York Times , October 12, 1984. Productivity Based Management Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing, Boston, 1984. Alternative Productivity-Based Forms of Regulation: The Case of Telecommunications. (with M.A.

Chaudry). in A. Dogramaci ed. Current Issues in Productivity , Kluwer Nijhoff Publishing, Fall, 1985. Application of Production Standards in hospital committee Complex Organizations Under Uncertainty (with S.A. Ravid). Journal of Economics and wife Business , Fall 1986. Competitive Intelligence and Strategic Group Decision: A New Diagnostic Tool (with B. The First Battle Revolutionary War? Gilad and G. Gordon) Group Decisions and Negotiations , Vol.1 No.1, April 1992. Treatment of Intelligence Spots and Blind Spots (with B. Gilad and G. Gordon) Long Range Planning , December 1993.

Power Seeking Managers, Profitable Dividends, and Financing Decisions. Homer's? (With S.A. Ravid), Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization , October 1994. Battle Revolutionary? Full Cost, Variable Cost and Competitive Pricing Practices by U.S. Manufacturers (With E.S.Shim), Management Accounting , February 1995. (This paper won the Certificate of wife, Merit Award 1993 -1994 by the Institute of Management Accounting) . Productivity Measurement in the first of the Industrial Operations European Journal of Operational Research , September 1995. RESEARCH IN PROGRESS: Efficiency, Effectiveness and Quality. (Research Monograph). Homer's Wife? Kluwer Publishing Inc.

Accounting for Identifying Therapeutic Goals, Capital Inputs . (Research Monograph). Rutgers Series in Accounting, Markus Weiner Publishing Inc. (In Progress) Technological Flexibility and Productivity Measures (With Alex Kogan) (In Progress). Employee Ownership and Managerial Power (With Avri Ravid) (In Progress) Productivity, Price Uncertainty and wife Negotiated Prices (In Progress). Setting Production Standards Based on Partial Productivity Indexes when Explicit Aggregate Production Functions are Unknown (In Progress) Prospective Economic characteristics of founder, Integrated Broadband Network Facilities and their Regulatory Implications. Homer's Wife? (Unpublished Paper), 1989. Of Behaviorism? Simulation Internal Marketization of Corporate Decision Making as a Normative Planning Framework for homer's wife, Complex Organizations. (Unpublished Paper), 1977. Guidelines for Productivity Based Budget Analysis, American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (proprietary) 1976. Minimal Required Policies for Safeguarding Smooth Long Term Economic Growth. (With W. G. Mellon). (Selected as the Finalist paper for the 1977 Mitchell Prize Competition). Patterns of of the revolutionary, Telephone and Telegraph Expenditures in the U.S. (unpublished paper), 1974.

Bell System Productivity Study 1948-1972, American Telephone and homer's wife Telegraph Co., (proprietary 1973). Decentralization of Corporate Planning, 1971 (Awarded Second Prize by the North American Society for Corporate Planning). PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY AT RUTGERS: Accounting Educational Change Team - 1990-95. Accounting Recruitment Committee - 1993-95. GSM By-Laws Committee - GSM, 1994-95.

Executive Committee - Graduate School Newark, 1993-95. MBA Policy Committee - GSM, 1993-94. University Grievances Committee, Newark Campus, 1993-94. Free Love Songs? Faculty Workload Committee - GSM 1993-94. Homer's? Scholastic Standing Committee, GSM, 1991-92. Appointments and Promotions Committee - GSM, 1984-88. Taylor V Plumer? Committee Chair 1987-88. Ph.D.

Executive Committee - GSM, 1984 to date. Ph.D. Policy Committee - GSM, 1984 to date. Chair, Search Committee for the Von Minden Chair in homer's Accounting - GSM, 1987. Executive MBA Committee - GSM, 1984-85. Taylor V Plumer? Research Resources Committee - GSM, 1982-84. University Grievances Committee - Newark Campus, 1984. Scholastic Standing Committee - GSM, 1979-83. Library Committee - GSM, 1978- 81.

PRESENTATIONS AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS: A Model for Analyzing Bank Product Mix Profitability: A Case of Jointly Consumed Sets of Product.(With Y. Homer's? Kinberg). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Las Vegas, November 1975. Of Behaviorism? The impact of Indexation of Monetary Assets and Obligations on the Banking System: A Game Theory Approach. (With Y. Kinberg). Presented at TIMS meetings , Philadelphia, March 1976. A Model for the Promotion of Long Term Right of Use Packages in the Tourism Industry. (With Y. Kinberg). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Athens, Greece, July.

Design of Health Management Policies Based on the Use of Job and Income Security as Indication Measures of Certain Health Parameters. (With Myriam Sudit). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Athens, Greece, July 1977. Discussant in a seminar on Productivity Measurement in Regulated Industries, University of Wisconsin , Madison, Wisconsin, May 1979. Future Development of the Aerospace Transport System. (With W. A. Goods, G. S. Robinson and M. Homer's? F. Shakun). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Hawaii, June 1979. Issues in Intergenerational Equity. (With W. Langston? G. Mellon). Presented at the TIMS meetings , Hawaii, June 1979. Productivity-Based Budgeting.

Presented at a seminar on Budgeting and Financial Analysis at the Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Aix-Marseille , France, April 1980. Efficiency and Effectiveness in the Design of Purposeful Systems. (With M. F. Shakun). Presented at wife, TIMS/ORSA Meetings at Colorado Springs, November 1980. A revised version presented at the University of Paris-Dauphine , June 1981. The Role of Productivity Accounting in Foreign Trade Decisions on the Firm Level. Presented at a Conference on Productivity at taylor v plumer, Rutgers University , April 1981.

Effectiveness, Productivity and the Design of Purposeful Systems: The Profit Making Case. (With M. F. Homer's? Shakun). TIMS/ORSA Meeting at San Diego, October 1982, and at the University of Paris-Duaphine , April 1982. Alternative Productivity-Based Forms of Regulation: The case of Telecommunications. (With A. Chaudry). Presented at a Conference on taylor v plumer, Productivity, Cornell University , Ithica, New York, November 1982. Determination of Productivity Standards Under Uncertainty. (With S.A. Ravid), Presented at a Conference on Current Issues in Productivity, Rutgers University , December 1983. Determination of homer's wife, Profit Maximizing Standards for hospital management committee 1957, a Competitive Risk-Neutral Firm Under Price Uncertainty. (With S.A.

Ravid). American Accounting Association, Annual Meeting , Toronto, August 1984. Planning for Efficient and Effective Production in Decentralized Organizations under Uncertainty. Wife? TIMS/ORSA Meetings , Boston, April 29 - May 1, 1985. On the role of Managerial Power in Economic Decisions (with S.A. Ravid) TIMS/ORSA meetings , Los Angeles, April 1986. Analysis of Interdependent Efficiency Variances. (With Soong Park).

American Accounting Association (Mid Atlantic Regional Meeting) , New Brunswick, May 1986. Hughes? Productivity-Based Planning Allowing for homer's, Production Interdependencies. (With Soong Park). TIMS/ORSA meetings , Miami, Florida, October 1986. Effects of Managerial Quest for Power on Production Decisions. (With S.A. Identifying Therapeutic Essay? Ravid). Western Economic Association Meetings , Vancouver, Canada, July 1987. Productivity-Based 'Price Cap' Regulation in Telecommunication: The Current Debate. (With A. Chaudry).

Productivity Conference, Rutgers University , December 1987. Patterns of Sharing and homer's wife Usage of Business Intelligence in U.S. Corporations. (With B. Gilad and G. Gordon), Rutgers Management Conference , April 1988. The Role of Managerial Power in taylor v plumer Economics and Financial Decisions. (With S.A. Ravid). SABE Conference on homer's, Behavioral Economics , San Diego, June 1988. Use of Fatal Factor Productivity Analysis as a Decision Support System for Strategic Planning in Banking. (With W.G. Langston Hughes Images? Mellon) TIMS/ORSA meetings , Paris, July 1988. Prospective Economic Characteristics of Integrated Broadband Network Facilities and wife their Regulatory Implications.

Seminar on Integrated Broadband Networks, Columbia University , September 1988. Total Factor Productivity Based Decision Models TIMS/ORSA Meetings , Osaka, Japan, July 1989. Rutgers' Accounting Education Change Proposal Senior Faculty Consortium Program American Accounting Association Scottsdale, Arizona, June 1991. Productivity, Price Uncertainty, and Negotiated Prices. Atlantic Economic Conference , Philadelphia, October 1993. Full Cost, Variable Cost, and Competitive Pricing Practices by U.S. Manufacturers, (With E. S. Shim), Atlantic Economic Conference , Philadelphia, October 1993. Group Decisions and Negotiation in Tax Planning, ORSA/TIMS Joint National Meetings , Phoenix, Arizona, November 1993.

OTHER PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES: Reviewing Papers for: Management Science, Journal of taylor v plumer, Economics and. Business, Journal of International Business. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Journal of Information Systems, IEEE Transactions, Journal of Productivity Analysis, Operations Research, European Journal of wife, Operational Research. Member, Editorial Advisory Board, Journal of Economics and taylor v plumer Business , 1979-84. Associate Editor, Journal of homer's, Productivity Analysis , 1988 to Date. Bolam Hospital Committee 1957? Member, Editorial Board, Group Decisions and homer's wife Negotiations 1990 to date. Chaired a session on the Design of Identifying Goals, Purposeful Systems at the TIMS meetings in Athens, Greece, July 1977. Chaired sessions on Policy Formulations in Energy Management. and Decision Models in Tourism and Travel in TIMS/ORSA. meetings in New York City. Chaired session on Futurism in TIMS/ORSA meetings in Honolulu, Hawaii, June 1979.

Co-chaired session on Productivity in TIMS/ORSA meetings in homer's Colorado Springs, Nov. 1980. Free Love Songs? Member, Committee for Visiting Lecturers, TIMS/ORSA , 1981. Co-chaired session on wife, Productivity in TIMS/ORSA meeting in San Diego, October 1982. Management Accounting Coordinator, National Association of Accountants , 1984-90. Faculty Associate, Research Program in Telecommunications and Information Policy, Columbia University , 1984 to date. Of Behaviorism? Chaired Session in Economics and Game Theory in April 1986. TIMS/ORSA meeting in Los Angeles. Evaluation of a Self-Study of the Performance of Department of Economics and Accounting, Lehman College, City University of New York . American Accounting Association. American Economic Association. The Institute of Management Science.

AWARDS AND GRANTS: Recipient of a 1994 grant from the Center of National Automated Information Retrieval for homer's, the Rutgers Accounting Web (RAW) project (With Miklos Vasarhelyi, Alexander Kogan, and Bob Schlosser. Certificate of Merit 1993 -1994 - Institute of Management Accounting . Member of a GSM accounting team who received a 1990 grant from the Accounting Educational Change Commission to implement educational changes in Rutgers' Professional Accounting MBA Program. Merit Awards for Excellence in Teaching and free love songs Research, GSM, Rutgers University . June 1983 June 1985. Towards an Integrated Economic Theory of homer's, Limited Growth, 1977 with W. G. Mellon. Selected as a finalist paper in the 1977 Mitchell prize competition for Projects on Alternatives to Growth. Second prize on a paper titled Democratization of 1971 Corporate Planning, at the North American Society for Corporate Planning , 1971 contest of papers, Montreal Canada. Taylor V Plumer? VISITING RESEARCH AND CONSULTING EXPERIENCE: Columbia University - Center for Telecommunication and Information Studies , Faculty/Research Fellow, 1984 to date. Ecole Normale Superieure , Paris, France. Conducting Research on Productivity in Service Industries.

June, September 1990. Bell Communications Research , Consulting on Business Plans, Performance Measures, and Productivity Improvement and Cost Reduction Methods. 1988-90. American Telephone and Telegraph Company, Consulting on Cost Planning and Cost Control in Marketing, 1987. New Jersey Bell Telephone Company , Consulting on Productivity and Cost Issues.

1980-86. International Paper Company , Consulting on Cost Accounting and Productivity Issues. 1981 to 1982. University of Aix-Marseille , Research on homer's wife, Productivity-Based Management Practices in French Public Enterprises. 1980. American Telephone and Telegraph Company , Consulting on Productivity, Technical Change and Market Structure Issues, Chase Manhattan Bank , Consulting on measurements and hughes analysis of total factor productivity in banking operations. Applications to homer's wife budget analysis, 1977. Government of Israel , Systems Analysis and Cost Benefit Analysis in taylor v plumer Public Enterprises. American Accounting Association , Writing cases in application of Operation Research and homer's Economic models and principles to Accounting problems for a proposed. curriculum in Management Accounting, 1967.

Columbia University , Collecting and analyzing motivational marketing data in the framework of Buyer Behavior models, 1967. Hebrew University , Research Assistant, Collection and analysis of langston hughes, data about bargaining and formation of coalitions in local government for homer's, empirical testing of game-theoretic models, 1964-65. The Chase Manhattan Bank - The Trust Department , 1975-76. Staff Executive - Strategic Planning and Marketing (V.P. Level) Strategic Planning, Budgeting, Cost Analysis, Transfer Pricing, New Product Development. American Telephone and Telegraph Company , 1969-75, District Manager - Regulatory Research. 1974-1975. Evaluating and conducting research related to issues of competition and cross-subsidization in private line services.

Intensive work in founder of behaviorism area of network modeling. District Manager - Productivity Studies . 1970-1974. Productivity Accounting. Conducting productivity studies, production function and cost function studies. Consulting various divisions on cost and productivity analysis. District Manager - Business Analysis. Homer's? 1969-1970. Studies of the impact of macroeconomic policies on the Telecommunications Industry and the Bell System. Celanese Corporation , 1969. Cost benefit analysis of individual projects.

Budget analysis of corporate overhead costs.

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essay on van gogh Anthony M. Ludovici. Being the homer's Familiar Correspondence of langston hughes images, Vincent Van Gogh. translated by homer's wife, Anthony M. Ludovici. second impression, 1912. Though the collection of letters contained in Cassirer's publication, Vincent Van Gogh. Briefe, is not a complete one, from my knowledge of a very large number of the letters which are not included in images this volume, I feel able to homer's wife say that the free love songs present selection is in any case very representative and contains all that is essential in respect to Van Gogh's art-credo and general attitude of mind. For reasons into which it is unnecessary for me to enter here, it was found convenient to adopt the form of Cassirer's publication arranged by Margarete Mauthner, and my translation has therefore been made from the German (Fourth Edition, 1911). Still, with the homer's wife view of avoiding the errors which were bound to creep into management committee a double translation of wife, this sort, I took care, when my version was complete, to compare it with as many of the Identifying Goals Essay original French letters as I was able to find, and I am glad to say that by this means I succeeded in satisfying myself as to the accuracy of every line from page 39 to the end. The letters printed up to homer's page 38, some of which I fancy must have been written in Dutch #151; a language which in any case I could not have read #151; have not been compared with the of the war originals.

But, seeing that the general quality of the German translation of the letters after page 39 was. so good that I was able to discover only the small handful of homer's, inaccuracies referred to v friern committee 1957 in the wife appendix, I think the langston hughes reader may rest assured that the matter covering pages 1 to wife 38 is sufficiently trustworthy for all ordinary purposes. I say that I fancy some of the letters which occur between pages 1 and 38 were written in Dutch; for I am not by any means certain of this. In any case I can vouch for hughes images the fact that the originals of all the letters after page 38 were in French, as I have seen them. But in this respect Paul Gaugin's remark about his friend Van Gogh is not without interest: Il oubliait même, wrote the homer's famous painter of négresses, d'écrire le hollandais, et comme on a pu voir par la publication de ses lettres à son frère, il n'écrivait jamais qu'en français, et cela admirablement, avec des 'Tant qu'à, Quant à,' à n'en plus finir. 1.

Rather than disfigure my pages with a quantity of langston hughes images, notes, I preferred to put my remarks relative to the divergencies between the original French and the German in the form of an appendix (to which the wife Numbers 1 to 35 in the text refer), and have thus kept only free love songs those notes in homer's wife the text which were indispensable for the proper understanding of the book. Be this as it may, the inaccuracies and doubts discussed in the appendix are, on Goals, the whole, of such slight import, that those readers who do not wish to be interrupted by pedantic quibbles will be well advised if they simply read straight on, without heeding the figures in wife the text. Hughes. To protect myself against homer's, fault-finders, however, such readers will understand that it was necessary for me to prepare some sort of a list referring to those passages which, in the German, differed even slightly from the French original. In the letters not included in Cassirer's publication, there are, of course, a few passages which, for obvious reasons, could never have been brought before the German or English reading public; as will be seen, however, the present letters in themselves are but more or less lengthy fragments, carefully edited by the friends of the deceased painter, while the almost complete omission of free love songs, dates and homer's other biographical information usually accompanying a volume of this sort, may also at first be felt as a rather disturbing blemish. I would like, however, to seize this opportunity to defend Margarete Mauthner against the charge of having made a fantastic arrangement of battle revolutionary, these letters; for, if the person who made this charge had only been acquainted with the facts of the case, he would have known that she had done no more (at least from page 39 onwards) than faithfully to follow Emile Bernard's original arrangement of his friend's correspondence in homer's wife the Mercure de France; and surely we must assume that Emile Bernard, Van Gogh's devoted admirer, was the best judge as to what should, or should not, appear of all that his friend had written. With regard to dates, however, Emile Bernard does give a little more information than Margarete Mauthner; but it is v friern hospital, very little, and it is as follows: the letters to homer's E. Bernard from hughes images, page 39 to page 73 were written during 1887; those from page 73 to homer's wife page 86 were written during 1888; those from page 108 to page 112 were written during 1889, and the remainder, as Margarete Mauthner also tells us, were written during 1890.

Of the letters to Van Gogh's brother, I am afraid I can say nothing more definite than that all those which occur after page 87 were written in Arles, and bolam hospital 1957 probably San Remy, between 1887 and 1890. Now, postponing for a moment, the discussion of Van. Gogh's actual place in the history of the art of the nineteenth century, and bearing in wife mind the of behaviorism amount of adverse criticism with which his work has met for many years, it does not seem irrelevant here to lay stress upon the fact that these letters are all private, intimate communications, never intended to reach the homer's wife public eye. And I feel all the more inclined to Essay emphasize this point, seeing that, to the lay student of wife, art, as also to the art-student himself, it is taylor v plumer, often a difficult task to take the sincerity of the art-innovator for granted. Confronted with a new technique and an apparently unprecedented conception of the outer-world #151; faced, in fact, by homer's wife, a patch of founder of behaviorism, strange blood; for that is what it comes to wife after all #151; we are prone to free love songs doubt that our man is wife, bonâ fide . Filled with the prejudices and prepossessions of centuries, and knowing from free love songs, sad experience that the art-world is homer's, not without its arch-humbugs, we find it difficult to believe that such a strange and foreign grasp of reality could actually have been felt by the innovator in our midst. And, rather than question our own values and our own grasp of reality, we instinctively, and, as I think, very healthily, incline to doubt the sincerity of the representative of this new standpoint which is offensive to us. In Van Gogh's case, however, we are particularly fortunate; for we possess these letters which are proof enough of the sincerity with which he pursued his calling. And, as I say, he did not write them for the press, nor did he compose them as a conscious teacher. They simply took shape quite naturally in his moments of respite, when he felt the need of free love songs, unburdening his heart to some sympathetic listener; and in homer's wife writing them he was as ingenuous and as unembarrassed as a child. He wrote to v friern hospital 1957 his brother and to homer's wife a bosom friend, Emile Bernard.

As I have mentioned, a. good deal in these letters had to be suppressed #151; and very naturally too. For if this correspondence had not contained much that was of bolam management committee 1957, too intimate a character for publication, it is obvious that the very parts that were considered publishable, would not have had a quarter of the value which we must now ascribe to homer's wife them. It is precisely because these letters are, as it were, soliloquies which Van Gogh held in the presence of his own soul, that they seem to taylor v plumer me to be of such incalculable value to all who think and work in the domain of homer's wife, art, and even in the domain of psychology and morality to-day. For everyone who is acquainted with the literature of Aesthetic, must know how poor we are in human documents of hughes, this nature, and how comparatively valueless the greater part even of our poor treasure is, when it is homer's wife, compared with the profound works which men who were not themselves painters or sculptors, have contributed to our literature on the subject. Who has not been disappointed on reading Ghiberti's commentaries, Leonardo's note books, Vasari's discourses on Technique, Antoine Raphael Mengs's treatises, Hogarth's Analysis of founder of behaviorism, Beauty, Reynolds' Discourses, Alfred Stevens' Aphorisms, etc.? But who has not felt that he was foredoomed to disappointment in each case? For an artist who could express the why and wife the how of Therapeutic Goals Essay, his productions in words would scarcely require to wield the chisel or the brush with any special power.

The way in which one chooses to express oneself is homer's wife, no accident; it is determined by the very source of one's artistic passion. A true painter expresses himself best in paint. With Van Gogh's letters, however, we are not concerned with a painter who is writing a text-book for posterity, or undertaking to teach anybody his art, or to langston reveal the. secrets of it to his fellows. The communications to his brother and his friend, printed in homer's wife this volume, partake much more of the nature of a running commentary to his life-work, a Sabbath's meditation upon and contemplation of his six days' labour, than a series of technical discourses relating to langston hughes images his procedure and its merits. True, technical points arise, but they are merely the fleeting doubts or questionings of an expert chatting intimately with an wife intimate, and are quite free from Essay, any pedagogic or didactic spirit. On the other hand, however, that which he gives us, and which the others above-mentioned scarcely touch upon, is the record of his misgivings and wife fears concerning the passion that animated him, the of behaviorism value of this passion, and the meaning of his function as a painter in homer's the midst of civilised Europe of the nineteenth century. These letters are not only a confession of the fact that he participated heart and soul in the negative revolution of the latter half of founder of behaviorism, that century, they are also a revelation of the truth that he himself was a bridge leading out of it, to better and more positive things. He touches upon these questions lightly, as is only fitting in letters that bear other tidings of a more prosaic nature, but he never can conceal the earnestness with which he faced the problems that were present in his mind, and as a stenographic report of these problems these letters make the homer's wife strongest claim upon our attention. With regard to his ultimate dementia, I have little doubt myself as to how it was brought about. As in the case of Nietzsche and many another foreign or English poet or thinker, I cannot help suspecting it was the outcome of that protracted concentration of thought upon Identifying Therapeutic Goals one or two themes (the chief characteristic of homer's wife, all mania, by-the-bye), which he and a few other unfortunate and whole-hearted men found it necessary to practise in the midst of a bustling, changing, and feverishly restless age, if anything of lasting worth was to be accomplished.

Imagine a man trying to study the founder laws governing a spinning top in the midst of the traffic of the homer's wife city, and you have a fair image of the kind of task a sincere artist or thinker undertakes at the present day, if he resolve, in the midst of the rush and flurry of our age, to probe the langston deep mystery of homer's wife, that particular part of life to which he may happen to feel himself drawn by his individual tastes and abilities. Not only is free love songs, he foredoomed to dementia by homer's, the circumstance of his occupation, but the very position he assumes #151; bent over his task amid the racket and thunder of the crowded thoroughfare of modern life #151; gives him at least the aspect of a madman from the start. And Van Gogh himself was perfectly aware of this. For he realized that the claims which nowadays are put upon the energy of one individual concentrated seeker, are so enormous that even the complication of marriage may prove one strain too many for him. Founder. He admits that the Dutch artists married and begat children; but, he adds: The Dutchmen led a peaceful, quiet, and well-ordered life (page 61). The trouble is, my dear old Bernard, he says, that Giotto and homer's wife Cimabue, like Holbein and Van Eyck, lived in an atmosphere of obelisks #151; if I may use such an expression #151; in which everything was arranged with architectural method, in which every individual was a stone or a brick in the general edifice, and all things were interdependent and constituted a monumental social structure. . . Therapeutic Goals Essay. . But we, you know, live in the midst of complete laisser aller and anarchy; we artists who love order and symmetry isolate ourselves and work at wife introducing a. little style into some particular portion of the Identifying Goals world (page 59). And this is homer's wife, no empty lament; it is a plain statement of the founder fact that in the disorder and chaos of the present day, not only has the artist no place allotted to him, but also that the very position he tries to conquer for himself, is hedged round with so many petty obstacles and minor personalities, that his best and most valuable forces are often squandered in a mere unproductive attempt at attaining his own. That he should need, therefore, to homer's wife practise the most scrupulous economy with his strength #151; a precaution which in a well-ordered age, and in a healthier age, would not be necessary #151; follows as a matter of course.

I should consider myself lucky, sighed Van Gogh, to hughes images be able to work even for an annuity which would only just cover bare necessaries, and to be at homer's wife peace in my own studio for the rest of my life (page 88). Without his brother Theodor's devotion and material help it is impossible to think without alarm of what might have become of hughes, this undoubted genius. For it must be remembered that his brother practically kept him from his Hague days in 1881 until the very end in 1890, at Auvers-sur-Oise. It is only when we think of the irretrievable loss which we owe to the fact that Monet himself had to remain idle for six months for want of homer's wife, money, that we can possibly form any conception of battle of the, what the result would have been if Theodor Van Gogh had ever lost faith in homer's wife his elder brother, and had stopped or considerably reduced his supplies, or had ever accepted his offer to change his calling (see page 129). On the other hand, we have evidence enough in these letters to show that Vincent took this self-sacrifice on his. brother's part by no means lightly. We have only to founder of behaviorism see the solicitude with which he speaks of his brother's exhausting work (pages 127#150;30, 146) and homer's wife of his health, in order to realize that it was no mean egoism that prompted him to langston hughes images accept this position of a dependent and of a protégé. In fact, if we value his art at all, it is with bated breath that we read of the cheerful and stoical manner with which for his brother's sake Vincent stopped painting for a while (page 102). But the words will bear being repeated: I am not so very much attached to my pictures, he says and will drop them without a murmur; for, luckily, I do not belong to those who, in homer's the matter of works of art, can appreciate only pictures.

As I believe, on the contrary, that a work of art may be produced at much less expense, I have begun a series of drawings (see also page 50). Again and of behaviorism again he complains of the wife cost of paint and canvas, and to bolam v friern hospital have allowed him carte blanche in the purchase of these materials, the brother must, considering his circumstances, have been capable not only of very exceptional generous feeling, but of very high artistic emotion as well. Homer's Wife. For it must have been no easy matter for this employee of Messrs. Images. Boussod and Valadon to homer's have worked year in and year out and, without any certain prospect of recovering his outlay, to have paid these monthly bills for taylor v plumer Vincent's keep and Vincent's work. It is true that occasionally a picture of Vincent's would sell; but in those days prices were low, and even Vincent himself was often willing to accept a five-franc piece for homer's a study. Besides, the hospital 1957 expenses must have been made all the heavier thanks to Vincent's inveterate carelessness and lack of wife, order in little things, and there can be no doubt that a fair portion of the. materials purchased must have been literally wasted, if not lost. Gauguin, speaking of his meeting with Van Gogh in Arles, writes as follows:

Tout d'abord je trouvai en tout et pour tout un désordre qui me choquait. La boîte de couleurs suffisait à peine à contenir tous ces tubes pressés, jamais refermés, et malgré tout ce désordre, tout ce gâchis, un tout rutilait sur la toile. 1. Still both Van Gogh and his brother had an indomitable faith in the former's work #151; a faith which touches upon the sublime #151; though neither of them lived to see their highest hopes realized. As to the market value of my pictures, Vincent wrote (pages 8 and 9), I should be very much surprised if, in hospital committee 1957 time, they did not sell as well as other people's. Homer's. Whether this happens directly or later on does not matter to me 2 (see also page 17, line 20). The finest words concerning this ideal brotherly relationship, however, have been written by Vincent's great friend, Emile Bernard. Mais ce que je veux dire, avant tout, says Bernard, c'est que ces deux frères ne faisaient pour ainsi dire qu'une ideé, que l'un s'alimentait et vivait de la vie et de la pensée de l'autre, et que quand ce dernier, le peintre, mourut, l'autre le suivit dans la tombe, seulement de quelques mois, sous l'effet d'un chagrin rare et édifiant. 3.

2 That Vincent also often felt depressed about his work may be gathered from the Therapeutic Essay following: passage, taken from a letter to his brother, not included in this volume: C'est une perspective assez triste de devoir se dire que jamais la peinture que je fais n'aura une valeur quelconque. 3 See Emile Bernard's preface to his publication of Van Gogh's letters in the Mercure de France, vol. 7, p. Homer's Wife. 324. Thus Theodor and of behaviorism Vincent died, perhaps hoping, but little believing that Van Gogh's present triumph would ever be realized. And, indeed, even to the calm and reflecting student of wife, art to-day, there must be something surprising, something not altogether sound and convincing, in this stupendous leap into fame which the work of this poor, enthusiastic, and thoughtful recluse, has made within recent years.

If the means or the measure for placing him had been to hand, if all this posthumous success had been based upon langston a definite art-doctrine which knew what to select and what to homer's leave aside, nothing could have been more imposing than this sudden exaltation of one whom a former generation had spurned. But who would dare to maintain for a moment that Van Gogh's present position is in itself a proof of his value as an artist? It is an empty illusion to suppose that history necessarily places a man, or even a whole age, and the first of the war gives to both their proper level. What history has shown and probably will continue to homer's wife show is, that whereas time very often elevates true geniuses to the dignity which is their due, and confers upon them the rank that they deserve, it also certainly raises vast numbers to the position of management committee, classics, who never had a tittle of a right to that honour, and frequently passes over others in silence who ought to have had a lasting claim upon the respect and appreciation of their fellows. Such things have happened so often, and homer's sometimes with such a disastrous effect, that one can but feel surprised at the almost universal support that the doctrine of the infallibility of posterity enjoys.

All posthumous fame, however, should be weighed in relation to the quality of the period that concedes it, and before we concur too heartily with the verdict of an age subsequent to the man it lionises, we ought, at least, to. analyze that age and v friern management committee test its health, its virtues, and its values. The fact that Van Gogh's pictures are now selling for wife twice as many sovereigns as he, in taylor v plumer his most hopeful and sanguine moments thought that they would realize in francs, is the most deceptive and the most misleading feature about homer's wife, his work. Identifying Therapeutic Goals. In any case it should neither prepossess us in in his favour, nor prejudice us against him. In a world governed largely by the commercial principle which places quantity before quality, at a period in history when journalism with all its insidious power can, like the wife famous Earl of Identifying Therapeutic Essay, Warwick, make and unmake kings at will #151; finally, on a continent in which all canons in respect of right living, religion, art, morality, and politics, have been blasted to the four winds, what does it signify that a work of art which thirty years ago was not thought to be worth 25 francs, now sells for ?200 sterling?

It signifies simply nothing whatsoever. Would anybody venture to assert that everything which to-day is selling at 200 times the homer's price at which it was selling thirty years ago, is on Identifying Essay, that account worthy of particular admiration and respect #151; I mean, of course, from people of taste, not from hawkers, pedlars, and chapmen? A vast and unprecedented revolution has been convulsing the homer's wife art-world for almost a century now, a revolution in which men like Gauguin, Van Gogh, Cézanne, Rodin, and others, have fought like Titans. Who has ever heard of a revolution enduring for almost a century? Even the Grand Rebellion lasted only for bolam v friern hospital management six years. And this revolution of art has seen its heroes and its traitors, its kings, and its usurpers, its romance and its squalor #151; all beneath the very nose of the layman, all beneath the very walls of his fool's paradise, without his ever. having suspected that something even significant was brewing.

For art is always the expression of the most sensitive men of an age. They, the artists, are the homer's wife first, by their movements and by the manner in taylor v plumer which they garner their treasure, to prophesy meteorological changes of a nature vast enough to shake even the layman into a state of homer's, gasping wonder. But, as a rule, it is only when these highly sensitive men have manifested their signs, and have more or less depicted the first lightning flash of the tempest that is imminent, that the sky really does become dark and overcast #151; patently overcast even to the layman's eyes #151; and that the taylor v plumer storm which they felt was coming actually begins to rage in wife the concrete world of politics and of national life. And then the pictures, poems, and parables already stored away, classified and catalogued in public museums, are but the Identifying Therapeutic Essay crystallized harbingers of homer's wife, a fact that has become patent to all. The general truth that nearly all the principal figures in this Grand-Rebellion Drama were themselves innovators, renovators, and subverters, does not in itself justify us in summarily disposing of them as noisy revolutionaries and nothing more. Goals Essay. One can revolt against wife, sickness in an age of sickness, and free love songs assume the title of a revolutionary or a rebel with both pride and dignity. On the other hand, a resentful valetudinarian, who feels rebellious at the sight of sleek, fragrant and rosy healthiness, may also claim the homer's wife title revolutionary; but woe then to the age that allows itself to be lured over to his side by his intellect and his art. It is battle of the, important, therefore, that we should know with whom we are dealing. We are aware that in the majority of cases all the noise of this art-revolution has been concentrated around. questions of technique. Wife. The purpose of art was tacitly assumed to be to obtain as faithful a transcript as possible of nature and of reality, pure and simple #151; not nature linked up with a higher idea, or reality bathed in the atmosphere of a love that transcended mere actualities #151; but simply nature and reality as they were felt by anybody and founder of behaviorism everybody.

And the milestones along the highway covered by this revolutionary band, do not mark the acquisition of new passions or new loves, but rather the adoption of new technical methods and mannerisms for accomplishing this transcript in ever more perfect and more scientific ways. Nature with its light and its atmospheric effects roused men like Manet and his friends to heroic deeds of determination. Peasants, innocent and unsophisticated, seemingly belonging to nature and homer's wife not to town or artificial life, were included in the category nature, from which it was legitimate to make a transcript. Cafe scenes, scenes of town life, glimpses behind the scenes, were included in the category reality, provided their artificiality and unnaturalness were mitigated by founder, a certain character of which it was also legitimate to make a transcript. And all this was done, not because the peasant or the scenes from town life were linked up with any higher purpose or any definite scheme of life which happened to fire the hearts of the painters of homer's wife, last century; but because, as a matter of hughes, fact, all life-passions, all life-schemes were at an end, and anything was good enough, picturesque enough, trivial enough, for these artists (whose general scepticism drove them to technique as the only refuge), to tackle and to try their new technique, their new method, or new watchword upon. Light, the play of complementaries, the homer's breaking up of hughes images, light, the study of values! #151; little things please little minds! It was these preoccupations that usurped the wife place of the rapidly vanishing subject in pictures. But what was the subject? What part had it played?

It is true that the subject picture in of behaviorism Manet's time was rapidly becoming a mere farce, an empty page filled arbitrarily with any sentiment or mood that happened to be sufficiently puerile, or at least sufficiently popular. Wife. But it had had a noble past. It had had a royal youth. The subject picture was merely the survival of an age when men had painted with a deep faith. It was the last vestige of an historical period in bolam committee 1957 which men had been inspired to express their relationship to life by something higher and greater than both themselves and their art.

In fact, it had always flourished in periods when humanity had known of a general direction, a general purpose in life, and of a scheme of life which gave their heart-beats and their breath some deeper meaning than they have at present. The degeneration of the subject picture, then, into homer's wife a mere illustration of some passing event or ephemeral sentiment, had a deeper significance than even its bitterest enemies recognized. Hospital. For while they, as new technicians seeking light and complementaries and wife values, deplored the spiritless and uninspired oliographs of their academical contemporaries, they completely overlooked the battle of the deeper truth; their artistic instincts were not strong enough to homer's make them see that the spiritless and uninspired subject picture was the hughes images most poignant proof that could be found of the fact that mankind no longer possessed, to homer's wife any passionate or intense degree, that which made the subject picture possible #151; that is to say, a profound faith in something greater and taylor v plumer more vital either than the artists themselves or their art, something which gave not only homer's art but also life a meaning and a purpose. This, as I have pointed out elsewhere, was the great oversight of the free love songs revolutionary movement in Art of the second half of the nineteenth century. In abusing the degenerate subject picture, these innovators were simply inveighing against a pathological symptom. Homer's. In saying the subject did not matter, they deliberately scouted the responsibility of eradicating or even of confronting the evil; while in concentrating upon technique and in Therapeutic Goals Essay finding their inspiration in such secondary matters as the treatment of light, values, and complementaries, besides revealing the poverty of wife, their artistic instincts they merely delayed the awakening which was bound to come and which already to-day is not so very far distant #151; the awakening to the fact that the artist, the free love songs architect, the homer's painter, the poet, and langston the preacher, are bankrupt unless some higher purpose and direction, some universal aim and homer's wife aspiration, animate their age, inspire them in their work, and kindle in them that necessary passion for a particular type of man, on langston hughes images, which they may lavish their eloquence, their chromatic, musical, architectural, or religious rhetoric with conviction, power, and faith.

Where does Van Gogh stand in this revolutionary drama which I have attempted briefly to sketch in the above lines? Without esteeming him nearly so highly as many of his most enthusiastic admirers do, and without sharing in homer's wife the least in that hysterical exaggeration of the value and beauty of his works which has characterized the Identifying Therapeutic Goals attitude of homer's, large numbers of his followers on the Continent #151; an exaggeration which, as I shall show, he would have been the first to deprecate and to condemn #151; I must still confess that, as an taylor v plumer impressionist, i.e. , as a revolutionary of the 'eighties who, to my mind, strove to wife surpass impressionism , as also so- called post-impressionism, he is a painter for whom I feel a much greater respect than I can feel for Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and Whistler. Images. Let me make it quite plain that I realize the superiority in some respects of the latter's art-forms; let me emphasize the fact that in my opinion Van Gogh was by homer's, no means so mature in his procedure as any one of these artists (save, perhaps, in so far as his drawing far excelled Renoir's); but that his aims were higher and more vital, that he realized more keenly what was wrong and what was desirable, that he was a thousand times more profound than his predecessors #151; of all these things, after careful consideration, and I must admit grave doubts, I have at last grown quite convinced. Before proceeding with my argument, let me lay stress on Identifying, the point that I feel very little sympathy whatever with any of these impressionists, art-form maniacs , and their followers inasmuch as they obscured the issues at the very moment #151; half way through the last century #151; when the issues were growing so plain that they must have found a solution sooner or later. Homer's. But, if we are going to speak of preferences, if in a gingerly manner we are going to put on taylor v plumer, gloves and draw out from wife, among this crowd the men whom we feel we can tolerate most readily, then, from the sculptor Rodin to his friend Renoir, of langston, all the homer's wife names that are now household words in the impressionistic and post-impressionistic movement of the late nineteenth century, I for my part, certainly select Van Gogh and, perhaps a little way before him, his friend Gauguin, as the Identifying Essay only two whom I can contemplate with equanimity #151; not to speak of approval. In judging Van Gogh, one of the critic's greatest difficulties is, in the first place, to see a sufficient number of his pictures; for wife he passed through so many phases that. isolated examples of his work may prove merely misleading. Now, thanks to the Post-Impressionist Exhibition of 1910#150;1911 in London, the founder Sonderbund Austellung in Cologne (1912), and wife a visit to Amsterdam, I have been able to see about 200 of Identifying Goals Essay, Van Gogh's paintings, and homer's wife about a quarter as many drawings; but when one remembers that the largest exhibition of his work which has ever been held contained some 450 pictures alone, not to battle speak of wife, drawings, it will be seen that to be acquainted with 200 of his works is a long way from possessing a complete knowledge of what he achieved.

Still the bolam v friern hospital management specimens I have seen I believe to have been thoroughly representative, and in any case sufficient to warrant my forming an opinion as to his merits. Van Gogh died when he was only thirty-seven years of age, and homer's Emile Bernard reminds us that though he always used to draw, he really did not give his attention wholly to painting until the year 1882 #151; that is to taylor v plumer say, when he was fully twenty-nine years old. About this time he writes to his brother: In a sense I am glad that I never learned to paint . . . I really do not know how to homer's wife paint. Armed with a white panel I take up a position in front of the spot that interests me, contemplate what lies before me, and say to myself, 'that white panel must be turned into something!' And concerning two studies finished at this period, he says: I feel quite certain that on looking at these two pictures, no one will ever believe that they are the first studies I have ever painted (pages 15 and 4). It is Identifying Therapeutic Essay, true that in homer's wife the early 'eighties he studied a little with Mauve, who was a distant relative, and later on spent some time at the Academy at Antwerp; but, on the whole, like Gauguin, he was self-taught, and when we reckon the number of years during which this self-tuition lasted, we. can but be amazed at founder the result, and believe him when he says that painting was in homer's wife his very marrow (page 16). A still more remarkable fact about Van Gogh is, however, that during the last eight years of his life #151; the only years, that is to say, in which he may really be said to have devoted himself entirely to painting, whether at founder of behaviorism the Hague, Drenthe, Nuenen, Antwerp, Paris, Arles, San Remy, or Auvers-sur-Oise #151; he practically epitomised in his own work the whole of the wife development of modern painting, from the academical manner of his own day, to a style which I maintain was on the point of bearing him far beyond the impressionists and so-called post-impressionists. And when I say far beyond the management committee impressionists and so-called post-impressionists, I do not mean it in the accepted sense of this phrase, I do not mean that with Gauguin he promised to homer's wife land in any of the futile absurdities with which those artists that were hung beside them provoked the mirth of London at the famous exhibition at the Grafton Galleries in 1910#150;1911. Taylor V Plumer. I mean it in this case as something peculiar to Van Gogh and Gauguin alone #151; something which I shall explain in due course and which I regard as valuable and worthy of wife, a more sound artistic instinct than that possessed by bolam v friern committee, all their contemporaries. I have myself seen pictures which I could not help thinking must have been painted in Van Gogh's academic period; Meier Graefe even thinks that Van Gogh's work of this period is likely to rise in public esteem; I have little doubt, therefore, that Van Gogh did go through an homer's wife academic stage, however short or however undistinguished it may have been. 1.

And as for his purely impressionistic period, pictures of this stage of his development abound. The Moulin de la Galette, and a still-life, Basket and free love songs Apples, in the possession of Frau A. G. Homer's Wife. Kröller, the founder View of Paris from Montmartre, belonging probably to the family, and the wonderful Apples in a Basket dedicated to homer's wife his friend Lucien Pissaro, in the possession of Frau Kröller #151; all seem to belong to this period; and bolam v friern hospital committee they are by no means incompetent or unworthy examples of the school of homer's wife, which they are examples. At this stage he had the same contempt as all modernists had for free love songs academicians, and wife we find him endorsing Jacques' words that they are mere illustrators! It is now that he feels that light, and of behaviorism truth, and homer's wife transcripts of nature matter tremendously. He says he has done with grays and with Mauve and Israels as well (page 48). He enters heart and soul into free love songs a study of nature #151; no pains are too great, no sacrifices too heavy, provided only that he may become absorbed in homer's wife nature, and free love songs thoroughly at ease as her interpreter. Wife. Possessed as he was of a remarkable gift of observation, nature fortunately did not take long to the first of the revolutionary war tell him all that she has to tell the wife truly instinctive artist; for taylor v plumer a man who could paint that still-life, Apples in a Basket, dedicated to Pissaro, and the still-life A Statuette, a Rose and Books, belonging, I believe, to Van Gogh's family #151; not to speak of dozens of homer's, other marvels of observation, such as the Chestnut in Bloom, belonging to Frau Kröller, in which the Identifying Goals essential character of the tree is beautifully seized by the happiest of conventions #151; would necessarily be a rapid and courageous learner of homer's, all that nature can teach, and would soon become conscious of having reached that decisive Rubicon, the imperative crossing of which means one of two alterna- tives #151; either the continuation of the old attitude to management committee nature, which at this stage becomes mere slavery and wife no longer discipleship, or the mastering of nature which is the first step that reveals the mature artist of sound instincts. Van Gogh writes: I do not wish to argue studying from nature, or struggling with reality, out of existence. For years I myself worked in this way with almost fruitless and in any case wretched results. I should not like to Identifying Therapeutic have avoided this error, however. In any case I am quite convinced that it would have been sheer foolery on homer's, my part to have continued to pursue these methods #151; although I am not by bolam management committee, any means so sure that all my trouble has been in vain (p.

30). So far, then, Van Gogh's sole excuse #151; and it is an adequate one #151; for having concerned himself wholly with such subordinate things as art-forms and nature transcripts, is that he was a learner. A time comes, however, when in homer's wife the case of the mature artist, we must take technical competency for founder of behaviorism granted, and graybeards, as many of the impressionist sculptors and painters grew to be, who continue to concentrate upon wife technical questions and to regard them as ends in themselves, merely reveal the fact that they never were artists at the first battle of the all. In this respect I cannot help quoting some fine words of Gauguin's. Writing to Charles Morice in April 1903, he said:

Nous venons de subir, en art, une très grande période d'égarement causée par la physique, la chimie, la mécanique et l'étude de la nature. Les artistes, ayant perdu tout de leur sauvagerie, n'ayant plus d'instinct, on pourrait dire d'imagination, se sont égarés dans tous les sentiers pour trouver des éléments producteurs qu'ils n'avaient pas la force de créer. 1. The reader who is familiar with my aesthetic views, will understand that I do not regard la physique, la chimie et la mécanique, as sufficient causes of this state of homer's wife, affairs; nevertheless Gaugin adds that the painters of this période d'égarement, had lost their instincts, and here, of Goals, course, I am with him. The fact, however, that a painter or a sculptor has not lost his instincts is not sufficient to reform the civilization or the culture in which he lives. Homer's. A still greater and more powerful artist must set to work first, and he is the legislator. The most a painter or a sculptor of sound instinct can do, is to recognize the lack of the great legislator, and reveal by his work and by the things upon which he concentrates his mind, that he realizes where the fault lies. Now I maintain that Van Gogh and taylor v plumer Gauguin took up this position. #151; But I am anticipating. #151; Van Gogh passed through another stage before he reached this final one. Wife. It suddenly flashed across his mind that he had something to bestow, something to bequeath, and that an artist's life was not all taking, robbing, or copying. Bolam V Friern Hospital Management Committee. He felt a richness in him which bade him dispense and no longer receive.

He writes: One begins by plaguing oneself to no purpose in order to be true to nature, and one concludes by working quietly from homer's wife, one's own palette alone, and battle then nature is the wife result (page 30). And again: I often feel sorry that I cannot induce myself to work more at home from imagination. Imagination is surely a faculty one should develop (page 44). And listen to taylor v plumer this! How glad I should be, one day to try to paint the starry heavens, as also a vast meadow studded with dandelions in the sunlight. But how can one ever hope to succeed in wife doing these things unless one resolves to stay at home and to work from imagination? He also begins to throw off the technique of transcript painting. V Friern Management Committee. He recognizes that chiaroscuro with its essential study of values, is part of the homer's wife equipment of the mere slavish transcripist, and he writes: It is impossible to attach the langston same importance both to values and to colours. Wife. Theodore Rousseau understood the mixing of colours better than anyone. But time has blackened his pictures, and now they are unrecognizable.

One cannot be at the Pole and at of the war the Equator at once. One must choose one's way; at least this is what I hope to do, and my way will be the road to colour (page 137). And again: Tell him (Seurat) it is my most fervent desire to know how to achieve such deviations from reality, such inaccuracies and such transfigurations, that come about by chance. Homer's. Well yes, if you like, they are lies; but they are more valuable than real values (page 23). These are the thoughts of his most prolific period #151; the period during which he produced perhaps all his most striking pictures #151; the free love songs last three years of his life. Such pages of beauty as the Orchard in Provence, belonging to Madame Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, A Street in Arles, in the possession of the homer's wife Municipal Museum at Stettin, A Street in Auvers, belonging to A. von Jawlensky, Munich, hail from this period, as also The Lawn, probably in the possession of the family #151; a finished masterpiece of beauty; The Sunset belonging to hughes images Frau Tilla Durieux-Cassirer #151; excellent; and a number of other landscapes belonging to wife Frau Kröller, Frau Mauthner, Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, etc. #151; all of great splendour and bolam v friern mastery.

The fact that he was never able to work successfully from imagination alone , proves nothing against the art of working from imagination. I have heard some artists argue as if their individual incapacity to produce great work. from imagination were a sufficient proof of the fallacy of the principle. Such argumentation is, of homer's wife, course, beneath contempt. On such lines any incompetence, impotence, ignorance, or incapacity, could be glorified and exalted. Van Gogh, however, is more honest.

He says working from imagination is an enchanted land (page 112). Founder. Although he recognizes the desirability, the superiority, of such methods, he feels that he is not good enough for them. Wife. He says: Others may be more gifted for the painting of abstract studies, and you [Bernard] are certainly one of these, as is also Gauguin. And he concludes by saying that when he is older he too may do the same. All his imagination could do, therefore, was to introduce something into his landscapes and studies that made them more than mere transcripts, that constituted them new gifts rather than repetitions, placed in the hand of the grateful public. And this something which he introduced, was the step to higher things, which I believe to free love songs be the homer's chief characteristic of bolam v friern 1957, his final period #151; the period at homer's the very threshold of which he unfortunately met with his tragic end. But before I proceed let me explain why I use the adjectives beautiful, excellent, splendid, masterful in langston images regard to these pictures.

I am not in the habit of lavishing epithets of this vague description indiscriminately upon works of art. A vague adjective is a wonderful thing to help lame arguments over stiles. Wife. It is an management indispensable helpmeet when one is homer's wife, not quite clear concerning any particular thing: but in regard to Van Gogh, this is not precisely my position. Not so much for my own sake, then, as for the sake of free love songs, clarity in these questions, in homer's wife which difficulties are so often smoothed over with empty phrases, it would seem desirable to explain why I speak of founder, beauty, mastery, excellence, in regard to these pictures of what, in my opinion, may be called Van Gogh's penultimate period, and which all critics, save myself, regard as belonging to wife his ultimate or post-impressionist period. In the first place, then, let me pronounce this fundamental principle, as far as I personally am concerned #151; that there is no beauty, no mastery, and no excellence, which cannot in free love songs the end be interpreted in the terms of humanity. There is no such thing as beauty per se , mastery per se , and excellence per wife se . Free Love Songs. All these qualities can ultimately be traced to man and to man's emotion; and wife without man I maintain that such qualities would cease to exist on earth. A beautiful poem is one that can be linked up rapidly or by degrees, consciously or unconsciously, with things which are desirable in humanity, or in a certain kind or part of battle of the revolutionary war, humanity.

The poem that praises Pity in homer's wife rhythmic cadence, for instance, will charm the of the Christian of the twentieth century; for him, Pity is a desirable attribute of the modern human creature, and rhythm is a convincing and commanding art-form in which to homer's wife cast a desirable thought. On the other hand, it would either revolt the pagan or leave him indifferent, while he might regard it as a sacrilegious act to squander such a precious art-form as rhyming verses upon so futile a subject. All beauty, then, in the end, is human beauty, all ugliness is human ugliness. No healthy people of the world have ever considered youth (I do not mean infancy) in any manifestation of nature, as ugly; because youth is the sure promise of human life and of a multiplication of hughes images, human life. On the homer's wife other hand, no healthy people have ever considered ulcers, gangrenous limbs, or decay in any. form, as beautiful; because ulceration, gangrene, and decay, are the Identifying Goals end of human life and the reduction of it. It is wife, true that the beautiful consumptive, the bolam v friern hospital management committee 1957 love of consumptives, the captivating cripple, are notions which can be found in wife Bulwer Lytton and George Eliot, not to speak of a host of langston hughes images, minor English writers. But then, let us remember from what part of the world they hail #151; from the most absurdly sentimental, over-Christianized, and over-Puritanized country on earth #151; England. But the whole of wife, North-Western Europe is now quite able to vie with England in this sort of nonsense, otherwise the Eugenic Society, which ought to be superfluous, would not require to be so active. But all this by the way.

The beauty, mastery, and excellence of Van Gogh's penultimate period, then, in my opinion, is twofold; Its content is beautiful and its form is beautiful. Its content is only just beginning to be beautiful, because we must remember that this is the work of a man who started in a school that scorned content. But is v friern hospital management, it not written that there is more joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth than over ninety-nine just persons which need no repentance? And the beauty of his content is, that it is turning ever more and more definitely towards humanity. It is true that the importance of the content in general is only creeping into his works; but the little of it that there is, is human. No longer negative to man, he begins to homer's introduce human moods into his landscapes, and with human virtues he anthropomorphizes the ground, the trees, the sky, and the distance. There is as much difference between his work now and hughes the work of his impressionistic days as there is between these two descriptions of the rising sun: (1) The yellow sun ascends into a pink and pale yellow sky which fades away into watery. green and homer's finally into a pure azure, and (2), Rosy-fingered dawn stands tip-toe on yonder hill.

He himself writes concerning a certain study: My desire was to paint it in such a way that the spectator must read and sympathize with the thoughts of the signalman . . . who seems to taylor v plumer say: 'Oh, what a gloomy day it is!' (page 8). And again, in homer's regard to founder of behaviorism the other study, he writes: While working upon it, I said to myself: 'Do not put down your palette before your picture seems to partake of the mood of an autumn evening, before it is homer's, instinct with mystery and with a certain deep earnestness' (page 14). See also the passage about hughes images, Provence on page 109. It is now, too, that he writes to his friend Bernard: I have painted seven studies of corn; unfortunately quite against my will , 1 they are only landscapes (page 75), and that he feels sympathy with a soldier who prefers a landscape to the sea, because the former is inhabited (page 85). This alone is already a sign that he is homer's wife, turning his back on the sentimental and negative love of hughes, landscape as landscape, peculiar to the modern English, French, and Germans, inspired by Rousseau and Schiller #151; that love of landscape in which man or the hand of man is entirely absent. With regard to wife the beauty of his technique in the pictures of Identifying Therapeutic Goals, this period, the wife characteristic I chiefly admire in them is their gradual glorification of colour, and neglect of values. But why should one admire colour more than values? In the founder first place it should be remembered that technique is important only as a means of betraying how a man approaches and wife deals with reality; while all the free love songs virtues of wife, a good technique will once more be traceable to. human standards, and be human virtues. Now the free love songs technique which places colour above values, is admirable for three reasons: first, because inasmuch as its results are simpler and homer's more definite than those of the values-technique, it implies a much more masterful grasp of reality; secondly, since its results betray far less compromise and blended , grey, or democratic harmony, than those of the values-technique, it implies a much braver and less tolerant attitude towards reality; and, thirdly, because its results are so much more luminous and more bright than those of the values-technique, it betrays a much greater love of sunshine, a much more hearty yea-saying and free love songs positive attitude towards life.

And these reasons are independent of the fact that the painting of both Greece and homer's wife Egypt in their best period are based entirely upon colour and line technique free from all values and chiaroscuro. Compare Van Gogh's pictures of this period with any of those ridiculously funereal fiascos produced by hospital committee 1957, the Glasgow school within the last twenty-five years, and homer's wife you will be convinced of the difference between the bright, laughing, yea-saying attitude to life, and the dark, gloomy, negative, churlish, Puritanical, and, in Essay many respects, essentially British attitude to life. How sincere and how deep Van Gogh's love of colour was at this period may be judged from a note written in August 1887 to homer's his brother. He says: I am at work upon a portrait of our mother; as I could no longer endure the sight of the black photograph. I do not wish to possess black photographs, and yet I certainly wish to have a portrait of our mother. Therapeutic Essay. 1.

The fact that, occasionally, his whole-hearted devotion to colour led him to produce what I cannot help regarding. as an absolute failure, cannot, of course, be denied. Wife. More than once, at Cologne and Amsterdam, I was conscious in the presence of some of his pictures of being before a man who was trying to enjoy the glory of fireworks at free love songs mid-day, under a brilliant sun, and the result was naturally disappointing. I cannot, however, say that I had this feeling often. By far the worst examples of such failures (although I am sure their fanatical owners do not think so) are the Cornfield with the homer's wife Reaper, belonging to hughes Frau Kröller, the homer's Sunflower against a Yellow Background, belonging to Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, and A Cornfield in Sunshine, at langston hughes images the Amsterdam Museum of Modern Art. 1. And now I am going to express what will perhaps seem to many the most daring of all the views advanced in this essay, the view that Van Gogh, towards the end, became quite positive not only in his attitude towards life itself, but above all in his attitude towards man. After much tribulation, and homer's wife the gravest and most depressing doubts, he at last realized this fundamental truth, that art, sound art, cannot be an end in itself, that art for v friern hospital committee 1957 art's sake is homer's, simply the maddest form of individualistic isolation #151; not to use a less sonorous but more drastic term #151; and that art can find its meaning only in life, and in its function as a life force. The highest art, then, must be the art that seeks its meaning in the highest form of free love songs, life. What is the highest form of life? Van Gogh replies to this question as emphatically and uncompromisingly as every sane and homer's wife healthy artist has done in all the sanest and battle revolutionary war healthiest periods of history.

He says Man. Now all that he has acquired #151; art-forms, technique, stored experience, practised observation #151; is wife, but a means, a formidable equipment which he is deep enough, artist enough, human enough, to wish to lay at the feet of something higher. Now his storehouse of free love songs, knowledge becomes an arsenal which he consecrates solemnly to the service of a higher cause and a higher aim than the homer's mere immortalizing of decorative pages of colour #151; interesting and strong colour-schemes and exteriorisations of more or less striking impressions. When these things are pursued as ends in themselves, as they were by the Impressionists and bolam v friern hospital committee 1957 the Whistlerites, they are the signs of poverty, both of homer's, instinct and langston images intelligence. They are also signs of the wife fact that the mere craftsmen, the simple hand-workmen, or the mere mechanic #151; in other words, the proletariat of the workshop, has been promoted to the rank of artist, and that matters of free love songs, decoration, technique and treatment (which are fit subjects for carpenters, scene painters, and illustrators to love and to regard as the end of their mediocre lives) have ursurped the homer's wife place of higher and holier aims. In about as many years as it takes some painters to learn their palette, Van Gogh had learnt the great and depressing truth at the bottom of all the art of hughes images, his age #151; the truth that it was bankrupt, impoverished, democratized, and futile. Divorced from homer's wife, life, divorced from free love songs, man, and degraded by the great majority of its votaries, art was rapidly becoming the homer's least respected and least respectable of all human functions. He realized that art was an langston images expression of life itself, that pictorial art was an expression of life's satisfaction at her passions become incarnate.

All expression is self-revelatory. Pictorial art, then, is the self-revelation of homer's wife, life herself look- ing into of the revolutionary her soul and upon her forms. It is wife, life pronouncing her judgment on herself. Alas! it is langston hughes images, less than that: it is a certain kind of life pronouncing its judgment on all life. Where life is sick and homer's impoverished, her voice speaking through the inferior man condemns herself, and paints herself bloodless and dreary, probably with a sky above depicted in a lurid and mysteriously fascinating fashion, calculated to make the the first battle of the revolutionary earth seem gray and gloomy in comparison.

Where life is sound and exuberant, her voice, speaking through the sound man, extols herself and paints herself in bright, brave colours, which include even bright and brave nuances for pain and the like. The sound, healthy artist, then, once he has attained to proficiency in his métier #151; a result which, if he be really wise and proud, he will not attempt to accomplish before the public eye as every one is doing at present #151; naturally looks about him for that higher thing in life to homer's wife which he can consecrate his power. His passion is to speak of life itself, and life in its highest manifestation #151; Man. But, alas, whither on earth must the Identifying Goals Essay poor artist turn to-day in order to find that type which would be worthy of his love and of his pictorial advocacy? Is the hotch-potch, democratic, democratized, hard-working, woman-ridden European a subject to homer's inspire such an artist? True, he can turn to the peasant, as many artists, and even Van Gogh himself, did.

At least the peasant is a more fragrant and nobler type than the undersized, hunted-rat type of town-man, with his wild eyes that can see only the main chance, with his moist fingertips always feeling their way tremblingly into another's hoard, and the first battle war with his womenfolk all trying to homer's wife drown their dissatisfaction with him by an endless round of pleasure and repletion; but, surely there is something higher than. the peasant, something greater and free love songs nobler than the horny-handed son of toil? Gauguin and Van Gogh knew that there was someone nobler than the peasant. But the tragedy of their existence was that they did not know where to find him. Fortunately for himself Van Gogh died on the very eve of this discovery. Homer's Wife. Gauguin suffered a more bitter fate than death; he went searching the free love songs globe for a nobler type than his fellow-continentals, at whose feet he might lay the wonderful powers that nature, study, and meditation had given him. But in doing this he was only doing what the homer's whole of Europe will soon be doing.

The parallel is an revolutionary war exact one. The prophecy of the artist will be seen to have been true. And Gauguin's search for a better type of wife, humanity is only one proof the more, if such were needed, of the intimate relationship of bolam hospital, art to life, and homer's wife of the the first of the revolutionary miraculous regularity with which art is always the first to wife indicate the direction life is taking. I have shown how, from founder of behaviorism, a negative and futile impressionist, Van Gogh became more and more positive and human in his content, and ever more positive, brave and homer's wife masterly in his technique, and that this healthy development naturally led him to the only possible goal that lies at the end of the path he had trodden #151; Man himself. In 1886 he writes to taylor v plumer Bernard: I want to paint humanity, humanity and again humanity. Wife. I love nothing better than this series of bipeds, from the Identifying Therapeutic smallest baby in long clothes to Socrates, from the woman with black hair and a white skin to the one with golden hair and a brick-red sunburnt face (page 85). At about the homer's same time he writes to his brother: Oh, dear!

It seems ever more and more clear to me that mankind is the root of all life (page 89); and Men are. more important than things, and the more I worry myself about pictures the colder they leave me (page 131). But the finest words in all these letters, words which at one stroke place Van Gogh far above his contemporaries and his predecessors, at least in aim, are the Therapeutic Essay following; I should like to homer's wife prepare myself for ten years, by free love songs, means of studies, for the task of painting one or two figure pictures . Wife. . . (page 152). In his heart of hearts, however, Van Gogh was desperate. There can be little doubt about that. Not only did he feel that his was not, perhaps, the hand to paint the man with the greatest promise of free love songs, life; but he was also very doubtful about the very existence of homer's wife, that man.

Not only did he ask: But who is going to paint men as Claude Monet painted landscape? (page 103); he also shared Gauguin's profound contempt of the white man of modern times. Indeed, what is his splendid tribute to Christ as a marvellous artist, a modeller and creator of men, who scorned to immortalize himself in statues, books, or pictures (pages 65 et seq .) if it is not the half-realized longing that all true artists must feel nowadays for that sublime figure, the artist-legislator who is able to throw the scum and taylor v plumer dross of decadent civilizations back into wife the crucible of life, in battle of the war order to mould men afresh according to homer's a more healthy and the first war more vigorous measure? The actual merits of Christianity as a religion do not come into consideration here; for Van Gogh was not a philosopher. All he felt was simply that craving which all the world will soon be feeling #151; the craving for the artist-legislator, which is the direst need of modern times. For, in order that fresh life and a fresh type can be given to art, fresh vigour and a fresh type must first be given to life itself. Personally, although I am prepared to do all honour to Van Gogh for having been profound enough and brave enough to come face to face with the tragic dilemma of modern art and modern times, I must say that I am almost inclined to share his own doubts as to whether his was precisely the hand to limn the man of great promise even if he could have found him. Only fanatical disciples could praise and wife value his figure pictures to the extent to which they have been praised and valued; for free love songs in all but one or two cases, they are, in my opinion, the most incompetent and the most uninviting examples of his art.

Of thirty-eight figure-pictures of his which I myself have seen, two only pleased me a little (Old Man Weeping, probably in the possession of the family; and An Asylum Warder, belonging to Frl. Gertrud Müller of Solothurn), and one (Fair Girl's Head and Shoulders, probably in the possession of the family) 1 pleased me so exceedingly that I would willingly give all the homer's rest for it. Langston Hughes. It is a most genial piece of work, mature and rich in conception, and full of a love which will come to expression. Nothing obtrudes in homer's the technique. Indeed, the means seem to be so well mastered that one feels not the slightest inclination to consider them; while the the first revolutionary content is homer's wife, so eloquent of the sleek, smooth bloom of youth, and of the half-frightened eager spirit of the young girl who is just beginning to founder of behaviorism see and to realize who she is and where she is, that this picture alone would make me hesitate to say definitely that Van Gogh could not have achieved his ideal if only wife he had. lived, and if only he had found the type whose pictorial advocacy he might have undertaken. Here in this picture, all the dramatic effect of budding womanhood, of which Schopenhauer spoke so scornfully, is concentrated into a head and a pair of shoulders. All the mystery and charm of mere potentialities, undefined and still untried, is told in taylor v plumer a thrilling and fairy-like combination of lemon yellow, black, Prussian blue, and the most delicate of wife, pinks. The freshness is that of an old Dutch master like Johannes Hannot, for langston hughes instance, who could paint fruit to look cold and raw on a pitch-black ground.

1 This virgin, too, like all virgins, is cold and homer's raw #151; and free love songs the effect is due to the masterly and almost devilish skill with which her qualities have been marshalled in her portrait, against a pitch-black ground. It is a wonderful work. 2 Maybe it stands as the only justification of wife, all Van Gogh's otherwise overweening aspirations. In any case it makes me feel that if he had lived, he would have learnt to regret even more than he already did, that no artist-legislator existed to inspire his brush and give his art some deeper meaning. With regard to of behaviorism the rest of his figure work, I can only say I am unsympathetic.

And to all those who may accuse me of Philistinism and the like for my refusal to homer's agree with the extravagant encomiums they lavish upon taylor v plumer his figure pictures, I can only reply by pointing to Van Gogh's own modest and very sensible words: Any figure that I paint is generally dreadful, even in my own eyes. Homer's Wife. How much. 2 I wonder if it is to this work that Gauguin refers when, speaking of the progress Van Gogh was making under his tuition, he asks Morice: Avez-vous vu la gure et les cheveux, jaune de chrome? more hideous must it therefore be in the eyes of other people (page 69). And now what did the admirable Gauguin have to do with all this? What part did he play in this final development of his friend's genius and in directing his brother artist's last thoughts and hopes? We do not need to be told, we feel sure from our knowledge of the two men's work, that Gauguin played a great part in Van Gogh's life at this time. We also know that Gauguin was an v friern hospital management committee 1957 older, more able, and more experienced painter than the Dutchman, with a personality whose influence is said to have been irresistible. It was in vain that Van Gogh tried to hold him at arm's length. It was in vain that he pointed to the narrowness of Gauguin's forehead, which he held to be a proof of imbecility; in the end he had to yield, and was, as Gauguin declares: forcé de me reconnaitre une grande intelligence.

1. Quand je suis arrivé à Arles, says Gauguin, Vincent se cherchait, tandis que moi, beaucoup plus vieux, j'étais un homme fait . . . Van Gogh sans perdre un pouce de son originalité, a trouvé de moi un enseignement fécond. 2. And Van Gogh was as ready to admit this as we are compelled to wife recognize its truth. Writing to Albert Aurier, he once said: Je dois beaucoup à Paul Gauguin. But his latest and the first battle best work, as also the ideals and aims of his last years constitute the most convincing evidence we have of the great influence Gauguin exercised over him, and although the homer's older man was ready to acknowledge that the. seeds he sowed in Van Gogh fell upon un terrain riche et fécond, it is impossible to overlook the great value of these seeds. For, who was this magician, the free love songs painter of those sublimely beautiful canvases L'esprit veille, Portrait de M. X. Wife. 1 and bolam management committee Enfants. Wife. 2.

He was a man who had felt more keenly than any other European painter of his day the hughes impossibility of consecrating his powers to the exaltation and glory of the modern white man with whom he was fatally contemporaneous. He was a deep and homer's earnest thinker who was both clear and brave enough to confront even a tragic fact. And there can be no doubt that comparatively early in the first battle of the life he came face to face with the truth that the wife modern European and his like all over the globe, could not and must not , be the type of the future. Anything rather than that! Even black men and women were better than that #151; cannibals, idolaters, savages, anything! And this parched thirst for a nobler and taylor v plumer more positive type drove him like a haunted explorer all over the world, until at homer's wife last he thought he had found what he wanted. It was an illusion, of course, and Identifying Therapeutic Essay he would probably have admitted this; but it was the love and not the wife hatred of man that drove him even to the first battle of the revolutionary that error. Charles Morice ascribes Gauguin's lust of travel to the nature of wife, his origin. He argues that inasmuch as Gauguin's father was a Breton and his mother a Péruvienne, the great painter was born with the desires of two continents already in his soul #151; a fact which somehow or other Morice links up with Gauguin's visit to the Marquesans and the Tahitans. 2 Belonging to Bernheim Jeune in 1911. But, probable as it may be that Gauguin's double soul contributed greatly to his ability for making a clear-sighted analysis and condemnation of free love songs, Europe, it can scarcely be regarded as the principal, or even as the partial cause of his visit to homer's the Marquesas Isles and Tahiti.

That his mission to these places was a supremely artistic one is proved by the manner in which he spent his time there, while the fact that it was discontent with, and scorn of, European conditions and people that drove him in search of better climes and founder nobler types, is homer's, proved by his behaviour both in Tahiti and in the Marquesas Islands. Although we do not forget that Gauguin had been a sailor, if it were merely a sort of restless Wanderlust à l'Americaine that sent him to Oceania, why did he do all in his power to fight Occidental civilization in these parts? If in his heart of hearts he had not been utterly without hope and without trust where Europe was concerned, why did he start a paper at Papeete, in which he sought to convert the colonists and educated natives to his hostile attitude towards the European? Why, too, did he jeopardize his peace of mind as well as his safety, by taking the side of the Marquesans when they implored him to defend them against their white oppressors? For we know that he was not only arrested but heavily fined for this action. It is obvious that Gauguin was much more than a mere itinerant painter out for new material. He was above the modern senseless mania for taylor v plumer rugged landscape as an end in itself, or for tropical sunsets and dramatic dawns, in the South Pacific. Wife. And when we read Van Gogh's words on v friern committee 1957, the natives of the Marquesas (page 42) we can no longer doubt, not only that Gauguin influenced him, but also that this influence was deep and lasting. Personally, I feel not the slightest hesitation in accepting.

Gauguin's own words, quoted above, concerning his relationship to Van Gogh, and though I ascribe the wife latter's final positive and human attitude in art very largely to the soundness of his own instincts, I cannot help feeling also that the spirit of that half-Breton and half-Peruvian magician was largely instrumental in determining the less-travelled and less-profound Dutchman to assume his final phase in art. If Van Gogh had had more opportunities for figure painting, and if his hand and eye had grown more cunning in the art of depicting his fellows, I am of opinion that he might have surpassed even his master and inspirer. For that isolated event, that sport, the portrait of the Fair Girl, which was, alas, the one swallow that did not make a summer, remains stamped upon my memory as a solid guarantee of his exceptional potentialities. Hughes Images. Unfortunately, however, he came to figure-painting all too late, and his opportunities for practising his hand were rare and more or less isolated. In these letters he says: I suffer very much from having absolutely no models (page 116); while in a letter to his brother, not included in this volume, he writes rather amusingly as follows: Si on peignait lisse comme du Bouguereau les gens n'auraient pas honte de se laisser peindre. Wife. Je crois que cette idée que c'était 'mal fait,' que c'était que des tableaux pleins de peinture que je faisais, m'a fait perdre des modèles. Free Love Songs. Les bonnes putains ont peur de se compromettre et qu'on se moque de leur portrait.

1. There is homer's wife, now only one more point to be discussed, and I shall draw this somewhat lengthy essay to a close. I feel, however, that it would be incomplete without some reference to Van Gogh's personal appearance. Whatever. democratic and over-Christianized people may say to the contrary, a man can be neither ugly nor good-looking with impunity.

Looks are everything. Appearances are deceptive, is a proverb fit only for those who are either too corrupt or too blind to hospital management committee 1957 use with understanding and profit the precious sense that lies beneath their superciliary arches. Van Gogh's personal appearance is, therefore, in my opinion a most important matter, for I absolutely refuse to believe that beauty can proceed from ugliness or vice versâ . I leave such beliefs to those who have ugly friends or relatives to comfort or console. Homer's Wife. Then the v friern hospital committee 1957 doctrine that a fine mind or a fine soul can sanctify or transfigure any body #151; however foul, ugly, or botched #151; is, I admit, an essential and very valuable sophism. Now, I am in the unfortunate position of one who has only portraits to judge from. But although I have seen only homer's portraits, perhaps the number of these is sufficiently great to justify my forming an opinion. Therapeutic Goals. In all I have seen seven portraits of Van Gogh painted by himself, and one painted by Gauguin. The best and by far the most beautiful of all these is Van Gogh's portrait of himself now in the possession of Leonhard Tietz of Cologne. If we take this as a trustworthy record of homer's, Van Gogh's features, he certainly must have been what I would call a good-looking man.

His brow was thoughtful, his eyes were deep, large, and intelligent, his nose was not too prominent and it was shapely, while his lips, both full and langston images red, gave his face that air of positiveness towards life and homer's humanity, which we find both in ancient Egyptian and present Chinese countenances. The only faults I find with his features and general colouring are, first, that they are inclined to of behaviorism be a little too northern and too Teutonic in type #151; a fact which. suggests that his positive attitude to wife life was more intellectual than physiological #151; and, secondly, that his furtive eye suggests more timidity than mastery. This portrait is, however, a remarkable piece of work, and taking all its other qualities into of the revolutionary war consideration, I see no reason to doubt precisely the accuracy of the likeness. A genial work of this sort is not genial only in particulars. If, however, we are to judge from the other portraits, especially from the one in the possession of H. Homer's. Tutein Nolthenius (of Delft), then we must certainly agree with Meier Graefe, that Van Gogh was by no means engaging in taylor v plumer appearance. 1 I mean by the expression unengaging that a face is homer's wife, negative, chaotic, misanthropic, resentful. And in two or three of the portraits by himself, Van Gogh certainly does give the free love songs impression of wife, being all these things.

I should only free love songs like to remind the reader that in each of the ugly portraits, the technique and general treatment is so inferior to the work in the picture belonging to Tietz of Cologne, that one is justified in suspecting that the homer's likeness has also suffered from inadequate expression. If we now turn to Gauguin's portrait of his friend, in the possession of Frau Gosschalk-Bonger, we do indeed find an Identifying Essay interesting, if not a good-looking face, though the northern and homer's wife barbarian features are perhaps a little marked. The question is, was Gaugin able to seize a likeness? I have every reason to believe that he could, and I am even prepared to accept his uncorroborated testimony on this point. Speaking of his first arrival in Arles, on a visit to his friend Van Gogh, he says: J'arrivai à Arles fin de nuit et j'attendais le petit jour. dans un café de nuit.

Le patron me regarde et s'ecria: 'C'est vous le copain! Je vous reconnais!' Un portrait de moi que j'avais envoyé à Vincent est suffisant pour expliquer l'exclamation du patron. Lui faisant voir mon portrait, Vincent lui avait expliqué que c'était un copain qui devait venir prochainement. 1. Thus I have attempted to make clear what I personally have learnt from Van Gogh, and what I believe to have been the course of free love songs, his development and of his aspirations. Homer's Wife. In the process of my exposition I have spoken about stages and periods in his development and life, as if they were well-defined and plainly to be detected in his work, and I have even instanced particular pictures which I regard as more or less characteristic of his four manners or styles. I should like to warn the reader, however, that he must not expect to bolam 1957 find these stages and periods as clearly defined in the mass of Van Gogh's life-work, as this essay may have led him to suppose he would. Homer's. For the founder purpose of tracing this Dutch artist's career it was necessary to speak of these periods and stages as if they had been more or less definite. But, as a matter of fact, not only do they overlap each other to homer's wife such an extent as completely to invalidate any claim to the effect that Van Gogh's progress was regular and hughes gradual, but often his pictures as well as his thoughts of the first and second period, after the manner of harbingers, tell so plainly what will be the aim and wife the triumph of the next or even ultimate period, that it is impossible to taylor v plumer fix or even to find exact boundaries. All that there now remains for me to do is, in the first place, to offer an explanation as to the inordinate length of homer's wife, this introductory essay, by pointing to the fact that.

nothing of the v friern hospital management 1957 kind has previously been done for the English-reading public, and that I therefore felt my task of introducing Van Gogh might be done both conscientiously and exhaustively without my running the risk wearying the homer's wife reader; and, secondly, to express the hope of that this introduction may prove as helpful to the student interested in Van Gogh's works, as I feel it would have been to hughes images me at homer's the time when I first set out to study the life, the aims and free love songs the works of this remarkable and much misunderstood Dutch painter.