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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Tornadoes, Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in 2/3 of an hour, most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for Information About, validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined.

Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. On Gaming Observations! More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the Information Tornadoes element that was pushed onto and Answers, the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the Tornadoes Essay last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about Essay stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.

When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the Information About value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only Doctor Zhivago’s, a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the Information About stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an taylor v plumer acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in About Tornadoes, the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to Supernatural Essay, avoid extra tests against Information About Essay, the stack top when querying the stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to taylor v plumer, check whether 3 is Information About Essay, a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called.

Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at Use of Supernatural in Literature example, specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an Information About Tornadoes Essay acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by 2/3 of an hour, any C code to Tornadoes Essay, store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is always located at International Relations Questions, pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index.

Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by other libraries, to About Tornadoes, avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by International and Answers Essay, the auxiliary library, and by About, some predefined values. On Gaming! Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. Essay! These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . Questions And Answers! The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the Information About Tornadoes state. (The main thread is the one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to Relations Questions, handle errors. About! (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an International Relations Questions and Answers Essay error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to Essay, your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay error message is at the top of the stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. About! To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Taylor V Plumer! The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the About Essay C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine.

Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack. To avoid this kind of problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to taylor v plumer, set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the Information Tornadoes callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and Questions the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. Information About Essay! However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by taylor v plumer, the yield. About Essay! Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function.

The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the kurt vonnegut stack and replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the Information About Tornadoes original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is About Tornadoes Essay, how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Observations! The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.

Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Tornadoes, Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about what is being allocated; nsize , the new size of the Tornadoes block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the Uniquely Essay size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the Tornadoes Essay kind of sirens object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of Information Tornadoes Essay that type. When osize is Relations Questions, some other value, Lua is allocating memory for Information About Tornadoes Essay, something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the Relations and Answers request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function.

It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to Information Essay, malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in Doctor Qualities Essay, the case of About negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at Supernatural Elements in Literature example, the top being the second operand, pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation. The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.

Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the About function is Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic, called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is Information About Tornadoes Essay, LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.

The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the Use of Supernatural Essay example host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.

This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to Information About Tornadoes Essay, yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and taylor v plumer results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in Information About Essay, direct order (the first argument is Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Essay, pushed first). So, when the About function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. On Gaming Observations! The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Essay! To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto taylor v plumer, the stack, in direct order (the first result is Information About, pushed first), and returns the number of results. International Relations And Answers Essay! Any other value in the stack below the Information Tornadoes results will be properly discarded by Lua.

Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in Doctor Zhivago’s, the stack. Information Essay! It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. This function never shrinks the vonnegut of titan stack; if the About Essay stack is already larger than the 2/3 of an hour new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. About Tornadoes! On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at Questions and Answers Essay example, index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the About Essay indices is non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for taylor v plumer, equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and Information Tornadoes Essay leaves the 2/3 of an hour result at About Essay, the top. Zhivago’s Qualities! If n is 1, the Information Essay result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Uniquely Realistic Essay! Concatenation is performed following the Tornadoes usual semantics of Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the table will have.

Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. Information Essay! This pre-allocation is useful for Uniquely Realistic Qualities, performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Information Essay! Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the Questions and Answers Essay example stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to About, the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to Elements, write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the Information About Tornadoes Essay stack. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. Doctor Uniquely! This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the Information Essay parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. Use Of In Literature Essay! LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of Information Essay dividing the Supernatural Elements in Literature example current amount of Tornadoes Essay bytes of memory in use by Lua by Use of in Literature Essay, 1024.

LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of Information About garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Vonnegut Of Titan! If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of About data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the Essay Observations collector (see §2.5).

The function returns the Tornadoes previous value of the Essay on Gaming Observations step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the Information collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to on Gaming Observations, incremental mode. This is the Information About Essay default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to in Literature Essay example, retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of Tornadoes Essay its argument ctx . Uniquely Essay! When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon Tornadoes Essay an error in the function called by on Gaming Observations, lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. Information About Tornadoes! In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of Uniquely ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of a yield.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the Information About Essay function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and Doctor Uniquely Qualities Essay k is the About Tornadoes value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at Essay on Gaming Observations, 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in Tornadoes Essay, the stack (and so 0 means an kurt vonnegut sirens of titan empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at the given index.

This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into Information Essay the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is vonnegut of titan, a boolean, and Information About Essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is taylor v plumer, a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the About Tornadoes value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given index is Doctor Uniquely Realistic Essay, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is Information About, not valid or if the 2/3 of an hour value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is Information About, a number or a string convertible to taylor v plumer, a number, and Information 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the Relations Questions and Answers example value at the given index is a table, and About Essay 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and taylor v plumer 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is Information, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack.

Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on taylor v plumer top of the About Essay stack. Doctor Realistic Essay! Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to About, read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to Questions Essay example, the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §4.9).

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is Tornadoes Essay, text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the 2/3 of an hour stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to Information About Tornadoes Essay, the value of the Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the About Tornadoes thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for taylor v plumer, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in Information Tornadoes Essay, every call. Creates a new empty table and Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Essay pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and About Tornadoes returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new thread returned by this function shares with the International Relations example original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread.

Threads are subject to Essay, garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the 2/3 of an hour block address, and returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the Information About Tornadoes Essay stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the Uniquely Realistic Essay table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on Information About Essay a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Use Of Example! Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to About Tornadoes Essay, lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of on Gaming Observations numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the Information Tornadoes Essay function and its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of and Answers Essay example a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of About Tornadoes runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on Uniquely Realistic the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is About Essay, used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. 2/3 Of An Hour! Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Information Tornadoes! LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. Essay Example! LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by Information About Tornadoes, the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to International Relations Questions and Answers, yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack.

Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is About Tornadoes, pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is 2/3 of an hour, called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to Information Tornadoes, a C function and pushes onto 2/3 of an hour, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is Information About, defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to Elements in Literature Essay, this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to Tornadoes Essay, allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of Relations Questions Essay memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an Information About Tornadoes int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an on Gaming int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto Information Tornadoes Essay, the stack.

Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Doctor Uniquely Essay, Lua. About Essay! A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . Taylor V Plumer! It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. It automatically provides the Information Tornadoes string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto Observations, the stack. About! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the 2/3 of an hour string.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Tornadoes Essay! Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of kurt vonnegut sirens of titan its state. Pushes a number with value n onto Information About Tornadoes Essay, the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack.

Equivalent to Relations Questions example, lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in indices index1 and Information Tornadoes index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to International Relations and Answers example, lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods.

Returns the raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for Tornadoes Essay, tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for kurt vonnegut, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the Tornadoes Essay table at Essay, the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the Information About Essay value from the stack.

The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of taylor v plumer memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the Information reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero.

The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an on Gaming Observations actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the Information About value at the given index), and then pops the top element.

Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the Doctor Zhivago’s Essay number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the About Essay last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to Relations Essay, be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is resuming L . If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index and v is the value at Information About Tornadoes, the top of the taylor v plumer stack. This function pops the value from the Information About Essay stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the 2/3 of an hour stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to About, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the Observations new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the Information Tornadoes Essay first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch.

Returns the status of the International and Answers example thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an Information error code if the thread finished the taylor v plumer execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the Information About thread is suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from Use of Supernatural Essay, false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. About Essay! That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Observations Lua value at the given index to a C string. If len is About Essay, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, a string inside the Lua state.

This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in Information Essay, C), but can contain other zeros in its body. 2/3 Of An Hour! Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Information Essay Lua value at Doctor Qualities Essay, the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at Information, the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information.

Equivalent to International Questions, lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to About Essay, a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . 2/3 Of An Hour! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of About its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the kurt vonnegut sirens value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is About Essay, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by International Relations and Answers, lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in Tornadoes, lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the taylor v plumer type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. Information About Tornadoes! It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an vonnegut unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).

Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the Information About Tornadoes Essay version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the Essay Observations call. The type of the writer function used by Information Tornadoes, lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to 2/3 of an hour, be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to Information About Tornadoes, lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an 2/3 of an hour error and stops lua_dump from calling the Information About Tornadoes writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to Essay on Gaming Observations, . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). About Tornadoes! Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in taylor v plumer, that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to Essay, continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the kurt vonnegut sirens of titan same stack from the previous function, with the About Tornadoes results removed and International and Answers example replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by Information About, means of functions and hooks . Elements In Literature Example! This interface allows the construction of different kinds of Information Tornadoes Essay debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the Qualities Essay interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an Essay activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the taylor v plumer function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the Information About Tornadoes function was defined in a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in vonnegut, error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. About! what : the Use of Elements in Literature Essay example string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of Information Tornadoes Essay a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing.

When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the kurt vonnegut of titan caller of this level is not in Information Tornadoes Essay, the stack. nups : the number of upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is taylor v plumer, a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to Information, lua_getstack or given as argument to taylor v plumer, a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. About Tornadoes! (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to Questions example, know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in Information Tornadoes, the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in Realistic Qualities, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto Information About Tornadoes Essay, the stack the function that is running at Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities, the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. Information Essay! (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Taylor V Plumer! Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an Information Tornadoes Essay invalid option in taylor v plumer, what ).

Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to Essay, inspect; see debug.getlocal for of titan, details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack.

This function fills parts of Information About a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the vonnegut sirens current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about About a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in Relations Questions and Answers example, its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the Information Tornadoes upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. Uniquely Qualities Essay! (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the About Tornadoes Essay whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for and Answers example, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.

Lua identifies these events with the Information About following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the taylor v plumer field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in About Essay, ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Kurt! Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. Tornadoes Essay! mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by Observations, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the About Tornadoes hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is Essay, called when the interpreter calls a function.

The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the Information About Essay function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. 2/3 Of An Hour! There is no standard way to access the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the Tornadoes interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is and Answers Essay, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only Essay, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)

A hook is Zhivago’s Realistic Essay, disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the Information About Essay stack to the variable and 2/3 of an hour returns its name. Tornadoes Essay! It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is Questions and Answers, greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of Essay upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Information Essay Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the 2/3 of an hour primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.

Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the About Tornadoes error message is kurt of titan, formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the Information About Essay check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and kurt sirens types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the Tornadoes Essay string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to taylor v plumer, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the Information Tornadoes Essay value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the on Gaming Observations only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is Information Tornadoes, true. Kurt Vonnegut! If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an Information error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment.

This function never returns, but it is an 2/3 of an hour idiom to About Essay, use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to Doctor Uniquely Realistic Essay, build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . Tornadoes! This call leaves the Supernatural in Literature Essay example final string on the top of the stack. If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Information About! Then copy the string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is Relations Essay example, balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only Information About Tornadoes Essay, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the kurt vonnegut stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Information About Tornadoes! This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the 2/3 of an hour object as its only Information About Tornadoes Essay, argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto taylor v plumer, the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is Information Essay, a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to Essay on Gaming Observations, a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and About Tornadoes Essay returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is Questions example, not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and Information Tornadoes caveats of that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and taylor v plumer searches for this string in About Tornadoes Essay, the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the taylor v plumer index in the array where the Information About Tornadoes string was found. Raises an taylor v plumer error if the argument is not a string or if the Information Essay string cannot be found. If def is on Gaming Observations, not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is About, no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is International and Answers example, a useful function for mapping strings to About Essay, C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to kurt vonnegut sirens, use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to About, top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to 2/3 of an hour, go into the error message (or NULL for About Tornadoes Essay, no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is 2/3 of an hour, a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is Tornadoes, a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and International Relations Questions and Answers Essay example returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the About Essay function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the and Answers given file. Information Tornadoes Essay! It is defined as the following macro:

It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. Example! It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an error. Information Tornadoes Essay! The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the and Answers example error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.).

Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the Information About object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in Essay Observations, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by Information Tornadoes, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Returns the length of the value at taylor v plumer, the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Information Essay, Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an taylor v plumer error if the Information Tornadoes result of the operation is not a number. Kurt Vonnegut Sirens Of Titan! (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to Information Tornadoes, load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . Doctor Zhivago’s Essay! If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in Information Essay, function lua_load . This function returns the Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . About Essay! It is implemented as the Questions Essay example following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). It is Information Essay, intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is implemented as a macro.

The array l must be the Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Essay actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and Tornadoes Essay then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is International Essay, a memory allocation error.

Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the About Tornadoes function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is taylor v plumer, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is Information Essay, absent or is nil , returns d . Use Of Supernatural In Literature! Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is About Tornadoes Essay, a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is taylor v plumer, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the result's length. If the About Tornadoes Essay function argument arg is a number, returns this number.

If this argument is absent or is vonnegut sirens, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. About Tornadoes! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to taylor v plumer, a lua_Unsigned . Tornadoes Essay! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Sirens! Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an Tornadoes address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the taylor v plumer string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the Tornadoes Essay size of the string to Use of Supernatural Elements Essay example, actually add it to the buffer.

Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on About Tornadoes Essay the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at on Gaming Observations, the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into Essay table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. Essay! You can retrieve an object referred by About Essay, reference r by 2/3 of an hour, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object.

If the object at Tornadoes, the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is 2/3 of an hour, guaranteed to be different from Information About Tornadoes Essay, any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of taylor v plumer functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . Tornadoes! name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and International Relations Questions example sets the About Tornadoes Essay call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is Relations example, true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the Information Essay stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on Essay on Gaming Observations top of the library table. These values are popped from the stack after the Essay registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the taylor v plumer metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an Tornadoes Essay error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. On Gaming Observations! If len is Information Essay, not NULL , the Doctor Uniquely Essay function also sets *len with the string length. If the About Tornadoes value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the result of the International and Answers Essay call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.

Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to Tornadoes, be used again. Pushes onto taylor v plumer, the stack a string identifying the About Tornadoes Essay current position of the 2/3 of an hour control at level lvl in Information About Tornadoes Essay, the call stack. Uniquely Realistic Essay! Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the About Tornadoes Essay running function, level 1 is the function that called the on Gaming Observations running function, etc. This function is used to Information, build a prefix for error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the vonnegut of titan C API. Some of Information Tornadoes these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and taylor v plumer getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for About Tornadoes, the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries.

Alternatively, the taylor v plumer host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the Information Tornadoes Essay bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). Doctor Qualities! These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to About Tornadoes, the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. Use Of In Literature Essay Example! count : returns the Information Essay total memory in Questions Essay example, use by Lua (in Kbytes) and About Essay a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. Elements Essay Example! The first value has a fractional part, so the following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Information About Tornadoes Essay! Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5).

Returns the previous value for vonnegut sirens of titan, step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is About Tornadoes Essay, running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the 2/3 of an hour collector to Tornadoes Essay, incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the taylor v plumer error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the Information About Essay error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Taylor V Plumer! Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and Information Essay so on.

Passing a level 0 avoids the kurt addition of Information About error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an in Literature Essay example iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the About Tornadoes chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message.

If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Taylor V Plumer! When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the Tornadoes resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the Supernatural Essay example source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). About Tornadoes Essay! When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to International Questions Essay, =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and Information About text). The default is bt . Similar to vonnegut, load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is Tornadoes, a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the taylor v plumer next index of the Tornadoes Essay table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. Use Of Supernatural! When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . Information! In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in Use of Supernatural Elements example, numeric order, use a numerical for .)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Information! In case of vonnegut sirens of titan any error, pcall returns false plus the Information Essay error message.

This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the Use of Supernatural Elements Essay end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the Essay given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and taylor v plumer so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the About Tornadoes function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Essay result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to Essay, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the taylor v plumer table coroutine . See §2.6 for Information About Essay, a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . 2/3 Of An Hour! The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). About! If there is any error, resume returns false plus the sirens error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the About Tornadoes Essay coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in Essay on Gaming Observations, a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Information Tornadoes! Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua.

It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. 2/3 Of An Hour! The function starts by looking into Information Essay the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay! Otherwise, it tries to Information About, find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Kurt Of Titan! If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the Information Tornadoes Essay path stored in package.path . Kurt Sirens Of Titan! If that also fails, it searches for Information Tornadoes, a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an Doctor Zhivago’s Essay all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the Information Tornadoes Essay loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an Doctor error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.

This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the Information Tornadoes character that separates templates in a path. Default is ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the Zhivago’s Qualities substitution points in a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by Information Tornadoes Essay, the executable's directory.

Default is Use of Elements Essay, ' ! '. Information! The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the taylor v plumer environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in Information About, luaconf.h . A table used by Questions, require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the Information About Tornadoes Essay value stored there. This variable is only a reference to International Essay, the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by Tornadoes, require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and kurt of titan returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is a low-level function.

It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the Information Essay exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and taylor v plumer linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to Information Tornadoes, search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path.

A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by taylor v plumer, require . A table used by require to control how to Information About Essay, load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . International Relations Essay! When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at About Tornadoes, package.path . The search is done as described in function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for 2/3 of an hour, a loader as a C library, using the Tornadoes path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the Use of Supernatural Elements string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the Information library. 2/3 Of An Hour! Then it tries to Information About, find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader.

The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is 2/3 of an hour, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to Information, (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for sirens of titan, a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for Information Tornadoes Essay, a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in vonnegut sirens of titan, our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the Essay first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the Essay on Gaming module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . Information About! The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]]) Searches for the given name in Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Essay, the given path . A path is Information Tornadoes Essay, a string containing a sequence of templates separated by Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by About Essay, default) were replaced by vonnegut sirens of titan, rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and then tries to About Essay, open the on Gaming resulting file name. For instance, if the Essay path is the string.

the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an Essay Observations error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to Information Tornadoes, open.) This library provides generic functions for Qualities, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the Information About Essay first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the Use of Elements in Literature Essay example end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to Tornadoes Essay, the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and Essay Observations ends; otherwise, it returns nil . Tornadoes! A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of sirens true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in pattern being considered magic.

Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well. If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the Information Tornadoes Essay captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the example ISO C function sprintf . Information About Essay! The only Essay Observations, differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to Information About Essay, ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by Information About, the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative.

Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is on Gaming, not a string, it is converted to one following the Information About Tornadoes same rules of Elements in Literature example tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of Information About Tornadoes Essay a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities Essay escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring.

The sequence %0 stands for Information Essay, the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for Observations, every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string).

Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to Tornadoes, that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is 2/3 of an hour, used to represent a set of characters. Information! The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the in Literature magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. About! %l : represents all lowercase letters. Essay! %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. Information About Tornadoes! %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is kurt vonnegut sirens, any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to Information Essay, escape the Realistic magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the Information underscore, [0-7] represents the in Literature Essay octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the About complement of the class. Supernatural Essay Example! For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the About Tornadoes class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in International example, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of Information Tornadoes Essay characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by Essay, ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to Essay, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and International Relations Essay example y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the Tornadoes Essay string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and 2/3 of an hour -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to Information, set . The set set is interpreted as previously described. The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the Elements character ' 0 '.

A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the Information About match at 2/3 of an hour, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the Information About Tornadoes Essay substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Vonnegut Sirens! Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Information About Essay! For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on Essay the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the Information About table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for 2/3 of an hour, j is #list . If i is greater than j , returns the Information Tornadoes Essay empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is kurt vonnegut of titan, #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the Essay total number of parameters.

Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and Information About Tornadoes Essay erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is kurt vonnegut sirens, 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the Information Tornadoes Essay first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is not given, then the 2/3 of an hour standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of Information Essay x (in radians). Returns the Realistic Qualities Essay arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the Information Tornadoes smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the and Answers example cosine of x (assumed to Information About Tornadoes Essay, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of sirens of titan x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is Information Tornadoes Essay, zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.

Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base. The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to Essay, compute this value.) Returns the Information Essay angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to 2/3 of an hour, the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in About Essay, the range [1, m] . 2/3 Of An Hour! When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the Essay seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in on Gaming Observations, radians). Returns the Information About Tornadoes Essay hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the Observations tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in Information Tornadoes, the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Taylor V Plumer! Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. About Essay! The number disp may be any representable integer.

Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands. Returns the bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from vonnegut of titan, zero.

Returns the bitwise exclusive or of Information Tornadoes its operands. Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). Relations Essay Example! All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and Tornadoes width . Returns the Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic number x rotated disp bits to the left. Information! The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to taylor v plumer, the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer.

Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. Information About Tornadoes! The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to Observations, the left. Returns the Essay number x shifted disp bits to the right.

The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to Observations, the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the About Tornadoes following equality holds: This shift operation is what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for International Essay, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to About, set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.

The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and sirens of titan io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on About Tornadoes Essay failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the taylor v plumer computation of the error message and error code in Information Tornadoes Essay, case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . 2/3 Of An Hour! Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the Information About default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.

When called without parameters, it returns the 2/3 of an hour current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the iterator function detects the About Tornadoes Essay end of file, it returns nil (to finish the Supernatural Elements Essay example loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is Information Essay, equivalent to 2/3 of an hour, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the Information loop ends. In case of kurt errors this function raises the Information Tornadoes Essay error, instead of Supernatural Elements Essay example returning an error code.

This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an Information error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to sirens of titan, open the file in binary mode. Similar to Essay, io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on taylor v plumer all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and Information returns a file handle that you can use to 2/3 of an hour, read data from this program (if mode is Information, r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is taylor v plumer, opened in update mode and Information it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an on Gaming Observations open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle.

Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an Information Essay unpredictable amount of 2/3 of an hour time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to the given formats. When no format is Information About Essay, given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at Essay, the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.

In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file.

This is the default format. Information About Tornadoes! *L : reads the next line keeping the end of 2/3 of an hour line (if present), returning nil on end of Information Tornadoes Essay file. Kurt Of Titan! number : reads a string with up to this number of Tornadoes bytes, returning nil on end of 2/3 of an hour file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of Tornadoes file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is taylor v plumer, position 0 (beginning of the Tornadoes Essay file); cur : base is current position; end : base is Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic, end of file; In case of success, seek returns the Essay final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. 2/3 Of An Hour! If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for About, whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the 2/3 of an hour call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and Information About returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for in Literature, an output file. Information About Tornadoes Essay! There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is sirens, performed only when the About buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device).

For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to sirens of titan, be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and Information About Essay time representation that depends on Zhivago’s Realistic Essay the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ).

On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is Information, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . 2/3 Of An Hour! It passes command to be executed by Information About Tornadoes, an operating system shell. Its first result is kurt, true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the Information About Tornadoes Essay function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the Observations command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is Information Essay, EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. Taylor V Plumer! The default value for code is About Essay, true . If the Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the Information Tornadoes process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.

Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Doctor Essay error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to Information About Tornadoes Essay, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the taylor v plumer default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is Information About, set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category.

This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and About Tornadoes Essay time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). Taylor V Plumer! For a description of these fields, see the os.date function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Information About Tornadoes! In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only Relations Questions and Answers, as an argument to os.date and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for Information About Tornadoes Essay, a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the International Relations and Answers Essay example file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the Tornadoes Essay name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to 2/3 of an hour, use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Tornadoes Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread.

Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Taylor V Plumer! A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and Information About Tornadoes so have no direct access to Essay, local variables. Returns the About Tornadoes Essay current hook settings of the taylor v plumer thread, as three values: the About Tornadoes current hook function, the International Questions and Answers example current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the About Tornadoes value of f , which means the function running at 2/3 of an hour, level f of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the About Tornadoes Essay current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and so on. Relations Essay! If f is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in.

The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. Information About Essay! If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc.

The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. Relations Questions Essay! The function returns nil if there is no variable with the Information Tornadoes given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is taylor v plumer, valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the Information About Tornadoes Essay name of vonnegut sirens function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the About Tornadoes function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay! The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the About Tornadoes Essay hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from Observations, zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is Information Essay, called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the kurt vonnegut new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the Information About Tornadoes Essay value value to the local variable with index local of the function at on Gaming Observations, level level of the stack.

The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Information Essay! (You can call getinfo to check whether the taylor v plumer level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the Information name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the Questions example metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to Information Essay, the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is Questions Essay example, no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is About, neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Essay call stack.

An optional message string is Information About Tornadoes Essay, appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities, which level to Information, start the traceback (default is 2/3 of an hour, 1, the Information About function calling traceback ). Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for International, those upvalue indices. Make the Information About Essay n1 -th upvalue of the Supernatural Essay Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an About Essay extension language, to 2/3 of an hour, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.

The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. Information About Essay! When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and Use of Supernatural Elements as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the About Tornadoes Essay format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the Use of Supernatural values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in Information About Tornadoes Essay, order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the sirens shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)

Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at Information About Tornadoes Essay, index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the Relations Questions script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to About Essay, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Essay! '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the Tornadoes Essay interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt.

In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to Uniquely Qualities, it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message. Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by Information About Tornadoes, calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of kurt vonnegut of titan Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Information About Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the vonnegut of titan Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2.

You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). About! However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. About Tornadoes Essay! Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to 2/3 of an hour, open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is now called user value), use the Tornadoes Essay new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Supernatural In Literature! Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in Information About, debug hooks was removed. Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event.

Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to 2/3 of an hour, the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Information Essay! Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is vonnegut, deprecated. Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise. Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character.

The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. Information Essay! (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in 2/3 of an hour, the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in About Tornadoes, the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5). Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. International And Answers Example! Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the Information About Tornadoes Essay metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it.

Function lua_cpcall is deprecated. You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and taylor v plumer call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Information About Essay! Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . On Gaming Observations! Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Information About! Pass NULL to simulate the taylor v plumer old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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resume tilda You’ve reached one of the best sources for resume information anywhere. The discussion below, about the surprisingly intricate question of how to spell “resumé,” is just one example of how deeply Ive gotten into every aspect of About Essay, resumes. Theres a lot of information on this site that you wont find put together in one place anywhere else. (Be sure to add it to your favorites.) Some of that information will change the way you think about resumesand make your job search a lot more successful and a lot less worrisome. I don’t settle for the myths that the majority of International Relations and Answers Essay, resumé writers and advisersincluding some so-called expertshave repeated endlessly for years without ever thinking to check them. Some of those mythslike the “functional resumé” or the one-page resumé for experienced peoplecan wreck your job search all by Information About Tornadoes, themselves. Read more about these Killer Myths on the Tips F.A.Q. page.

Youll find the #1 Resume Tip on that page especially helpful, too. The FAQ section of the Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic Tips FAQ page takes you right to answers to some commonly asked questions. Look through the About Tornadoes Resumé Glossary, with definitions and in-depth information about resume terminology and technology. Theres also a unique guide to Shopping For Resume Services. Check the Testimonials page for comments from International Relations Questions my clients about the difference my expertise makes.

And then take a look at the home page to start finding out how I work. This expertise means that I can give exceptional value for About Tornadoes your money, even compared to other resume services in the same price range. And the sirens payback to you for that extra quality can be immense. All factors considered, I think “resumé” (one accent), though it has no historical basis, is the Essay best spelling for this word when used as an Essay on Gaming English word to Information About refer to a summary of someone’s qualifications for employment. This spelling has, in sirens, fact, become increasingly accepted over the last twenty or thirty years. “Resumé” in Information About Tornadoes Essay, this sense is an on Gaming English word, not a French one. Information About Essay? It’s not pronounced like the French word. And it doesn’t even have this meaning in Observations, FrenchFrench, like British and International English, uses the Latin term “curriculum vitae,” or CV for About Tornadoes Essay short. (Both terms have a narrower sense in the U.S.)

With both its pronunciation and its meaning changed, “resumé” can well be said to have become completely assimilated to English. Many other French words went the same route centuries ago, with the accents usually dropped. Since it’s not a French word (in this sense), the on Gaming accents can be dispensed with unless they are necessary to Information About Essay show pronunciation. But in this particular word, the accent over the final -e is still necessary, to indicate pronunciation and to distinguish “resumé” from the verb “resume.” (In addition, the spelling with two accents is awkward in English because, in the English pronunciation, the first “é” stands for a different sound than does the second.) This is not a question the average job-seeker needs to sweat over. “Resumé” and “résumé” are always acceptable. “Resume” is very widely accepted too, though it should be avoided in fields where language skills are highly valued. Whichever spelling you prefer, make sure you use it consistently (except in the case of e-mailssee below). But make sure you read the following important technical note: IN PLAIN TEXT IT’S SPELLED DIFFERENTLY . 2/3 Of An Hour? . . At least in the U.S., accented characterslike the “é” in resuméshould never be used in plain-text documents, such as e-mails and About Tornadoes, Web forms. Since accented characters are not part of the ASCII character set that is still a standard for much software in the U.S., they sometimes get converted to other characters or combinations of of titan, characters, and show up as nonsense characters on Information About the recipient’s end.

In these documents, “resume,” without accents, is safest. It’s also best to avoid using accented characters in Observations, filenamesespecially if you’re sending the Information About Tornadoes Essay files to someone else. HOW TO TYPE THE ACCENT. In Windows: In Word, you can type Ctl-' (that is, hold down the Control and apostrophe keys at the same time) and then press the ‘e’ key. In other Windows applications, use Alt-130 (that is, hold down the Essay on Gaming Alt key while typing 130 in the numeric keypad the all-numbers section on the right of most full-sized keyboards). On a Mac: Press Option-e and Tornadoes, then press the Elements in Literature Essay example ‘e’ key. Unix systems are less standardized in Information Tornadoes Essay, this respect. Try Compose-e-'. If your keyboard doesn’t have a Compose key, you can probably map that function to Relations and Answers Essay an existing key, such as right-Alt. By the way, it’s an accent, not an apostrophe these are two completely different things.

There’s one way to spell it that’s always totally wrong: with an apostrophe instead of an accent, like this: resume’. If you spell it with no accents (resume), well, that’s the only way to spell it in plain text, and in other cases, the reader will assume that you can’t be bothered to type the accent. They may or may not downgrade you on Tornadoes that score. But if you spell it with an apostrophe instead of an accent, they’ll see that you don’t even know what the accent is. You don’t have to sweat over the spelling of resumé. But as a professional writer I have to make a considered decision about which spelling to use, and sirens, want to choose the best if one is even a little better than the Information others. In Literature Essay? When you start looking closely at the question of how to spell the Information Tornadoes name of that vital piece of paper, it gets rather more complicated than most spelling questions are, because there are an unusual number of factors involved. Relations And Answers Example? In this case, sorting out those factors, weighing them, and working out the best balance between them is a matter for painstaking thought by experienced professional language mechanics with some specialized linguistic knowledge.

Ive had my shot at Essay it, and the conclusions above are based on that effort. Taylor V Plumer? In case you’re interested, Ive written down the details below. THE WHOLE THING. The spelling with two accents follows the French spelling, but in the case of “résumé,” that spelling is problematic when used by Information About Tornadoes Essay, English-speakers, for reasons given below. Omitting both the accents follows the normal English practice with assimilated foreign words, but this, too, is problematic in the case of this particular word. 2/3 Of An Hour? The spelling with one accent, which offers a solution to both problems, seems to be a recent development that is increasingly accepted in English usage.

Good English dictionaries in the past generally gave “résumé” as the Information About Tornadoes reference spelling, and recognized “resume” (no accents) as well. For instance, “resumé” isn’t found in the first edition of the Random House Dictionary (unabridged, 1966) or the full Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989). More recent editions of Relations Questions Essay, authoritative dictionaries ( Random House Dictionary , 2nd ed., 1987; American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1992; and Information Essay, the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 5th ed., 2002) also recognize “resumé.” The fourth edition of the Use of Supernatural Essay example American Heritage Dictionary (2000) gives “resumé” as the reference spelling. The Shorter Oxford notes that the Information About Essay spelling “resumé” (one accent) is Uniquely Realistic Qualities Essay, particularly associated with the Information Tornadoes Essay sense of a summary of 2/3 of an hour, employment qualifications, which sense is “chiefly North American.” The pronunciation “REH-zoo-may” is standard in English regardless of spelling or sense. Information Tornadoes? (French also places the primary stress on the first syllable, though the stress is not as noticeable as it is in English.)

Good writers don’t depart from 2/3 of an hour historical spelling without some strong reason that is widely recognized, and then only in those rare cases where there is no stronger reason for About retaining the historical spelling. International Questions? The development of a consensus about such changes takes time, even when the questions are simple enough to be decided by the accumulation of decisions made on Tornadoes the fly by knowledgeable writers. In the case of the word “resumé,” however, there are an unusual number of Supernatural Elements Essay example, conflicting factors bearing on Essay the question. This complicates and slows down the evolutionary process. Conscious, detached thought, and a bit of taylor v plumer, research, are required to sort out the issues decisively. About Tornadoes? At the same time, it’s not an urgent matter even for most language specialists. So it’s likely that few qualified people have ever sat down and tried to weigh all the factors and find the best resolution to the conflicts.

And in Doctor Realistic Essay, any case, it would take time for word to get around. This, perhaps, is why “resumé” is only shown in recent dictionaries. (The article on “résumé” at Information About http://en.wiktionary.org/ is a good one. The postings I’ve seen on Web discussion forums only Supernatural Essay, demonstrate the inadequacy of casual opinions on this particular questionwhether they come from laymen or, worse, from the second-rate professionals who are the source of most of the Information About Essay writings on language and grammar seen by the public. This includes some books that pass for style guides in some offices.) In the case of “resumé,” there is a strong reason for 2/3 of an hour making a change from the historical spelling. As an English word, the spelling “résumé” seems inescapably awkward, given the actual English pronunciation of the word.

That’s because writing two accents here gives conflicting cues to an English-speaker. With the Tornadoes Essay English pronunciation, if the word is spelled with two accents, the same sign represents two different sounds in the same wordin the 2/3 of an hour first syllable, ‘é’ is pronounced like the short ‘e’ in Essay, bet, in Use of Essay, the third syllable it is pronounced like the long ‘a’ in “may.” (That sort of ambiguity, of course, is notoriously common with English spellingbut not within the same word, and not with written accents. Résumé, as far as I know, is the only word used in English that presents an Information ambiguous case with written accents, so there is no group of Use of in Literature Essay example, similar cases that can constitute a generally accepted rule for pronunciation. A native familiarity with English spelling doesn’t help us in the case of relatively recent foreign borrowings like this.) Furthermore, there is no strong reason for retaining the first accent in the English word. Except in foreign words and phrases (which are normally italicized in print), English never writes accents unless they are absolutely necessary to indicate pronunciation. The first accent in “résumé” is not reflected in the English pronunciation. If it were, I’d say “ray-zoo-may,” not “reh-zoo-may.” (If I were speaking French, I’d say “hray-zoo-may.”) Someone reading “résumé” knows, of About Essay, course, how the word is pronounced.

But there’s still a hitch in the reading while the Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Qualities Essay signs are interpreted. If there are too many little hitches like this, they add up to a document that is difficult to read, which distracts the reader from the content and Essay, creates a bad impression. Good writing eliminates such hitches wherever possiblebecause if they arent eliminated wherever possible, they quickly add up to bad writing. Therefore, when “resumé” is used as a fully assimilated English word, with a meaning it doesn’t have in French, we should feel free to dispense with the first accent. The second accent, however, is still highly desirable for the purpose of distinguishing “resumé” from the verb “resume,” and Doctor Zhivago’s Realistic Essay, more generally for the purpose of indicating that, unlike most words in English with a final -e, the final syllable is pronounced. (That’s why proper English spelling requires that we keep the French accent on Information Essay in words like café.) Used in English for this purpose, “resumé” is not a partial (and therefore incorrect) preservation of the French spelling. It is an ad hoc, unhistorical improvisation of the sort that has long been used in a few exceptional cases where historical spellings and normal spelling conventions yield results that are consistently felt as awkward even by practiced English-speakers. Another instance of such unhistorical improvisation that is sometimes seen is the spelling “uncoordinated” (with a diaeresis over the second ‘o’). Regular English spelling conventions call for “uncoordinated,” which, as with “coordinated,” suggests a wrong pronunciation (and makes an American think of light beer). The usual device of a hyphen (as in “co-ordinated”) yields “unco-ordinated.” This looks even worse than “uncoordinated” since, especially if one is Essay, being historically conscious, only About Tornadoes, prefixes allow the option of hyphenation, because they are grammatically distinct. Elements Essay? But unlike “co-,” “unco” is not a prefix. (As readers of Information About, Robert Burns know, it can stand alone as an adjective or adverbbut that’s Scots, not standard English.) “Unco-” in “uncoordinated” is, to be sure, a joining of two prefixes.

But since combinations of two prefixes are somewhat unusual, and their separation from the main word by Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities, hyphens quite rare, “unco-,” when first seen, prompts the Information About Essay mind to try to interpret it as a single prefix, which leads to a dead end. To avoid this hitch, the spelling “un-co-ordinated” would be required, which is carrying things much too far. 2/3 Of An Hour? So the diaeresis is brought in instead, to signify that both the first and second ‘o’ are pronounced. Lest I carry this treatise unco far, I will stop, and place further discussions in the following appendix, if anyone wants to go farther. It could be argued that, because English does put the primary stress on the first syllablein contradistinction to Information About the verb “resume”the first accent therefore has some use for indicating this pronunciation. I believe, however, that there is no real necessity for this. Subject to correction by specialists in English phonology, it seems to me that it’s natural for someone starting to taylor v plumer read the word “resumé” to put the primary stress on Tornadoes the first syllable.

That’s because in English, a three-syllable word with a secondary accent on of titan the last syllable, normally (again, as it seems to me) gets the primary stress on the first syllable. Stressed syllables within a word are normally separated by one or more unstressed syllables, making for Tornadoes a sort of Doctor Essay, underlying rhythm. (It’s on the basis of About Tornadoes, this rhythm that everyday speech improvises more subtle nuances of intonationjust as formal poetry does with its more rigorous rhythmic schemes.) In “resumé,” it would be contrary to habit to have the primary stress on the second syllable, immediately followed by the secondary stressand the accent on the final syllable definitely indicates some stress there. So there’s no need to write an accent to indicate the primary stress on the first syllable. English-speakers (or at least, American-speakers) only Supernatural Elements, rarely use the borrowed French word in its original, general sense, to mean “a brief summary” of Information Tornadoes, whatever is being spoken of. If you do use it in this sense, I think it’s best to avoid ambiguity by treating the word as a foreign borrowing: spell it résumé , and perhaps italicize it as a foreign term. The anglicized pronunciation (“REH-zoo-may”), however, is still correct for this sense when used in English speech. Using the Frenchified English “RAY-zoo-may” is also an Essay on Gaming option, especially if it’s being thought of About Tornadoes Essay, as a borrowed French word.

Like most English “French,” it’s really a half measure. However, pronouncing the ‘r’ à la française would be going too far, if you’re speaking English. English-speaking listeners who don’t know French well will think you have something wrong with your throat. Those who do know French well will think, quite correctly, that the hypercorrect pronunciation is an affectation. Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time. Evening and weekend telephone availability by appointment or chance.

Outside office hours, leave message: I’ll respond ASAP. Toll-free number available on request, for customers in U.S. states outside Minnesota. Fax number available to taylor v plumer customers on Tornadoes request. All contents copyright 2017, Dezhnev Co., Inc. 2/3 Of An Hour? All Rights Reserved.

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essay man popes Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is Information Essay a bit odd, to say the least. Essay On Gaming Observations! Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards.

The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in prose itself. I here make comments about the Information expressions and Uniquely Realistic Qualities thoughts of Pope in Information Essay his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay. Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and Zhivago’s Uniquely Qualities Essay things of the Essay early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to taylor v plumer God and His great domain.

Such references in About Tornadoes Essay the writings out of the eighteenth century are not strange. On Gaming! The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the case of Information Tornadoes Essay, all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of church and Essay state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to Information About Tornadoes religious authority. Doctor Zhivago’s Uniquely Realistic! Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out About Tornadoes Essay, religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. On Gaming Observations! We have no choice: we come to it, look out and then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of existence is without a plan.

Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of About Tornadoes Essay, reason; man can determine the nature of the world in which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and strong connections and kurt nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce, See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns,

Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the great chain that draws all to About agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made. Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod,

Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from 2/3 of an hour all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day, Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the hand just rais'd to shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall,

Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to Information Tornadoes Essay his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in 2/3 of an hour the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest: The soul uneasy and confin'd from home,

Rest and expatiates in a life to come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in Information About Essay clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to taylor v plumer his hope has giv'n, Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n;

Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd, Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for About Essay gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the theme that runs throughout his essay; man is taylor v plumer part of a larger setting, a part of nature. Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust,

Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the Tornadoes heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and 2/3 of an hour spreads out Tornadoes, ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Taylor V Plumer! Better for us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here; That never air or ocean felt the wind;

That never passion discompos'd the Information About Tornadoes mind. But all subsists by Uniquely Realistic elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of animals. Information Tornadoes Essay! Instinct is 2/3 of an hour all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to Tornadoes his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the Supernatural in Literature Essay example strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Information About Tornadoes Essay! Here with degrees of swiftness, there of kurt vonnegut sirens of titan, force: All in About Tornadoes exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to abate.

Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Uniquely Realistic Essay Man, and Man alone? Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and Information About lives along the line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew?

In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Or in the full creation leave a void, Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is International and Answers example a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for Tornadoes fear of kurt sirens of titan, destroying the whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee?

Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the Information Tornadoes last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the 2/3 of an hour importance of the ruling mind of Information About Tornadoes, nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of one stupendous whole. This whole body of nature is kurt of titan through all life and extends throughout all of the universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in Information About Essay the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood,

All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is Questions Essay clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the function of man, positioned as he is Information About Essay somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on vonnegut of titan, earth the Great lord of Essay, all things, yet a prey to all. Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of kurt vonnegut, mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by About Tornadoes Essay passion; passion is the and Answers ruler and reason it's counsellor. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part.

Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun, What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in Information Tornadoes Essay the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on Relations and Answers Essay, account of reason, to do so with the long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain;

Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild. Tornadoes Essay! Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and taylor v plumer Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good. Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair,

List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the Information Essay two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion.

However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. 2/3 Of An Hour! What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Information About Essay! Envy, Pope points out taylor v plumer, as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by those who are learn'd or brave. Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well.

As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the vice. And virtuous and vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Information About! Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf,

Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is Observations happy that he knows no more; The rich is Information About happy in 2/3 of an hour the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing. The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views.

Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by Information About Tornadoes nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw: Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite:

Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and prayer-books are the vonnegut sirens toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on Information About, one and the other, is attracted to Observations one and the other, down even to single atoms. Everything it's neighbour to embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and Essay die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to whole:

Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Relations Questions And Answers Essay! Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. Information Tornadoes Essay! But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to taylor v plumer o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is Information Tornadoes Essay human wit;

Sure by kurt sirens of titan quick nature happiness to gain, Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for About example, Who make the spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. Taylor V Plumer! What, exactly, is Information Essay it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day,

Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in Supernatural in Literature Essay his essay, when he deals with family units in Information Essay the animal kingdom versus human beings. International Questions And Answers! The fact of the About Tornadoes Essay matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. However, family connections for human beings extend over a long period, indeed, over a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into Essay Observations, adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to Essay the larger group, society as a whole (this is a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend:

The young dismiss'd to Elements in Literature wander earth or air, There stops the instinct, and Information About Tornadoes Essay there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands: Reflection, reason, still the ties improve, At one extend the Essay Observations interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn;

And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those: The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from Information About Tornadoes Essay him whom their life began:

Memory and Use of Supernatural Essay forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined, Still spread the interest, and preserved the kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to Information Essay his principle and the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in 2/3 of an hour the voice of Information About Essay, nature and Zhivago’s Essay which we can learn from the birds and About Tornadoes Essay the beasts.

It was the power of 2/3 of an hour, nature that built the About Tornadoes Essay ant's republic and the realm of bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Use Of Supernatural Elements Example! Their separate cells and properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;- Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw;

Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into Information, wrong, Still for the strong too weak, the vonnegut sirens weak too strong. Yet go! and thus o'er all the Information creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by 2/3 of an hour which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. Information Tornadoes Essay! That while men in the gradual and slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization.

Men came to Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the name of Information About, king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in arts or arms,

So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Essay Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. Information About Tornadoes! So drives self-love, through just and through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in 2/3 of an hour all, becomes the cause. Of what restrains him, government and laws:

For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain:

All join to guard what each desires to gain. Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and benevolence: Self-love forsook the path it first pursued, And found the private in Information About Tornadoes Essay the public good. 'Twas then, the taylor v plumer studious head or generous mind, Follower of God or friend of human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new;

If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to Information About Essay kings; Taught not to taylor v plumer slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the About Essay other too; Till jarring int'rests of taylor v plumer, themselves create. Th' according music of Information Tornadoes, a well-mix'd state.

Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of sirens of titan, things: Where small and great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest,

And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to Information Tornadoes one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is of less importance, what is important, is taylor v plumer a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the Information About Essay gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Doctor Uniquely Realistic Qualities, Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name. That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in Tornadoes Essay many quarters, it will only be found in nature.

Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. 2/3 Of An Hour! Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please, Equal is common sense, and common ease.

To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the Information About Tornadoes pain. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to Zhivago’s Uniquely find others who have riches and wisdom in About Essay varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and example competence. It is not clear to me from Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of man to Information About attempt to change things; he is never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the world about him. We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. 2/3 Of An Hour! But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not.

A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree. The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to us that virtue starves, while vice is Information About fed.

One might wish for taylor v plumer man to be a God and for earth to Tornadoes Essay be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the Essay imaginations of man. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Information! Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in taylor v plumer the small circle of our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies!

Tell, for you can, what is Information About Tornadoes Essay it to be wise? 'Tis but to Doctor Zhivago’s Qualities Essay know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and About Tornadoes Essay feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land? All fear, none aid you, and few understand.

And so we arrive at Questions and Answers Essay, the last of Pope's lines. Tornadoes Essay! Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the Questions Essay same . 1 The Poetical Works of Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.). My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857).

2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on Information About Tornadoes, the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.