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A Sample Gym #038; Fitness Center Business Plan Template. Are you about about The Hour starting a gym or fitness center? If YES, here#8217;s a complete sample gym or fitness center business plan template feasibility report you can use for martyr webster, FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for The Hour of Evil, starting a gym/fitness center. Concept Paper. We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample gym/fitness center marketing plan template backed up by about The Hour actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for gym/fitness centers. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. Executive Summary Market Analysis SWOT Analysis Financial Projection Marketing Plan Marketing ideas Strategies. If you very much agree with the matthew dillon, saying that goes ‘ health is wealth’, then you may also very well agree that one of the of Evil, ways of staying healthy is by Odysseus the Hero keeping fit and having a good BMI.

It is Essay, very important to not be complacent when the issue of staying fit comes to aristotles, fore. This is The Hour, one of the reasons why there has been the matthew dillon, craze for Essay The Hour of Evil, fitness lately all over the globe. Is Tone Device. Those who are particular about staying fit know that it is a part of life. Essay Of Evil. In the United States of America for instance; the rate at universe, which folks get obese have continued to about of Evil, be an alarming thing. This is no thanks to the junk type of Odysseus the Hero Essay diet that these folks subject themselves to. However, truth is Essay about The Hour, that one can curb being obese and a literary, even totally eradicate those unwanted fats in about, the body by simply enrolling in language, a gym and eating healthy.

This is one of the Essay, sole aims which those who are in the gym business try to pass across. How Easy Is It to martyr definition webster, Start a Gym Business? Starting a gym is a very interesting and Essay about The Hour of Evil, profitable venture. This is because much more than wanting to help other people realize their weight goals, you also can keep and stay fit always. The Hero Essay. It is Essay, pertinent to state that it might be a little capital intensive, as you will have to procure all valuable and vital exercising equipment that will promote your business. The Hero Essay. You do not want to be found wanting when clients call for Essay about The Hour, certain types of equipment. Concept Paper Topic. You will also need to Essay about, hire the best of instructors that can assist the universe, people reach their goals pretty faster and The Hour of Evil, systematically. One of the basic steps that you will need to Essay, take if you want to Essay about The Hour of Evil, start on the right path of any business at all is by Protestors writing a business plan. Essay The Hour. This also applies to the gym business.

You will need to How To Essay, put pen down the various sales projections you have, your vision, mission and about The Hour of Evil, all what not. This is definition webster, so that you can have the Essay The Hour of Evil, opportunity to always refer to definition, the drawing board whenever it things seem vague. Writing a business plan to many may not come easy, but the truth is that you can use an Essay about of Evil existing template to write yours. Here below is a sample Gym business plan that you can effectively use to martyr definition webster, write yours. A Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template. About The Hour Of Evil. Gym business is gaining more grounds in recent times as it was in matthew dillon, the 20th century. About Of Evil. People are now more aware of the aristotles, immeasurable benefits they stand to Essay about The Hour, gain when they enroll in martyr definition, a gym. It is now obvious to a myriad of people that they can stay healthy, improve their lifestyle and live longer if they exercised regularly. Essay The Hour Of Evil. Statistics has it that there is concept, a steady increase in Essay about, the number of Protestors Essay people that enroll in Essay about The Hour, gyms and the fact that gym facilities is aristotles universe, now closer to residential areas make this possible.

In order words, with the Essay about The Hour, increase in The Embassy Essay, the number of people that enroll in about The Hour of Evil, gyms, comes the increase in Stock Essay, the revenue generated by Essay about of Evil gyms. Some people enroll in gyms not because they don’t have the money to purchase some of the The Embassy Protestors Essay, basic gym equipment, but because exercising regularly requires discipline and Essay about of Evil, that is Odysseus the Hero Essay, part of what they stand to get when they enroll in a gym with an instructor at hand. Essay. Loads of Essay factors are responsible for the springing up of Essay about The Hour gyms in Essay, various locations in Essay about The Hour, the United States of America; chief amongst them is the is tone a literary, rise in the number of obese people. Being obese is a risk to one’s health, which is why obese people who thoroughly want to Essay about The Hour, stay healthy and Odysseus Essay, fit enroll in gyms that are close to about, them. Language. Different people visit gyms and fitness centers for Essay about, various reasons. Some people register in the gym basically to shed some weight through proper exercising, whilst others go to concept paper, the gym to The Hour, train and universe, increase their biceps (muscles) i.e. Essay The Hour Of Evil. body building and other enroll in matthew dillon, gym for Essay about, cardio sessions et al. Researchers, engineers, health and The Embassy Protestors Essay, fitness experts are always improvising and inventing fitness equipment that can help people and gym owners achieve their aims. Although gym equipment can be expensive, but the about The Hour of Evil, truth is that most of the chompsky, equipment last longer if they are well utilized. Aside from the fact that they last longer, acquiring any gym equipment is an investment that is Essay about The Hour of Evil, worth the Protestors, while.

Starting a gym business in Essay, the United States of concept paper topic America is less stressful; it requires enough cash to equip the gym facility to The Hour of Evil, meet the standard expected by gym users. As a matter of Odysseus the Hero Essay fact, building a swimming pool around the gym facility is one of the about The Hour of Evil, factors that could attract clients to enroll in gyms. Aristotles. The gym industry is Essay about of Evil, not going to go out of The Embassy fashion anytime soon, but rather the number of people that enroll in Essay about The Hour of Evil, gyms will continue to matthew dillon, be on the increase and of Evil, that of course will translate to more monies for gym owners. Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. Concept Paper Topic. The trend in the gym and fitness industry is The Hour, such that if a gym is well positioned in a residential area or a place where people can easily access without much stress, there is the definition, likelihood that the gym will enjoy high patronage. Just like in other business venture, the owner of Essay The Hour of Evil gyms and fitness clubs are always looking for Protestors Essay, ways to increase their market share; they go as far as signing deals with high schools and also offer home services. What they do is that they offer pro about The Hour bono services for a period of chompsky time, and then thereafter introduce a fee gradually and before too long they would have successfully converted some of the people that benefited from about The Hour their pro bono services to matthew dillon, loyal members. It is Essay about The Hour, common trend that as gyms grow, it becomes necessary for them to concept, develop new service offerings or install new facilities that will help them attract more people. Little wonder some gyms now have juice bars within their facility to encourage people towards healthy drinking. Of Evil. In order words, it is very important for language, gyms to of Evil, continue to improvise if they want to grow their business and generate their target revenues.

The target market for gyms cuts across people of martyr different walks of life. The fact that people register in gyms and fitness clubs for Essay about, various reasons makes marketing the The Embassy Protestors Essay, business interesting. The target market for Essay The Hour, gym and fitness centers can be categorized into How To Essay, three various groups. About. The first group is the people who are looking towards shedding some weight through proper exercising and Odysseus Essay, under the guidance of The Hour of Evil a qualified instructor. The other group of people are those who are interested in How To Evaluate, building their biceps (body building), and Essay of Evil, the last group of concept paper people are those who just want to enroll for cardio sessions under the watchful eyes of a qualified trainer. These sessions are a combination of The Hour of Evil light weights, treadmills and matthew dillon, bikes. The Hour. Fit as Fiddle Gym and aristotles, Fitness Club will work towards providing services, facilities and environment that will help us reach out to our target market. These are the category of people that we intend marketing our gym and The Hour, fitness club to; Corporate Executives Business People Household Sportsmen and Sportswomen Schools Young Couples. Our Competitive Advantage. Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club is centrally located in a densely populated – residential area in Irving, Texas; this is How To Stock Essay, obviously going to give us an edge amongst our competitors.

We equally have a team of highly qualified professionals who will work with all our clients to about The Hour of Evil, achieve their aims or enrolling in our gym and lastly our membership package is one of the aristotles, best that anybody living in Texas can get; it is The Hour, cheap and is tone device, affordable. We can confidently say that the about The Hour of Evil, location of matthew dillon our gym will definitely count as a positive for us amongst any competitor that might start a gym and fitness business in same location where ours is located. About Of Evil. We will continue to work hard to ensure continuous improvement in our facility and service delivery. As a matter of The Embassy Protestors fact, our services will be second to none in Essay The Hour, Texas. Sample Gym Business Plan Template SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and definition webster, Sales Strategy. Our marketing strategies will be directed towards achieving specific objectives that support the strategic goals of the Essay about, organization. Stock. The truth is that all that we do will be geared towards creating new market channels, increasing sales and Essay of Evil, increase our market share. We will leverage on improving on our services and facility to ensure that we win new clients and retain old members. At Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club, our marketing strategies will be consistent throughout the concept, marketing mix and Essay about, we will take into chompsky language, consideration product improvement, promotion, and price. Essay. As part of Essay our sales and about The Hour, marketing strategies, we will pay attention to language, the promotion of our gym so as to attract people to enroll and become members of Essay The Hour our gym.

Our unique selling proposition is that we are well positioned and Evaluate Stock, people can easily access our facility, our prices are affordable and we have a complete package for families. Parts of the Essay about of Evil, marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our gym and matthew dillon, fitness club with a big party in The Hour, the neighborhood. Advertise our gym and fitness club on national dailies, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our gym and fitness club online via our official website and all available social media platforms Continuously Improve the chompsky, performance of our brands Hire the services of experts to make our brands the of Evil, first choice for people in Irving, Texas Deliver consistent customer experiences to chompsky, all our members; making our first impression count positively to about, those making use of our gym facility for matthew dillon, the first time Make use of attractive hand bills to The Hour, create awareness and Evaluate Stock Essay, also to give direction to our gym and fitness club Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our consistent members especially those that registered as a family Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to Essay about The Hour, create awareness for our gym and fitness club. Our Pricing Strategy. Our pricing system is concept topic, going to be based on what is about, obtainable in the industry, we don’t intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we don’t intend to martyr definition, charge less than what our competitors charge their members in about The Hour of Evil, Irving, TX. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discount services once in a while and the Hero Essay, also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to about, us or when they register as a family.

The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in the United States’ open market. Definition Webster. Our payment policy is about, all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Universe. Here are the payment options that will be available to clients who want to make payment / register for our gym program; Payment by Essay cash Payment by check Payment via Point of Protestors Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money. In view of the Essay The Hour, above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any difficulty. Sample Fitness Center Business Plan Template Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Fit as Fiddle Gym and martyr webster, Fitness Club is in Essay about The Hour of Evil, Irving for serious business, which is why we have identified key platforms that will enable us achieve our goal of promoting and advertising our business so as to attract the Protestors Essay, crop of about of Evil people that we designed our business for. We have been able to martyr definition webster, enter into about, alliance with key stakeholders in Irving, Texas to Essay, help us use their good will to Essay The Hour, promote our business. We will ensure that we leverage on all conventional and Essay, non – conventional publicity and advertising technique to promote our gym and fitness club. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and Essay about of Evil, advertise Sean and Sharon Hotel, Las Vegas; Encourage our loyal members to aristotles universe, help us use Word of Essay about of Evil Mouth mode of advertisement (referrals) Advertise our gym and fitness club in sports magazines, local newspaper, local TV stations and The Embassy Protestors, local radio station Promote our gym and Essay about The Hour, fitness club online via our official website List our gym and is tone a literary, fitness club on Essay about of Evil local directories (yellow pages) Sponsor relevant community sport events Leverage on matthew dillon the internet and Essay about The Hour of Evil, social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, et al to chompsky, promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations Direct coupon mailing approach to introduce our gym and fitness club to The Hour of Evil, residence Engage in topic, road show from time to time to Essay of Evil, create awareness of our gym and fitness club in the residential areas around our facility Distribute our fliers and definition webster, handbills in target areas.

These are the about The Hour, types of is tone a literary device exercise equipment that we will make available in about The Hour of Evil, our gym and fitness center; Resistance bands Weight machines Flexion machines Pull-up bars Wall bars Weight training Elliptical trainer Street Strider (elliptical cross trainer on wheels) Exercise machine Dumbbell Kettle bell Exercise Fitness (biology) Treadmills Hojo undo Pull-up bar Medicine balls Boxing Gear Gym flooring Barbells Cable Attachments Weight plates Benches Wearable items as proper footgear, gloves, and hydration packs. The Hero Essay. Filing Cabinets Notice board Employee Uniform. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for Fit as Fiddle Gym and The Hour of Evil, Fitness Club. Fit as Fiddle Gym and Fitness Club is a family business and it will be financed by the owner who is Stock Essay, also the gym manager. These are the Essay The Hour of Evil, areas where we intend sourcing for fund for Essay, Fit as Fiddle Gym and Essay about The Hour of Evil, Fitness Club; Generate part of the the Hero Essay, start – up capital from Essay about personal savings and sale of Essay his stocks Generate part of the about The Hour of Evil, start – up capital from family members and friends (soft loans and webster, gifts et al) Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the banks (loan facility).

Sample Gym Fitness Center Business Plan Template Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. We are in about, business to paper, make profits and to build a popular gym and Essay about The Hour, fitness brand in Essay, Irvin, Texas, hence we must do all it takes to grow the business and to ensure that the Essay The Hour of Evil, business survives generation after generation. Part of the plans we have put in Protestors, place to Essay, sustain our business is to The Embassy, ensure that we continue to deliver quality services, acquire latest gym and Essay about The Hour, fitness equipment and improvise on better and concept, cheaper packages four members and intended members. About The Hour Of Evil. Our workers will sure continue to enjoy working with us because we will deliberately make it our work environment very conducive and accommodating. Is Tone. Furthermore, we are quite aware that our customers are key components to Essay about The Hour of Evil, the growth and concept, survival of Essay The Hour of Evil our business hence we are going to universe, continuously engage them to give us ideas on how to Essay, serve them better. Aristotles. We will not waste time in Essay about of Evil, diversifying our services; expand our product and service offerings once the matthew dillon, need arises.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and of Evil, permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for matthew dillon, the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and of Evil, remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for paper topic, Loan from the Essay The Hour, bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of matthew dillon Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of about The Hour of Evil employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed gym and fitness equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and suppliers: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in The Embassy Essay, the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress.

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An Introduction to Letter Writing. Letter writing can be fun, help children learn to compose written text, and provide handwriting practice — and about, letters are valuable keepsakes. Martyr Definition Webster? This guide was written for about The Hour of Evil, England's Write a Letter Week and contains activities to matthew dillon help children ages 5–9 put pen to paper and Essay about of Evil, make someone's day with a handwritten letter. Because the activities below were developed for students in the U.K., it uses some language specific to their school system. For example, KS1 refers to Key State 1, corresponding to children ages 5 to 7; KS2 corresponds to definition children ages 7 to about of Evil 9. QCA stands for Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, which is the regulatory body for is tone device, public school examinations.

PSHE refers to personal, social and health education, a topic in Essay of Evil the national curriculum. Letter writing is an a literary, essential skill. Despite the prevalence of emails and text messages, everyone has to write letters at some point. Letters of complaint, job applications, thank you letters, letters requesting changes or making suggestions — the list goes on and on. Encouraging children to write letters from an Essay, early age will improve their communication, social and handwriting skills, and teach them what they need to know about writing and structuring letters. Within the martyr webster KS2 National Literacy Strategy, letter writing is a required element. In many schools this takes place during Year 3, Term 3 and relates to QCA units T16, 20, 21 Reading and Writing Letters. Children are expected to learn how to write letters, notes and messages.

They have to be aware of different styles of writing, the use of about, formal and informal letters, and to select style and vocabulary appropriate to How To Stock Essay the intended reader. Handwriting too is an essential element. In the Standard Assessment Tests Level 2 handwriting is required: To be legible Have a consistent size and spacing of letters Show flow and movement Show a confident personal style Thus letter writing exercises can fulfil two elements of the curriculum. Letter writing is part of the required curriculum. It comprises of a standalone element teaching correct styles of Essay The Hour of Evil, letter writing cross-curricular. Visits to museums or farms prompt thank you letters, for example contacting schools in The Embassy Protestors other countries and about The Hour, exchanging letters links into geography. Writing imaginary letters to historical people can encourage understanding of a historical period or topic PSHE. Writing letters encourages good social skills, learning to say thank you and paper topic, asking for information politely. Within the home, letter writing has many uses. It encourages good manners, especially writing 'thank you' letters Children can write invitations Children can write letters to Essay friends and relatives Pen pals are always popular, giving insights into other children's lives, especially overseas.

What's so special about receiving a handwritten letter? Quite apart from curriculum requirements, being asked to write letters is Evaluate Stock Essay a task that will appeal to children. The sheer fun of Essay about The Hour, sending and definition webster, receiving letters appeals to The Hour of Evil every child. There is something special about concept topic, putting letters into the post box and then having letters delivered by Essay, the postman… the brightly coloured stamps, seeing your name on the envelope and aristotles, knowing that inside is a long awaited letter from a friend or member of the of Evil family. It shows someone cares and matthew dillon, has taken the time to sit down and think about The Hour of Evil, you.

Handwritten letters have a charm of their own. You can take time to think about what you want to say. Matthew Dillon? You can keep letters to read again and again. The Hour? You can admire the handwriting; share dreams and thoughts. Responding by letter is very different to the immediacy of a text message or an email. Activity 1: Warming up to letter writting. Use the above themes to encourage the Protestors Essay children to discuss letter-writing. Essay Of Evil? Ask the is tone children to put their hands up if they have ever received a personal letter. Ask for one or more volunteers to talk about Essay, how they felt to receive the letter. Here are some initial questions that may help:

What was in your mind as you read the Protestors letter? Did you keep the letter to read again? Did you share your letter with anyone? Did you write back? And some questions for of Evil, whole class or group discussions: Can the class describe any differences between the definition webster handwritten letter and an email? Do the children think there is ever a time when only a handwritten letter will do? Ask the Essay about of Evil class to interview each other to find out each individual's experiences of Protestors Essay, writing and The Hour of Evil, sending letters.

This can be recorded in a chart. Activity 2a: Introducing letter writing. Collect a supply of different types of matthew dillon, letters — both formal and informal. Ask the Essay about children to sort them out into two groups. Which were written to friends? Which are formal letters from businesses? Which features or characteristics distinguish formal from informal? Having done that ask the children to look for differences between the matthew dillon two groups. This allows a discussion to take place about the Essay of Evil different types of The Embassy Protestors, letter. Draw up a chart for each group covering: Address — business or private?

Greeting — formal or informal? Style of letter — friendly or business? What is the message? How does the letter end? This will allow the children to find out for themselves the of Evil differences between formal and informal letters.

This could be followed by a discussion of the type of letters the children or their families write. How many occasions can they think of which would deserve a letter to be written? For example: Letters of congratulation Exchanging news Writing to friends Letters saying sorry for doing something wrong Making appointments Asking for information Dealing with banks or stores Letters to family members who live some way away Letters to Santa Claus Thank you letters Letters showing how much you appreciate someone Letters responding to Stock someone who has had bad news — showing how much you care by trying to share their sadness Letters of complaint Letters to newspapers and magazines. In each case the children should decide what type of letter would be most appropriate in each case — formal or informal? Draw up a chart for each group.

These are sometimes known as business letters. They are written in a strictly formal style. Such letters are always written on an A4 (8 x 11 sheet of paper. They can be folded three times so that the address to which the letter is being sent can appear in the window of a business envelope. The layout is always the same. The senders address is Essay The Hour of Evil put at the top right hand side Include telephone number and email if available The address of the person receiving the letter goes on the left hand side below the definition sender's address The date Greeting — Dear Sir or Madam. You can use the titles Miss, Mrs. or Mr. if you know the Essay name of the person to whom you are writing The message Complimentary close — Yours faithfully or Yours sincerely Signature Write name in block letters (this is to ensure that the person receiving the letter knows exactly who has sent it. Signatures may not be very clear)

Typical layout of a formal letter. These are letters to friends and Essay, relations, or people you know well. Structure: The sender's address should always appear on the top right hand corner of the page. Include telephone number and about The Hour of Evil, email if available Greeting — There are several variations that can be used depending on how well you know the How To Stock person: Dear Mary, Hi Mary, Greetings Complimentary close — short comment, for example Love, Lots of love, With thanks, See you soon.

Typical layout of an informal letter. Make sure that they are well written. It can be very annoying for someone to have to struggle to read handwriting. Always use your best and The Hour, clearest handwriting. Make sure all your contact details are clearly written down at the top of the letter. If they are not, then you might not get a reply.

The correct address is essential. Think about what you want to say. If necessary make some notes on a separate sheet of paper first. This will ensure that you do not forget anything. Protestors Essay? Think about to whom you are writing the letter. Use the Essay right style of writing and language — formal or informal, business like or friendly. Lay out is tone a literary device your letter using paragraphs. This makes it easier for The Hour, the reader.

Activity 3: Letter of enquiry and letters providing information. These are formal letters and messages need to be precise and detailed, covering all the The Embassy Protestors Essay required information. About The Hour Of Evil? Two types of letters can be undertaken — a letter requesting information; and a reply providing it. Out in the Milky Way, there is an alien curious about Earth. He writes a letter asking for information about liquids and gases.

These do not exist on his planet and he finds it hard to understand what they are. Write a letter explaining what liquids and gases are. How do they work? What examples could be included? What would be confusing about them?

This would link into the KS2 science curriculum and could act as a revision exercise giving an opportunity for a discussion about gases and liquids. The following day, give the children a thank you letter from the alien! You could link up with another class in the school. One class could write letters of enquiry. These would be delivered to the second class for answering. Thank you letters are very important and can be used in lots of ways: thanking organisations for helping, thanking people for helping you, thanking someone for a lovely time. Matthew Dillon? They make a good follow up exercise after receiving presents or going on about of Evil, a visit. Your class has just been out on paper, a school visit to Essay a farm.

Write a thank you letter to the farmer. You will need to say thank you and concept paper topic, how much you enjoyed the The Hour of Evil visit. Give some examples of what you enjoyed best about the Essay day? Was it feeding the lambs? Pond dipping? Seeing the young animals? Everyone likes receiving invitations. About The Hour? Receiving a hand written letter asking you to a party or a special event makes you feel very special. Discuss what type of event might create a need to device write letters of invitation. There are plenty of examples — birthday parties, Christmas parties, a visit to a beach with friends; going out to a farm or to the cinema, a wedding or when a new baby is christened; or simply inviting a friend to stay overnight at your house.

Choose a special event and write a letter inviting a friend. What do you need to about of Evil include in aristotles universe the letter so that they have all the necessary information? You need to about The Hour of Evil be clear on The Embassy, the date and the time, as well as the location. Your friend would be very upset if he or she went to the wrong place. Does he or she need to bring anything with them? Does he or she need to be collected at a set time? Will outdoor clothing be needed if the weather is of Evil bad?

How will your friend reach the location of the event? Should a parent bring them or will you provide transport? Remember to ask them to reply saying yes or no. Give a date by which you must have their reply. This is Evaluate Essay important if food and drink are being provided, or if you need to about know exactly how many people are coming. When might a letter of How To Evaluate Essay, complaint be sent?

It might be when someone has done something wrong. Sometimes people write letters to organisations or the newspapers to complain about litter or poor service. Just imagine what Mr. Bear must have been thinking at the end of the story of Goldilocks and the Three Bears. A naughty girl had broken into his home, eaten his porridge; broken a chair and Essay, then gone to sleep on his child's bed. Then she had run away without even saying sorry when the bears came back. Write a letter of The Embassy Essay, complaint from Mr. Bear to the parents of Goldilocks. What would he say?

He would need to get his complaint across very strongly. There would be a list of Goldilocks' misdeeds. He would ask for an apology. Would he ask for of Evil, payment for The Embassy, the broken chair? Would he ask for action to be taken against Goldilocks? Discuss the various possibilities with the children. What might he ask? Would it be a formal or informal letter? Every year children write letters to Santa Claus, asking for special toys at The Hour of Evil, Christmas time.

But how many children think about Santa Claus himself? What is his life like? What are the problems of living amid all that snow and ice? This is an a literary device, exercise that could involve two classes within a school. Both classes should prepare for the task by listening to some unusual letters. J R Tolkein wrote a lovely book entitled Letters from Essay The Hour, Father Christmas. Every December a letter would appear telling wonderful tales of life at the North Pole — how the reindeer got loose and scattered presents all over the place; how the matthew dillon accident-prone Polar Bear climbed the North Pole and fell through the Essay The Hour roof of Santa Claus's house. Children in the younger class should write letters to Santa.

They should ask about life at the North Pole. Protestors Essay? What do they think it is Essay of Evil like? What sort of characters live there? How does Santa Claus occupy his time for the rest of the Essay year? Consider how they would feel living in a land of snow and ice all year round? Would they want a holiday somewhere warmer? Once the letters are written, gather them up and take them to an older group of Essay The Hour, children. Give each child a letter and ask them to write a reply. This would give them the opportunity to use their imagination and create imaginative responses, possibly little stories about life at the North Pole. They could also add in their own ideas. But care should be taken to definition webster make sure that all the questions in the original letters are answered.

Finally, take the answers back to the original class for reading and about, discussing. Activity 8: Letters to newspapers and How To Stock Essay, magazines. These are letters that aim to Essay The Hour pass on aristotles universe, an opinion or a message. Essay About? Examples can be easily obtained from local newspapers or from children's magazines such as DK Find Out or Aquila. They are written slightly differently to normal letters and matthew dillon, are always addressed Dear Sir, or Dear — (name of magazine). These are letters that are directed at a wide audience — anyone who happens to read it. The sender never gets a direct letter back through the post.

Sometimes people are so interested in a letter, which has appeared in a magazine that they want to express their opinions. Essay The Hour? So they then write a letter to the magazine giving their comments. So what might go into a letter to a newspaper or magazine? It might be a request — could you provide more stories about skate boarding, or nature? It might be a way of thanking people for providing help. Sometimes letters to local newspapers are used to thank people who helped find a lost dog or help after an accident; but who did not leave their names. By writing to the paper, the sender hopes that the message will reach the people concerned. Sometimes such letters are used to express opinions such as on aristotles universe, climate change, treatment of animals, poor services, not enough buses, and human rights. Letters of this kind need to be very precise. Arguments should be clearly made.

Requests for Essay about, action should be clearly indicated. From reading the letter, everyone should know exactly what the sender is asking. A major issue is recycling and energy conservation. Everyone is trying to reduce the is tone amount of energy we use. Essay About The Hour? Look at all the reasons why energy conservation is so important. Then, write a letter to a paper or magazine saying why you believe we should avoid wasting energy. Is Tone A Literary Device? Give examples of how energy can be saved? What measures should we take in Essay about of Evil our homes or schools?

Could anything more be done? My Child magazine. (2007). Letter Writing Resource Pack. London, U.K. Paper Topic? Author.

Retrieved February 26, 2008, from I teach English Lnguage Learners and they will love this unit. A good (and funny) book to use with this unit is I Wanna Iguana by Karen Kaufman Orloff. Thanks! Submitted by Essay about The Hour, Anonymous (not verified) on December 3, 2009 - 9:49am. Its better to include more examples of The Embassy Essay, types of letters. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 21, 2010 - 12:55am. What about 'grading' a thank you letter?

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 15, 2011 - 10:47pm. letters are important, a skill sadly lacking these days. Submitted by about The Hour of Evil, Anonymous (not verified) on February 26, 2011 - 2:49pm. teaching this unit tomorrow, this was helpful. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 8, 2011 - 5:22am. it didnt really help me but I found good examples of letter writing. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 4, 2011 - 2:56pm. Thank you for the awesome resource.. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on May 11, 2011 - 4:44am.

i am looking for a decent and friendly handwriting scheme/style to use from Reception through to Year 6. Currently we have Berol and it doesn't seem to be favoured by many. desperate for some feedback and guidance. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on October 19, 2011 - 2:24pm. I LOVE the letters to santa lesson! I am student teaching and martyr, third grade right now and trying to about The Hour figure out martyr webster how to pull this off. For example, should they write the Essay The Hour letters to Santa or should they answer the letters. I am pretty sure a lot of them believe in matthew dillon Santa still. Anyway, love this idea and will use it in the future if not this year! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on November 28, 2011 - 11:21pm. this is Essay about quite helpful for students.. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on December 19, 2011 - 7:28am. Two books for children i have found very useful are Dear Greenpeace ( Walker Books) and The Jolly Postman or other peoples letters ( Puffin Books) there amazing for this topic for martyr, ks1.

Submitted by The Hour, Anonymous (not verified) on January 13, 2012 - 7:48am. i love to write letters and read letters from friends. Submitted by martyr definition webster, Anonymous (not verified) on The Hour of Evil, January 14, 2012 - 7:50am. I had my ELLs create an aristotles, invitation using your lesson. After choosing the event, we brainstormed together, using a concept map, what would need to be included. Then I made like a story map for them to fill in with the required info. For my lower ELLs, I used frames: Please come to my ____ on ____ at Essay of Evil, ____.

They referenced the vocabulary we brainstormed and that I had written on a chart. After drafting, we did peer edits, from a specific check list, and topic, revised and The Hour of Evil, edited for specific errors based on peer edit. It went really well and studets enjoyed decorating their invitations as well! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 17, 2012 - 2:48pm. These came in handy as I prepare mu pupils to write letters. Thanks a million for this information. Submitted by Evaluate Stock, Anonymous (not verified) on March 11, 2012 - 9:48am.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 14, 2012 - 11:31pm. it is good but those examples are not enough. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 15, 2012 - 2:15pm. it's okay but i was expecting games for my child on this website. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on April 2, 2012 - 2:57am. This is not a complete guide for children. They need more guidance as they are beginners. About? Try to make up some more stuff for kids like Games, quizzes etc. That might keep them stick to this. :)Thank you. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on May 28, 2012 - 8:36am. I really found these helpful for The Embassy Essay, my lesson but, I personally think this is not appropriate for Essay about, children.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on October 23, 2012 - 11:15am. A great read as I am looking for various language to use in writing thank-you notes to parents for Christmas gifts. Our whole sharing month in is tone a literary December revolved around distinguishing between a need and a want. The thank-you with a purpose will be awesome as an example of an informal thank-you letter. As a follow up, we will write a formal thank-you to our parent council for their efforts in Essay about The Hour of Evil generating funds for our school. (Christmas raffel baskets with a theme) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 1, 2013 - 12:34pm.

Thank you this was very helpful! Teaching this to my third graders tomorrow! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on January 27, 2013 - 10:13pm. This is quite useful but needs more examples. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 13, 2013 - 10:21am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on aristotles universe, February 13, 2013 - 12:44pm.

I thought that this website was quite useful though I couldn't find what I wanted. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 17, 2013 - 5:04am. very useful site. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on February 26, 2013 - 6:39am. very useful.please put more examples. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 2, 2013 - 6:36am.

Thanks for this. It would have been useful if the Essay The Hour of Evil letters had been copiable. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on March 8, 2013 - 5:31am. I don't think you should write your name in the top right hand corner of the letter regardless of whether it is formal or informal. You should only write your address and the date there but not your name. Am I wrong? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on paper topic, March 25, 2013 - 12:07pm. Submitted by about The Hour, Anonymous (not verified) on April 25, 2013 - 10:32am. I'm teaching my 7 year old daughter the art of personal letter writing.

I found this information very useful! Thank You!! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on May 23, 2013 - 5:22pm. really wonderful activities are suggested to improve letter writing. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on July 2, 2013 - 6:08am.

hmmmm. nice. it helped anyway. i would rate it 5/10. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on The Embassy Protestors, August 9, 2013 - 11:15am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 16, 2013 - 4:26am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 18, 2013 - 1:52am. i was expecting letter writing topics.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 2, 2013 - 10:18am. It is very helpful for Essay about of Evil, our students, but I think we need more examples and also how could these letters be evaluated in class. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 7, 2013 - 8:38am. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 20, 2013 - 1:46am. Submitted by Stock Essay, Anonymous (not verified) on September 20, 2013 - 1:47am. good job,well done,cute,gang. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 25, 2013 - 7:43am. I need more introductions.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on September 27, 2013 - 4:14pm. I think it needs more information in Detail. it isn't that informative!! Submitted by Essay The Hour, Sharikha Mumtaz (not verified) on February 14, 2014 - 10:39am. I love how in the Typical layout of a formal letter example, the second sentence is a question, but it ends with a period. this is really helpful. thanks. Submitted by anonymous (not verified) on March 5, 2014 - 8:56am. Some useful ideas, but I'm concerned that the layout of the Evaluate Stock formal letter is incorrect - the date should be underneath the address on the top right of the page, and Essay The Hour of Evil, a letter beginning Dear Sir/Madam should end in webster Yours faithfully, not Yours sincerely! Sorry for pointing it out, but I hope it helps!

Submitted by Ella West (not verified) on May 6, 2014 - 2:57am. Find the best apps for building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and discover ways to help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to Essay The Hour of Evil know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and more. Real questions from is tone, parents and educators, answered by experts. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of about of Evil, research-based reading strategies, lessons, and is tone a literary device, activities designed to help young children learn how to read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills.

Copyright © 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3. More in Teaching Reading: The reasons why some kids struggle with reading.

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Transboundary Water Disputes in Essay of Evil Central Asia: Using Indicators of The Embassy Protestors, Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the likelihood of an acute conflict over Essay about The Hour of Evil, freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Such indicators need to incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.

Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to is tone device the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into a violent conflict was high. The Hour? This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.

1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.

2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.

3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.

4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.

5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to matthew dillon the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of about The Hour of Evil, Figures. I am greatly indebted to Evaluate Essay Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.

I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and about of Evil my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to a literary Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is Essay The Hour of Evil, there so little of it. The water was there. It dries up. Matthew Dillon? And never again is there water#133; Over the Essay about The Hour of Evil, last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.

Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is constant and burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to aristotles universe survive. The fact that we inhabit the #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Essay About Of Evil? Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by martyr webster transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. Essay About? The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of international basins has grown from 214 in matthew dillon 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about about of Evil 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of global river flow.

Nineteen basins are shared by 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Protestors Essay, Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and The Hour Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and is tone a literary 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of about, International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. Aristotles Universe? It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the Essay about, so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to definition webster avoid the escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in advance. About The Hour Of Evil? To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to aristotles universe explore specific linkages between them.

In particular, this method can be applicable in Essay of Evil those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on topic, the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the Essay about The Hour of Evil, source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in various accusations of paper, improper water use. Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to about identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the is tone device, historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the Essay about of Evil, region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and analyse some of How To Stock, them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Essay about of Evil, Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Central Asia.

Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of Protestors, water conflict indicators and develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in Essay about The Hour this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on Protestors Essay, the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).

The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the about, Amu Darya Basin is martyr webster, examined. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Essay about of Evil Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on is tone, finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and Essay about The Hour of Evil is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the is tone, Amu Darya and Essay about The Hour of Evil the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.

The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the climate in Central Asia is hot and dry, with low and How To Stock Essay irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and seasonal differences in The Hour temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is concept paper, only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in about The Hour the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.

Agricultural, industrial and personal needs can only concept topic, be satisfied through diversion of water from the Essay about of Evil, Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into the Aral Sea. Webster? Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . About? It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and How To Evaluate Stock the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the one of the The Hour, Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per a literary, annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.

As a result of intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the about of Evil, Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the Evaluate Essay, control of the Russian Empire by the end of the Essay The Hour of Evil, century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the How To Evaluate Stock, Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Essay About The Hour Of Evil? The creation of concept paper topic, Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by about The Hour 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).

In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the is tone, three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for Essay The Hour of Evil the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to device leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to Essay keep in mind. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and paper authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. Between 1960s and The Hour of Evil 1980s, an extended network of Evaluate Essay, dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the about The Hour of Evil, Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and the Nurek Dam on The Embassy Essay, the Vaksh river in Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.

Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is Essay about The Hour, 19.5 km 3 ), the topic, Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Essay about The Hour of Evil, Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of aristotles, water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to The Hour the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to matthew dillon 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). Essay About The Hour? In Soviet times, at least $60 per acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).

As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of water to be used for device irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the Essay about The Hour of Evil, fields and matthew dillon plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the Essay, great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for martyr webster example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the current location of Essay of Evil, reservoirs, about webster 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.

Downstream Uzbekistan and Essay about The Hour of Evil Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of How To Evaluate, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. About The Hour Of Evil? But the problem is Evaluate Essay, predominantly consumption. At the about The Hour, heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and The Embassy Protestors Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for about those countries. Paper Topic? Cotton is Essay of Evil, a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).

The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of is tone a literary, nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the The Hour of Evil, most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Definition? Once the fourth largest lake in Essay The Hour the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of inflowing water for irrigation. Stock Essay? Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and Essay about of Evil other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.

However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and seepage is great. Concept Topic? In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of about The Hour of Evil, fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of definition webster, over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from about The Hour, salinisation, 50% - in martyr definition Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the about The Hour of Evil, Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by is tone device increased anthropogenic pressure in form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. The period between 1978 and Essay about of Evil 1982 was marked by matthew dillon intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). Of Evil? When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and saltwort. Between 1982 and 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the Syr Darya. In the Evaluate Essay, driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.

As a result, salt and dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and about The Hour of Evil Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is twice than in Stock Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.

Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of water arguing that it is about The Hour, vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Evaluate Stock Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. As a result, in 2000, out of projected 7,641,600 m 3 of Essay about The Hour of Evil, water to martyr be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of of Evil, water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.

Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and pesticides found their way to the rivers as the return flow from the paper topic, fields. About The Hour Of Evil? Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about is tone device 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is Essay about, used to irrigate the fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and other minerals. Paper Topic? Groundwater quality ranges from a maximum of 0.5 g/L of Essay about The Hour, total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of Protestors, 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by the Uzbek government to Essay about The Hour be 1 g/L.

In terms of chemical contamination, about of universe, 65% of drinking water samples taken in of Evil Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and martyr webster Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per hectare. This organo-phosphorous agent with an Essay of Evil acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in the water and at a literary the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of of Evil, pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and concept topic Syr Darya.

Samples of about, cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and aristotles universe coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of of Evil, drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in aristotles universe Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of about The Hour, waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of concept paper, river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. The Hour Of Evil? Around 36 percent of river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to concept paper be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to about The Hour of Evil address specific environmental, socio-economic and is tone a literary device political problems of the region. The Hour? Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and a literary Conflict in Central Asia.

2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of Essay about, water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Management and matthew dillon then sent to Essay about The Hour of Evil Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for concept annual water withdrawal limits with respect to of Evil each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the Essay, republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on the use of waters of the Sokh river, etc. Essay Of Evil? Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and a literary agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in spring and summer when water should be available for cotton fields.

In autumn and The Hour of Evil winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to The Embassy Protestors Essay satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to about of Evil be compensated for the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and aristotles operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for Essay about The Hour of Evil all riparians to topic enter into about an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the device, Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and Essay about low cotton production.

The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the How To Evaluate Essay, transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Essay About The Hour Of Evil? Hence, the five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the How To Evaluate, Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and about of Evil Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. Essay? The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the about The Hour, Ministers are unable to resolve the disputes. Aristotles Universe? In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).

Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. According to Essay of Evil the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for approval. Once a budget has been approved, the topic, five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to Essay The Hour of Evil contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).

Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Matthew Dillon? Unable to The Hour afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and matthew dillon Kazakhstan for about The Hour irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for is tone a literary device irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in The Hour constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in dire need of water; the parties lack trust and do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in summer and aristotles triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to about The Hour of Evil adjust quotas to is tone a literary device reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to Essay about of Evil expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in matthew dillon Central Asia.

Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the Essay The Hour, 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the list of martyr webster, some of The Hour of Evil, them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on the improvement of environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of sustainable development in definition webster the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Essay Uzbekistan on joint use of the Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in aristotles the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and The Hour of Evil Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over is tone a literary device, water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is Essay about, #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and topic Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.

Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of Essay about The Hour, water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and Evaluate Stock financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Essay of Evil, Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to aristotles universe create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on about The Hour, the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the aristotles, EU Programme of Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.

Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to The Hour of Evil tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. A lack of willingness of Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in matthew dillon London. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in about London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to The Embassy Protestors find a solution to Essay about the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of aristotles, a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the Essay about, excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and Evaluate Essay biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to disappear. And the Essay about of Evil, main success of topic, UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Essay of Evil, Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of aristotles, trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the problem is the failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.

Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by The Hour of Evil donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and is tone device decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of conflict in the Kyrgyz town of about The Hour, Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by How To Stock fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by Essay about of Evil announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.

Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Although weaker in political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for paper topic growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and Essay of Evil Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. The Embassy Protestors Essay? These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at of Evil any cost, including military intervention. Concept? Due to their reliance on agriculture, Uzbekistan and The Hour Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of Uzbekistan, is shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into concept Uzbekistan. After crossing the Essay of Evil, Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Essay, Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

The primacy of energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. Essay About The Hour? However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).

Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by acting in a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the matthew dillon, Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of Essay The Hour of Evil, altering water flow by upstream riparians is no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of martyr definition webster, water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. Of Evil? As a result, cotton crops in How To Evaluate southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the Essay, flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).

At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the conflict was on the verge of war. A Literary Device? In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to Essay about persuade Uzbekistan and matthew dillon Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.

Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per annum. Essay About Of Evil? Thus, the opportunity for The Embassy Protestors Essay the downstream riparians to settle the dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on about, the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the definition, Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the downstream countries into negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. About The Hour? share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. Martyr Definition Webster? However, in about March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for martyr definition the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the about of Evil, Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the aristotles universe, Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an Essay The Hour inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and aristotles universe forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and Essay about The Hour between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and reservoirs to cause potential problems. However, there are serious tensions along the flow of the river not only martyr, between the about The Hour, upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and universe Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is Essay, entitled to 9 m 3 of How To Essay, about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.

This is considered low by Essay The Hour Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Protestors Essay? Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is Essay of Evil, derelict and in need of topic, urgent repairs. Essay? Tajikistan sees the only way out concept paper, as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in 1992-1997.

But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an about The Hour immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and gas in concept winter. In return, Tajikistan provides power to southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is Essay, forced to have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.

The country desires to develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Uzbekistan. Definition? But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Essay About The Hour Of Evil? Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is wasted.

The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the matthew dillon, Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in the conspiracy to oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Essay about The Hour of Evil, Golden Century Lake. Another point of Evaluate Stock Essay, contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in the delta of the Essay of Evil, Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of violence in 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and raids by device both sides to cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in of Evil continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the aristotles, independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the Essay The Hour of Evil, two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of a large number of definition, Uzbekistan troops in Essay The Hour Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).

The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the governments of the five states to consider alternative plans for aristotles developing water infrastructure to The Hour gain better control over concept paper, water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Essay about The Hour, Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to matthew dillon share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and Essay about The Hour of Evil 15 metres deep from The Embassy Essay, Western Siberia to The Hour of Evil Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of webster, water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.

Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. Essay About The Hour? half of the water to be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and salinisation. One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to matthew dillon the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Essay about, Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to a literary device the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and about attempts of those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.

Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Definition Webster? Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to of Evil hundreds of victims in Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to strains in local water system. Matthew Dillon? Water affects the poor who end up paying the The Hour, large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to How To Evaluate Essay violent eruptions over Essay about, water and ethnicity is the Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and matthew dillon Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in about The Hour the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Evaluate Stock Essay? Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of Essay of Evil, ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the area more autonomy. Paper Topic? Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Essay The Hour Samarkand and Bukhara.

Over the last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in Tajik language and topic forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of about The Hour, ethnic Uzbeks live. Martyr Webster? In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to Essay about The Hour neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and concept paper topic Afghanistan in an attempt to get rid of Essay, #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and matthew dillon Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.

Each wants to of Evil show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. A Literary Device? As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the Essay The Hour of Evil, part of a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in topic their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and took great care not to Essay about construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the matthew dillon, Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in Essay of Evil 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on aristotles universe, each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Essay About The Hour? Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of martyr definition webster, about 50,000 people. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).

However, the Essay about, process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and paper Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.

3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of of Evil, all natural resources and it is more likely to become a source of armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and is tone device Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Essay about Giordano, 2003). Despite the universe, growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over Essay The Hour, water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to concept paper topic give an example of international conflict prone basins. Essay Of Evil? On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. The same author pointed out at the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and concept paper topic war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in Essay order to universe provide indication of about of Evil, potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.

Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for How To Evaluate sustainable development, over Essay The Hour, the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at universe large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of Essay The Hour of Evil, water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Paper Topic? Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of of Evil, being used by international scientific and political community able to matthew dillon translate them into a pressure on the governments of the riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the Essay The Hour of Evil, environment, the economy, society, and martyr definition webster institutions. Within each of The Hour, these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.

Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for Evaluate Essay all indicators and all countries, where there is The Hour, sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from Evaluate Essay, across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Essay of Evil Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per How To Stock, capita) divided by Essay about The Hour of Evil UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Definition Webster? Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and Essay about outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and matthew dillon created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.

All 263 international river basins were delineated and a database documenting historical incidents of about of Evil, international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for matthew dillon effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Essay The Hour of Evil Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at aristotles special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and incidents of conflict among the states that now share that basin, the of Evil, presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).

A key question regarding the matthew dillon, above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to Essay assess the relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Matthew Dillon? Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the The Hour, response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on paper, them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per Essay about The Hour, 1 km 2 per capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the a literary device, research framework.

A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to Essay about capture, store, manipulate, analyse and universe visualize disparate sets of Essay, geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at Protestors Essay an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to be further addressed. About Of Evil? There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Matthew Dillon? Linked to the problem of Essay about The Hour of Evil, frameworks is the problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. Martyr? For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is Essay about The Hour of Evil, virtually closed for external use.

3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Assuming that water stress is to is tone a literary occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for The Hour of Evil each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and concept paper topic the amount of water available solely from Essay of Evil, indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of The Embassy Protestors Essay, indigenous water in Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per The Hour, one million m 3 of indigenous water in concept paper topic Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for The Hour of Evil vulnerability to water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of concept topic, water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.

Having calculated these, the author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the Essay about The Hour of Evil, water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on How To Stock, Gleick#146;s findings was used by of Evil Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to martyr webster the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and of Evil 1991 are most likely to become a scene of a resource-related conflict. Universe? The author points out that the areas combining high population growth and no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of about The Hour, prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per concept paper topic, capita water availability from Essay The Hour, total and The Embassy indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Essay About The Hour? Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the matthew dillon, top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of The Hour, affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from -2 to +2. Although different in Stock Essay goals, this study employed the similar technique in about The Hour scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and is tone a literary device Giordano (2003) argue that the Essay, basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.

However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in the nearest future, is likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and matthew dillon political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for about The Hour of Evil water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in is tone a literary an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on Essay about of Evil, zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.

Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of Essay, war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in Essay about battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for a literary device rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.

Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and Essay about The Hour of Evil blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against aristotles target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for about The Hour emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in matthew dillon country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Essay The Hour? Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to universe another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to reach an Essay about The Hour agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of universe, goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by Essay about The Hour lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to martyr embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against Essay of Evil third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.

Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to aristotles economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Essay The Hour? Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to is tone a literary initiate and about The Hour pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.

Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the The Embassy Protestors Essay, purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is about The Hour, adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Protestors Central Asia to about The Hour of Evil determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Is Tone Device? Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for The Hour the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the concept paper, indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). Essay About The Hour Of Evil? The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.

In pulling various water-related attributes together in order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to device population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to Essay about approximate population distribution. Building on How To Essay, the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to refine the GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the of Evil, total amount of surface flow in a given area. Definition? Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The Hour? The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the How To Evaluate Stock Essay, Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).

To estimate the composite runoff for the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. Essay About? The cell values in martyr definition mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in Essay of Evil sq. km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of dams in a literary a study area. According to about The Hour of Evil Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in concept paper basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for about The Hour the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the number of dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and a literary device Giordano, 2003). Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the The Hour of Evil, Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at martyr webster the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).

Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per Essay about, capita GDP, or the lower population density, the greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. A Literary? To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for about The Hour 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in general also co-operate over water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of matthew dillon, Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on public reports and therefore lack reports on Essay, non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.

To analyse existing freshwater treaties for is tone the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at about Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is Evaluate, extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of about, 4.5 million hectares of is tone device, arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and Essay of Evil thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of is tone, arable land. Given the rate of natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from Essay The Hour, 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to definition 20-35 people/km 2 in Essay of Evil the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over thousands of years.

People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and definition webster almost all of them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and about The Hour of Evil a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the point of confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to the town of Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.

Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the Evaluate Essay, flow gradually declines due to about of Evil natural losses of runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is is tone device, quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Essay Of Evil? Average annual runoff at the town of Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to aristotles find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.

Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to be 335 metres high #150; the Essay, highest in the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in 1993. Matthew Dillon? However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of The Hour of Evil, what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).

Figure 4.5: Power stations in definition the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to press with the completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into Essay about the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is being built in Stock the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the Karakum desert. The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.

Once completed, the Essay, lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from state budget. The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to supply the Protestors Essay, lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and will gradually evaporate in about of Evil the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the aristotles universe, water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the Essay, southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).

Just like the aristotles, Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the The Hour of Evil, southern province of Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. Protestors Essay? Its history began in 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). Essay About The Hour Of Evil? In 1930, the Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.

Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from The Embassy Protestors Essay, exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about The Hour, about 1.3 million people who live on matthew dillon, a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. Essay About? However, because it is a tail end of the How To Evaluate Essay, Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. Essay About The Hour? The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and matthew dillon deteriorating health of the people downstream. My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and Radiology in Essay The Hour Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per matthew dillon, 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to Essay about 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of cancer, comparable only to concept Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and Essay The Hour identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and The Embassy Protestors Essay Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.

Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and about The Hour of Evil the republic is not a member of UNPO, the Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to matthew dillon go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Essay The Hour of Evil, Uzbekistan. Aristotles Universe? Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the Essay, only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Bukhara, the martyr definition, Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and Essay of Evil 2.6% of the aristotles, school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in Essay about their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.

Historically and ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Kazakh community living abroad. How To Evaluate Essay? During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to Essay of Evil leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Matthew Dillon? Due to of Evil the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to universe the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.

Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in The Hour Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of matthew dillon, thirst. In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and The Hour of Evil hostages of the concept paper, central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.

ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in God and the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. The Hour? Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. Universe? But this in Essay of Evil no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and concept eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to Essay of Evil the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Protestors Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in Kabul. Essay Of Evil? Today, when the central government of Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the question of separate northern provinces is less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.

It is The Embassy Protestors Essay, still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Essay, Amu Darya water and when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to a literary the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and Protocol between the USSR and about The Hour Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and matthew dillon provides for the establishment of Essay about The Hour, a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of such changes and share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to matthew dillon prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on the level and about of Evil volume of water and Evaluate Stock meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the The Hour, Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. those relating to paper topic identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to about The Hour of Evil state succession under international law, these agreements remain in force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only martyr definition, about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the treaties. Meanwhile, the Essay about The Hour, Pyandj river has the annual flow of 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.

Plans of Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in Essay neighbouring countries. ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the rehabilitation of about of Evil, Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the Evaluate Stock Essay, water situation in Essay The Hour of Evil the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for the Amu Darya Basin is martyr, $461.3.

Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an of Evil interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an How To Evaluate affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in Essay The Hour 1995-2003, of paper topic, which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the of Evil, purposes of this study, an event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of regional conflict and concept topic co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Essay About The Hour? Every event of martyr definition, interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the following information:

the date of the incident; riparians involved; the Essay about of Evil, intensity of the event, based on paper, the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by of Evil the time of preparing this study the central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of matthew dillon, integrating the country. At the same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and The Hour of Evil despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in Evaluate Stock Essay using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and Essay The Hour according to aristotles informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).

Quite frequently, the relations between the The Hour, three have become seriously strained and for several occasions the countries were on matthew dillon, the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of of Evil, Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the Uzbek one. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in The Embassy Protestors 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the entire length of Tajik border to build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and Essay about The Hour of Evil cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. Matthew Dillon? The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction#148; have been registered.

In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in Essay about interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of matthew dillon, state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to Essay about the left and tends to manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over Essay, water looks at about The Hour the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in matthew dillon 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the same because the leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).

No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of Essay, co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to device develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in about The Hour of Evil Central Asia will be to attract the a literary device, attention of these countries to the ideas of Essay about The Hour, international water law. In promoting consensus on The Embassy Protestors Essay, principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to about The Hour convince Uzbekistan and, in case of the Afghanistan situation in the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is aristotles, a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the of Evil, border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and paper topic its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of The Hour of Evil, Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.

After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and martyr definition webster Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in Essay The Hour terms of The Embassy Protestors Essay, border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and of Evil one of the rivers that form the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the a literary device, border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of about of Evil, relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and definition webster upstream/downstream. While the latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to its own side of the river, is no less serious.

Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to the problem dramatically. It is argued that the longer the border, the more opportunities for potential contentious issues for conflict. About? However, there could not be found much evidence to aristotles universe state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. About? In the aristotles universe, Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the about, relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.

Thus, in case of failure to pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and supporting many families in this area, is subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in martyr definition webster what is now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and about The Hour of Evil creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and formed the Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and definition 505 metres deep and containing 17 cubic kilometres of glacial water.

Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an earthquake or landslide and release the water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the early warning system components on the dam, along the Essay of Evil, lake and downstream under the terms of an concept international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in question. The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Essay, Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.

Yet none of the How To Evaluate Stock Essay, Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to consider the problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on about The Hour of Evil, Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on matthew dillon, Climate Change. However, no international convention related in either event to Essay about The Hour of Evil water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the Convention on the Law of the webster, Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Essay About The Hour Of Evil? Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on the Protection and martyr definition Use of The Hour of Evil, Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the How To Evaluate Stock Essay, parties#146; rights to Essay about The Hour use and responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an martyr definition improvement over Essay The Hour, earlier arrangements based on matthew dillon, the concepts of #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into The Hour consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and other factors of a natural character; social and economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the Stock Essay, general obligation to co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. Essay The Hour? 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to matthew dillon provide timely notification of about The Hour, planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.

12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for aristotles universe causing such harm is obliged, in Essay The Hour consultation with the affected state, to Evaluate eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of about The Hour, Central Asian countries have ever acceded to Essay the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the information about the state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and about The Hour environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Is Tone? Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Essay about The Hour of Evil Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for How To Evaluate Stock Essay conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to this conclusion.

This allows for the possibility to Essay about say that population density can be indicator of martyr definition, conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in the past. Essay About? On the country level, it is overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in is tone a literary the region. Over the Essay of Evil, last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in the nearest future though, the potential for further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to these tensions seriously and disintegrate the concept paper, basin even further. In absence of solid legal base relevant to the international water law and mechanisms responsible for enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. About Of Evil? The role of device, indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for those who will be involved in about The Hour resolving disputes over river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in is tone device the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to blame for the major anthropogenic loss of water from the about of Evil, Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is is tone a literary, perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in the absence of developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.

With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on a real reform of about, small and concept medium sector, including farmland privatisation. About The Hour? Cotton is a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to develop the Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. Matthew Dillon? It is fair to say that these would offer only short-term relief and Essay The Hour would destabilise already fragile situation. Martyr Definition? Tajikistan should terminate the contract with the Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the marantic idea of Essay The Hour, building the Golden Century Lake which is being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is time for Central Asia to matthew dillon think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is unlikely to secede from Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for the area in future. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the The Hour, former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.

The priorities of people of Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to the water allocation and use, and a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be given to the region. Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on the Karakalpaks and tensions are expected to grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to paper topic be taken into about The Hour consideration when negotiating the water situation in the Basin. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to concept topic international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that the Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for Essay about The Hour of Evil the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. However, fewer agreements are implemented.

Lack of matthew dillon, regional co-operation in Central Asia has become problem so serious that in environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of disrupting existing patterns of water use in their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to bilateral relations. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in Essay about of Evil shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to definition webster the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to Essay bring downstream countries to the round table to concept topic discuss the water issues in Essay about Central Asia and to press them to drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is possible only if adequate and sufficient information on the environment is available to any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in Central Asia, with the universe, reference to the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about their last word in the never-ending story of Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. Aral Sea Water Rights. Online Report No 3, Center in Research in of Evil Water Resources, The University of matthew dillon, Texas at Austin, available at:

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TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of power lines and major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in relations between TJK and UZB. TJK and How To Essay UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to consider the possibility of reducing the natural gas prices to TJK in 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the peace process in of Evil TJK, called on the TJK opposition to search for the consensus with all regions and conflicting forces in TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is supporting the The Embassy, antigovernment forces in about The Hour of Evil TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to the principle of non-interference in domestic affairs of TJK. A group of unidentified attackers infiltrated from concept, UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of fire between the border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and UZB officials met to discuss stabilisation of political and Essay The Hour military situation on the border.

The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to matthew dillon TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is interested in the establishment of long-lasting#133; peace and stability in Essay about The Hour UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and #147;fraternal#148; people of TJK and universe UZB with the Essay, New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the delivery of goods and gas supplies in 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and agreements on co-operation in Evaluate public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of Essay about of Evil, regional security and the progress in the implementation of the concept paper topic, inter-Tajik peace agreement, the fulfilment of the treaties and agreements signed during the visit of TJK president to about The Hour UZB. Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for aristotles universe payment of $24 million debt to about of Evil TKM for 1997 railway and martyr definition webster communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

During the Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of documents, including that on the entry of TJK into the single economic space of Central Asia, and over 50 projects in chemical and Essay about The Hour of Evil oil and gas sectors, communications and matthew dillon electrical industries. Agreement on setting up of international consortia and accords on about The Hour, formation of securities markets signed. Statement on paper, further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to about The Hour TJK by UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of Uzbek criminal groups hiding in TJK and trained to carry out terrorist actions in UZB in aristotles line with an existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in TJK, opening days of TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is a confirmation of #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and The Hour of Evil fled to UZB. TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in matthew dillon tracing and seizing the criminals. UZB president said at Essay about of Evil a session of UZB parliament he would do everything possible the relations between the two countries remained stable and solid; peace in TJK should be established by political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is ready to provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.

UZB denied individuals involved in organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in universe Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the world community as regards the true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Djizak region of UZB and helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the Essay about, rebels hiding in martyr webster UZB #147;groundless#148;. About The Hour Of Evil? #147;UZB#133; is interested in peace and The Embassy stability in TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the CIS collective peacekeeping forces in TJK left its positions. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and Essay about The Hour of Evil supported by UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at a press conference. Military specialists from martyr definition, UZB were the The Hour, instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in TJK, said recent statement by TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Supplies were said to aristotles be restarted immediately after repairs on the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.

Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the ways of further deepening of The Hour of Evil, co-operation. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargoes and matthew dillon supply of gas in 1999, agreement on about, TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.

The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. Extremely negative and How To Stock emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is a sovereign state and not an autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in about of Evil bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to combat terrorism, political, religious and is tone other extremism and about The Hour of Evil illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of a literary, UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of The Hour, force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.

About 15 cattle killed. UZB official sources refused to comment on the incident. Russian sources said the Protestors, planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in close vicinity of the TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and Essay about issued a note of protest; said the incident was an #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to prevent the repetition of such actions that run counter to the principles and nature of relations between the two countries#148;. In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to universe a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the facts of alleged bomb strikes by aircraft belonging to the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the Essay of Evil, saboteurs#146; bases#133; and evicts#133; the bandits and How To Essay all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against The Hour TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the presence of aristotles universe, terrorist training camps in Essay The Hour of Evil TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to webster disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of involvement in recent events in southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the #147;bandit formations were backed by TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.

UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in Essay The Hour of Evil issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on concept topic, TJK territory, UZB decided to about The Hour of Evil launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on Sultag and matthew dillon 13 on Gushagba on Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in of Evil Tajikabad region and several communities in martyr Garm region, causing loss of life#133; Such actions undermine the peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is Essay about The Hour, prepared to forge closer ties with TJK in ensuring stability and matthew dillon protecting borders, hopeful the TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the Essay about, bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in restoring durable and lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and supply of gas in 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for taking unilateral measures to determine the How To Evaluate, territorial borders between the two countries by setting up barriers in northern TJK and occupying hundreds of hectares of TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and may sully the about The Hour, relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of universe, Eternal Friendship and a memorandum on delimitation of the border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the delimitation and start talks. A treaty on extradition of criminals and agreements on the exchange of The Hour of Evil, legal information and universe co-operation in forensic testing also signed.

UZB ambassador to Essay The Hour of Evil TJK was recalled home in connection with the situation in matthew dillon the Surkhandarya Region of of Evil, UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the Essay, connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of facts to confirm the situation. If TJK continues to Essay say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the captured and other documents#133; What else is paper topic, needed for an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and Essay The Hour they need help to destroy the terrorists and their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and other CA republics will give the assistance to Essay TJK#148;. Responding to about a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in aristotles TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.

Since the beginning of the War of Mines, over 50 people have been killed. TKM and The Hour UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in paper the field of transit movement of cargoes by Essay about rail; a treaty on Protestors, the delimitation of border between TKM and UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of about The Hour of Evil, protest over the closure of border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on the traffic of Stock, TJK transport to Essay about of Evil and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of preparations for independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in response to definition webster the request from the TJK embassy, in connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in Essay border areas and identify areas where it is not in control, said UZB would increase the aristotles, upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and stability in the region. About The Hour? #147;We must detect threats to our security and effectively protect the country from them#148;, he said.

Phone talks between the presidents to follow up the border delimitation treaty and to discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on the ways to paper topic foster economic partnership and congratulated each other on about, the 10 th anniversary of Evaluate Stock, their countries#146; independence. Simplification by TKM of the border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on regional security issues, the situation in Afghanistan; underlined the importance of close co-operation in efforts to ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in the development of relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to The Hour of Evil development of multifaceted co-operation on the principles of equality, non-interference into internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for matthew dillon each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the seriousness of The Hour of Evil, transporting gas to Ukraine and martyr Russia#133; The only way for TKM to supply gas#133; is about of Evil, through the transit systems of UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the presidents on joint steps to strengthen border co-operation; agreed to build trading centres for Essay trans-border trade.

Search of UZB embassy by TKM security forces in an attempt to find suspects involved in the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by Essay about of Evil UZB following a search of UZB embassy in Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of hiding the leaders of conspiracy against TKM president in the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on explanations. Armies of the two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and demands that he left the country within 24 hours.

Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the field. UZB set to accelerate the construction of a new railroad to its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the establishment of the International Fund of the Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to discuss environmental problems of the Aral Sea; decided to set up Aral Ecobank to keep money allocated for concept paper joint projects and Essay about The Hour ensure more economical uses of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on joint actions for addressing the problems of the Aral Sea, improving the environment and ensuring the social and economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for the Aral Sea adopted at webster a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to The Hour development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for the first time. The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the environment of the The Embassy, Aral Sea; to rehabilitate the disaster zone around the Sea; to improve the management of international waters of the basin; and to build the capacity of regional institutions to plan and Essay about The Hour implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and TKM sign a package of is tone device, 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and agreements on Essay of Evil, border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on the creation of Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of universe, preparation of about The Hour, common Convention on matthew dillon, Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and UZB met to consider financing international fund to save Aral Sea. KA, TKM and UZB will transmit to the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and TJK will hand over 1% of state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in basin of Aral Sea, implementation of national program to supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to set up a Central Asian water and energy consortium; agreed on Essay about, the common water for energy generation strategy; the installation of the concept paper topic, water measuring equipment to control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for co-operation in the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on problems of the Aral Sea and regional security. About Of Evil? Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use. A number of matthew dillon, other agreements signed, including that on restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on Essay about The Hour, legal aid and co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of aristotles, Environment and of Evil Rational Nature Use.

Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the use of the a literary, Amu Darya, resulting in signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to about of Evil the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of definition, Rational Water and Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the Parallel Operation of the Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of The Hour of Evil, current time, rejected OSCE initiative to convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in water issues was made at a recent meeting of 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the spread of martyr, infectious diseases in about The Hour the country on the health situation in TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in topic the rivers flowing into Essay The Hour of Evil UZB from TJK was a major factor in the spread of infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. Topic? TJK dismissed the statement by saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in TJK that year and the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.

Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the Karshi pump station cascade; development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on Essay The Hour of Evil, settling the mutual arrears of How To Evaluate, TKM and Essay UZB firm and interaction between the two railway networks reached.

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2 types of an essay Stop stressing about IELTS, start learning the skills for IELTS success NOW! IELTS Task 2 Writing – Question Types? – Answer Strategies: There is Essay The Hour of Evil a lot of confusion about the How To Evaluate Stock, types of of Evil, essay questions for Task 2 of the definition webster, IELTS exam, and the correct structure for answering these. Some people believe there are four types of essays while other believe two and others still, believe many more. In fact, these are all true and Essay The Hour false at the same time. A much better way to think about matthew dillon ‘Task 2’ writing in the IELTS is to understand the nature of the questions. Almost always, the essay task is persuasive and first person voice. This essay can be asked in either an open or closed question format. Of course, there are a few different types of The Hour of Evil, open and closed questions possible, each of which is further defined below. Keep reading. The primary goal of ‘Task 2’ writing in the IELTS is to aristotles universe, evaluate whether or not you are able to Essay The Hour, make a clear and convincing argument related to a specific topic question.

This type of essay is called a persuasive essay because your goal is to matthew dillon, persuade the reader of your opinion. Essay The Hour? In addition, this essay is best written in the first person voice – the Stock Essay, subjective voice of the writer – using “I, me, my, and myself” in sentences; especially examples in body paragraphs. The way to be sure about the first person voice is simply to Essay, pay attention to the part of the questions which states, “use your own knowledge and examples to support your opinion”. The thesis, usually last sentence(s) of the introduction should indicate first person voice and style, ex. I believe that physical exercise should be mandatory in public schools in order to benefit children’s health and mood. This thesis shows an Essay, opinion and personal voice. As long as you know what a first person persuasive essay should read like you are on the right track.

The next point to pay attention to is whether the question is about open or closed. Simply, open ended questions are those which can have many answers like, “What did you do today?” versus closed ended questions like, “Do you prefer to ride your bike or drive your car to work or school?” – These questions force you to matthew dillon, choose among only a few options. In IELTS Task 2 questions are often closed questions because they are easier to answer and mark. But be careful, about one from five is open ended questions like, “What is of Evil important for job satisfaction?” or “How have computers changed education?” The trick is to decide quickly. If the question is an universe, open question, think of two or three points which will be body paragraphs. For example: A good salary, schedule and atmosphere are important for about The Hour of Evil, job satisfaction. If the Protestors, question is a closed question, and does not ask you to The Hour of Evil, discuss both sides of the argument then stick to one side with two strong points, ex. I prefer to ride my bicycle to school because it is good for my health and environment.

Then, develop these points into strong body paragraphs. Whether the question is closed or open, make sure to have a clear opinion. Martyr Definition Webster? There is nothing worse than a writer who sits on the fence in an argument. Now, some more details for closed ended questions. Here are the different kinds of closed ended questions that you may see for Task 2: discuss both sides, describe the advantages and disadvantages of Essay about, (both), do you agree or disagree, which do you support and why. In the case of the first two, you are asked to give both opinions or the The Embassy Protestors Essay, benefits and Essay about deficits of matthew dillon, each. Essay About Of Evil? For instance, “Some people believe that higher taxes are better for society while others argue that no tax is the approach.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of either tax or no tax systems…” In this case, body paragraph one should explain the advantages and disadvantages of no taxation, and body paragraph two should discuss the advantages and disadvantages of taxation; provided you believe that taxation is a better system. You should always emphasize the side you believe in more at the beginning (introduction/thesis) and end of your essay (last body paragraphs and conclusion). This is also true if you have to write about both sides of matthew dillon, a debate, end with the side you believe in more. The logic is simple, leave your reader with the idea that you support. This is the law of Essay, first and last impressions. If the question does not ask you to martyr definition webster, explain both sides of the argument, stick to The Hour of Evil, just one side with two or three strong supporting points outlined in your thesis. I have already given you an example in body paragraph two about ‘riding a bicycle to school’.

Again, start body one with your weaker point (my health) and then end body two or three (depending if you have two or three points) with your strongest point (my environment). Again, you need to concept paper, implement the law of first and last impression. The Hour Of Evil? Given that all of the information provided in this essay is a literary clear, you should now have a good idea about how to answer any type of Task 2 on the IELTS exam; regardless of the specific information or question that is Essay about The Hour of Evil being asked. The correct thinking is purely logical: know that the essay is first person voice and persuasive, the question is open or closed, asks to discuss both sides/pros and cons, or just one side of the argument. Based on the answers to this information you can formulate the right thesis with a good parallel grammar structure and begin to write. Just remember, stay on topic and device give good examples! For lots more help with writing join our full course: 48 Responses to #8220;IELTS Task 2 Writing – Question Types? – Answer Strategies:#8221; My concern is in writing section.Is there any videos or sample essays for pie chart and flow chart?.

Hi, i#8217;ve done my first writing practice with topic that I got from Essay about, internet (not aehelp). Can I ask for corrections and How To Evaluate Stock Essay feedbacks by using the #8220;editing services#8221; menu? p.s. I#8217;ve already joined the Essay about of Evil, ielts full course. Hi,my main concern is that I cannot find any sample essay about Writing task 2 which is written in the type of universe, #8220;Discuss both views#8221;.However,most samples that given in the books of about, Cambridge University (which use official examination papers) are in this form.Where can I get more information about it? Thanks for attention in advance. HI,MY CONCERN ABOUT WRITING TEST. COULD NOT WRITE AN EFFECTIVE ESSAY.CAN YOU EVALUATE MY ESSAY PLEASE. I M READY TO TAKE FULL COURSE. My computer can only open the full course package, when I try to open the videos or the test practices, they don#8217;t open.

I tried this on a different computer, it worked but unfortunately it wasn#8217;t mine. Concept Topic? Can you help me in this, please. I bought the Full Course 2 months ago.Now I can#8217;t open the videos because it says I have to buy a Full Course. As the Course an The Hour of Evil, expire date. I don#8217;t see it written down.

Can you help me, please? please assist, I can#8217;t play my videos and cd#8217;s. Paper? i registered for full course, is there any specific time limit for users to access the course content? I#8217;m just curious about the academic writing task 1 and 2 examples, how can I possibly access these? thanks! You must be logged in to The Hour of Evil, post a comment. 2017 - 2Think1 Solutions Inc. All rights reserved.

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Eco Friendly Essays and Research Papers. ?Technology Project ( eco - friendly home) How can we convince people to become more eco - friendly . with their homes? Eco - friendly home, is kind of «green home». It is a type of house designed to be environmentally friendly and sustainable, while also focusing on the efficient use of energy, water, and Essay about building materials. Definition Webster? So in this project I will have to try to show people, that eco - friendly home is much better than normal home and than I will have to explain, why it is like that. How can. Association football , Cleanliness , Earth 667 Words | 3 Pages. Executive Summary - Eco-Friendly Clothing.

becoming conscious of living life; the 'organic way'. Eco friendly products combining high quality with socially conscious . environmentalism has become a faction, and is in vogue Eco friendly labels are now appearing on many products, due to the efforts of the companies to be perceived as environment friendly . Health concerns represent a potential source of benefits and demand for organic apparel. About Of Evil? Our company deals with the manufacturing of The Embassy Protestors eco - friendly clothes and about The Hour bags. The Embassy Essay? 'Green clothing' is made from. Animal fiber , Clothing , Environment 767 Words | 3 Pages. way to marginalize a better alternative for implementation. About? They should look at matthew dillon, other alternatives that can ensure their survival and to assist countries in . dealing with the global economy.

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Business , Environment , Environmental movement 885 Words | 3 Pages. social responsibility is carried, Kimpton hotels cultivated a program known as “EarthCare Program” in 1981. Not only boosting their reputation toward . society, Kimpton Hotels was labeled as an eco friendly hotel worldwide. To realize the program from The Embassy mere theory to reality, Kimpton uses environmentally friendly products for their hotel such as ceramic cups and about The Hour plates, towels, carpets and hangings all made of matthew dillon pure organic cottons. In the year 2005, Kimpton promised social responsibility as their corporate.

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Biodiversity , Design , Ecosystem 732 Words | 3 Pages. ASSESSMENT Homeland Security Community Threat Assessment Jesse Anderson Boston University Abstract The purpose of paper this brief is to provide . Homeland Security with a terrorist threat assessment of the local community. It is suspected that an eco -terrorist organization is forming in the area. The organization’s structure, typology and force multipliers are analyzed. The primary goal of Essay about of Evil Homeland Security as listed in the National Strategy for Homeland Security is the prevention and disruption.

Domestic terrorism in the United States , Earth Liberation Front , Eco-terrorism 1219 Words | 4 Pages. Name of the Rose is the first novel by Italian author Umberto Eco . It is a historical murder mystery set in an Italian monastery in the year . Matthew Dillon? 1327, an intellectual mystery combining semiotics in fiction, biblical analysis, medieval studies and literary theory.Umberto Eco‘s novel The Name of the about, Rose was first published in martyr webster, 1980, in its original language, Italian. Shortly thereafter, it was translated into several other languages, helping Eco attain his first global hit. In his old age, Adso of Melk. Jorge Luis Borges , Novel , Semiotics 1854 Words | 5 Pages. cost of $3.29 per gallon, statistics show that the annual fuel cost savings would calculate to an outstanding total of $999. Knowing this, for every tank of . gas pumped into about, an eco - friendly car, miles can be maximized by martyr webster three or four more times the average amount of Essay about miles than a traditional vehicle. An efficient eco - friendly model may offer an EPA-estimated one hundred miles per gallon compared to aristotles, the average gas-operated car at fourteen to twenty miles per gallon.

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Design , Industrial design , Linguistics 2036 Words | 7 Pages. Gasland FrackNation Truthland Fracking. tool. Natural Gas is the cleanest burning fossil fuel, much more environmentally friendly than Gas and Coal. It is matthew dillon very versatile, and Essay of Evil can be . used for universe, many different energy purposes. About Of Evil? Hydraulic fracturing is a necessary process, and is one of the most efficient ways to extract natural gas from aristotles universe deeper places in the earth. In the coming years, advances will continue to be made to about of Evil, make fracking more environmentally friendly , and cost efficient. In these movies, each individual film is biased in a literary, their own.

Environmentally friendly , Film , Lung cancer 897 Words | 3 Pages. Environmental Policy, Sustainability, and Essay of Evil Government Regulations. UPS achieve a 6.1 % emissions index reduction that exceeded the EPA Climate Leader goals (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). The company introduced the . Eco responsible Packaging Program that uses cube optimization, meaning that packaging is The Embassy only as large as it needs to be for shipping, the materials for packaging are environmentally friendly . The carbon neutral shipping expanded to 36 other countries (UPS 2010 sustainability report, 2010). This program using carbon offsets reduces the carbon. Carbon dioxide , Carbon offset , Ecological economics 883 Words | 3 Pages. environmental friendly products. The group of The Hour of Evil consumers that is interested in environmental friendly is very rapidly. Paper? Zotter . The Hour? targets the consumers who want exclusive chocolate and want more than just chocolate.

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Usman who we visited last Sunday is a friendly person 10. The girl ……..mother ill is staying at. Friendly People , Sibling 1525 Words | 7 Pages. not only to adults but also to children. They also participate in The Hour of Evil, being an “environmentally friendly ” corporation. They have shown this . through a variety of ways such as carrying a broader scope of energy efficient products, environmentally friendly products and their recycling practices. In 2007, Home Depot launched a new line of “environmentally friendly ” products.

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Jean-Jacques Annaud , Jorge Luis Borges , Semiotics 2021 Words | 5 Pages.

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The Effects of The Hour Truancy on our Children. The purpose of this research is to investigate and aristotles universe, explore effects of Essay The Hour truancy and the marijuana use and their relationship. Truancy has inferences not only to education, but also to other aspects of community and other government initiatives to advance employment prospects, social inclusion, urban rebirth, youth crime and safer cities. It is also clear that causes and effects of absence, which appear from this current study, are often interrelated, but also contested. The overall message is that some pupils appear to be caught in a cycle of the The Embassy, poor attendance, which influences their attainment and position towards school and leads to the successive unauthorized absence. Absenteeism or truancy has been a common problem faced by many schools globally whether they are urban or rural.

Over the last few decades, it has been well thought-out as a disciplinary problem that has been taking place. Truancy has come into sight as one of the disciplinary problems with the highest number of teenagers involved. The use of Essay any drug has some risks attached, and marijuana is a drug which is neither a demon nor a benign substance. As well as all substances, it is vital to contrast between the regular, casual and heavy use, with downbeat effects being more likely with heavier use. Studies of effects are hindered, because marijuana is often used in The Embassy Essay, amalgamation with other substances, mainly tobacco. It can also cause mental health problems. Truancy may be caused by the peer pressure: the divorce in about The Hour of Evil, the family, mental or physical health problems, abuse or neglect, drug or alcohol abuse by one of parents and/or the student, low self-esteem, financial issues, lack of friends, bad academic performance, safety concerns which can include the mental pressure or threats and intimidation and boredom. Truancy has made many teens involve themselves in drugs, mostly marijuana.

Canadian teens are among the highest who have issues with this drug. Research demonstrates that teens may use marijuana as a way of: demonstrating their independence, taking risks and satisfying their curiosity, seeking new and exciting experiences, developing strong peer bonds, developing values distinct from parental and societal authority. The Embassy Protestors Essay. When inhaled, it produces a variety of effects that include a sense of well-being, a feeling of The Hour of Evil relaxation, enhanced sociability, distortions in paper topic, sense of time, difficulty in concentrating, hearing and vision, and at higher doses visual hallucinations. Other effects include; increased heart beat rate, increased appetite, reddening of eyes, sedation and decreased muscle tone. The scope of these effects and the real user’s experience will be determined by the number of essential factors that may contrast very much. Truant may cause to a lot of effects to about of Evil, teens which include: the decrease in earning ability, the daytime crime involvement, such as entering or breaking into one’s building, shoplifting, vandalism, dropping out of studies. It increases the chance of the pupil to be on welfare, the involvement in different kinds of gangs, problems with catching up at school, failing and missing classes, the risk of not getting a higher education. The truancy affects the matthew dillon, entire class when the teacher slows down in order to help the student. An increase in crimes results in more victims, an increased cost even to Essay about The Hour, the community for the welfare costs to society and definition, an additional law enforcement.

Truancy has increased negative effects on our children due to Essay of Evil, victimization, anti-social behavior, different in social classes, different family structure, personality, family issues and neighborhood deprivation and has led to increased misuse of substance on How To Essay our children. Research will use variables for about The Hour of Evil, analysis of effects of truants and marijuana on teens. Example of these variables includes: anti-social behavior, school, parenting, victimization, personality, social class, family structure, neighborhood deprivation and substance misuse. These include continuous variable and will be used to determine the volume of drugs and how many times in past years teens have used marijuana, volume of smoking and drinking alcohol. In addition, categorical variable will be used to determine whether teens have used drugs in the past years. It will also determine the period when they smoke; either they smoke marijuana daily or weekly. Truancy is defined as an unexcused absence from school by a minor that exceed the number of matthew dillon such absences allowed under the state law.

Truancy is a prevalent predicament facing societies today. Essay About The Hour Of Evil. One should consider following facts: teenagers who are truant truly increase the danger for dropping out school. High school dropouts are more likely not to find jobs, on welfare, or to end up drinking. Truancy has been also identified as a risk factor to teenagers. It is an is tone a literary device, early warning sign of students with probable criminal activities, education failure, through suspension, social isolation or dropping out. About Of Evil. Various theories have explained the cause of truancy. For example, a Sociological Study stipulates that individual get to extent of wrongdoing because of lack of effective social management agencies. Besides this, it also stipulates that criminal activities on our children are from low income and worsen areas.

George Herbert mead’s role theory states that of the self states that a student bad behavior has to be associated with individual who violates the law. Universe. According to Albert Cohen’s Middle-Class Measuring Role and Working-Class Boy theory, teens have been tackled with limitation to access their goal with constraint of legitimate avenues. 1) To evaluate the best research design methods that will be used to determine the The Hour, effects of truancy on our children. 2) To research on the methods that will be use in the collection of data. 3) To investigate on Essay effects cause and effects of truancy on our children. 4) To report on Essay about The Hour best finding and recommendation that would reduce truancy on our children. 1) Whatare the methods used to concept topic, determine the effects of truancy on our children. 2) What are the techniques of collecting data on Essay effects of truancy on our children. 3) What are the effects and cause of truancy on our children.

4) Writing a proposal. Many institutions are using tough measures to keep kids in class. For instance, some governments are now passing through the regulation allowing the police to issue an illustration to aristotles universe, either the truant or the parent, which can upshot in 30 days in jail or $500 fine for the parent and suspension of the teenager's license to drive(Robert, 2007) . Court-Based and Court Diversion Programs control the of Evil, power of the court, in order to harmonize and oversee the delivery of aristotles universe services that are acknowledged for the truant youth, and often for the family, as well. Example of this court is Truancy Court Diversion Project, which uses family courts as the about The Hour of Evil, way to provide an expansive array of definition webster services to families. Findings of this information come from the U.S. Department of National Center for Education Statistics. They conducted several studies and have put into paper the association between the truancy and drug use. The statement from Maryland Center for Essay The Hour, Substance Abuse Research researched that 51 % of feminine juvenile are detected not at school at the time of arrest when they are tested positive for the use of drug. Another research conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice's Drug Use Forecasting Program discovered that more than half (53 %) of the aristotles universe, group of 403 male detainees in San Diego were tested positive for the drug use when they were taken to the juvenile hall. Kids who were absent at school were likely (67 % versus 49 %) to about, be tested positive for the drug use than those who attended (Daniel, 2008).

School-based programs have been implemented and assessed for the truancy reduction. The Multnomah County, Ore., School Attendance Initiative (SAI) is a no punitive, culturally suitable approach to help students maintain the regular attendance. One of SAI’s goals is to identify attendance problems early, so they would not become serious (Johannes, 1997). Another school-based program is How To a Los Angeles County truancy decline program called Abolish Chronic Truancy (A.C.T.) which targets children from Essay about The Hour elementary school who have some excessive absences. The program places prosecutors at schools to Protestors Essay, work with teachers, administrators, parents or guardians and students to get involved in the very commencement of the Essay of Evil, truancy cycle, before the problem is entrenched. A.C.T. uses a sequence of graduated intercessions to a literary device, hold students and parents responsible for Essay about of Evil, attendance problems. The program sends a letter to parents of students with attendance problems. Parents and children are invited to meet with the deputy district attorney (Center, 1999). According to U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, truancy has forced many teenagers in concept topic, the United States to use drugs, such as marijuana. The lack of dedication to school has been recognized by The Hour of Evil several studies as a risk factor for concept paper topic, teen pregnancy, delinquency, substance abuse and school dropout.

Other than these truants, a number of studies conducted have found that truants have experienced stronger feelings of rejection, low self-esteem and criticism from their parents than non-truants. According to research conducted by Education Commission on Time and Learning in Essay about The Hour of Evil, United States, children of school age and teens who are not verified during hours after school are more prone to use marijuana, alcohol, drugs and definition webster, tobacco, engage in of Evil, high-risk criminal behaviors, receive low marks, and leave school than those who have chance to participate from constructive activities organized by responsible adults. In a 1994, Harris poll has investigated that over one-half of teachers said that children who were left on their own in their free time after school are the explanation for difficulties in the class. Webster. Children with low reading score are more likely to exhibit the criminal behavior than their peers whose reading score is alright, according to the U.S. About Of Evil. Department of Justice (Karen, 2008). A research conducted by the Department of Justice stipulates that truancy can be valuable to societies, since the state education funding in general is based on the genuine attendance. Unquestionable absence may cost a school system a lot of money in its lost revenue. The society also pays high costs to businesses for the reeducation and retraining, along with costs associated with prosecution, arrestments, and incarceration of children who commit criminal acts. According to research conducted by the U.S. Conference of Mayors' survey, 56 % or 154 of investigated places have had youth embargo for 10 years minimum. Officials in one half of investigated cities consider that the juvenile crime reduced as the curfew was enforced.

11 % recon the number of crimes has not changed; and matthew dillon, 10 % think that the number of juvenile-related crimes increased. Curfews can also be costly for cities. 23% or 61 cities that took part in The Hour, the U.S. Conference of Mayor's survey considered there were increased costs of enforcing curfews. The Embassy Essay. Other societies are working on prevention of the problem of Essay about The Hour of Evil truancy by contributing positive activities to matthew dillon, increase the students' interest in school, academic performance and confidence levels. For instance, after-school programs may assist children in developing stronger confidence in their studying. Additionally, in order to have an effective truancy reduction programs, parents and guardians should involve themselves fully in order to reduce this vice. A continuing support should also prevail, including meaningful incentives for consequences of poor attendance and Essay The Hour, decent attendance. Society actors like law enforcement, social service provider and mental health workers should collaborate. However, many cities in the United States are defining and enforcing curfews in an attempt to minimize the truancy and crime, and to persuade parents to discipline their children. Matthew Dillon. An investigation carried out by the U.S.

Conference of about The Hour of Evil Mayors found that 276 out of aristotles universe 347 responding cities had a night curfew, and seventy six had a daytime curfew, as well. In addition to Essay about The Hour, punishing parents, courts can order them to attend parenting classes and hold them in a disdain of court, if they do not attend. In some situations, the court may take a child away from a parent and martyr, make the child a ward of the court. Some societies address truancy through community-based programs. Programs recognize that truancy is not an of Evil, individual or a family problem alone, but is a society vice that should be addressed by collaboration among various systems in the community. How To. For example, Truancy Assessment and Service Centers (TASC) are one example of a community-based approach. Essay The Hour. It mobilizes all sections of the community and takes comprehensive approach to address problems of diverse population in martyr definition webster, their neighborhood (Richard, 2008).

Centers place children in the kindergarten through the 5 th grade early assessment, identification and prompt delivery of well-coordinated intervention in order to prevent continued absences from the school. Another society-based approach is representedby the New Jersey Juvenile/Family Crisis Intervention Units (JFCIUs), which are endorsed to divert matters which involve family-related problems from court proceedings. The JFCIUs provide the short-term interference service in case of crisis with the aim of stabilizing family conditions and/or referring the child and the family to available public agencies. A research design is a work plan which purpose is to ensure that the about The Hour of Evil, data obtained enable one to matthew dillon, answer the initial question as definitely as possible. The term also refers to how a researcher puts an investigative study together to set questions or answer a question. Research design works as a logical plan outlining researcher’s methods of Essay compilation, study, research limitations and details on how the study will arrive at its conclusions. Aristotles. Research will use an experimental quantitative research design as the most appropriate in carrying out this research because the art of preparation and Essay about, implementing an experiment is efficient and effective in aristotles universe, that the researcher is able to acquire the of Evil, comprehensive information of the number of truants in order to put in place measures that will reduce this vice. A process used in statistical analysis, in which a predestined number of observations will be taken from aristotles a bigger population. Simple sampling method will be used to conduct this research, because it will extensively cover the whole population in any place. About The Hour Of Evil. The researcher will extensively be able to aristotles universe, get the correct number of truants in different places without particular basing his facts in Essay The Hour of Evil, only one place. It is the process of bringing together or generating information that has been systematically observed, organized, recorded, categorized or defined in such a system that logical processing and implication may occur.

Research will use primary and secondary data collection methods, such as questionnaires, observation and Evaluate, interviewing, because they will help one to identify the correct counter measures in research that will reduce the Essay The Hour, number of truants in the world.