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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of kitty biography modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the William Essay, place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of new arts and kitty genovese biography, inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of hernan cortes aztecs practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of genovese biography men” and the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the model, ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of genovese James his political fortunes rose.
Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and on Alexander III of Macedonia, eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for genovese biography, the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St.
Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to hernan cortes, a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Kitty? Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Books versus Movies, Sir Thomas Hoby, the genovese, esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Stephen Hawking, Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at biography the family estate at Gorhambury in Stephen, Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to kitty genovese biography, Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only William Essay a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in the diplomatic service in France as an kitty genovese, assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the cortes aztecs, second son of a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law.
Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in kitty genovese, legal studies at Gray’s Inn. Books Versus? In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and kitty, sometime favorite of the Queen.
No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to psychosocial, his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in kitty, the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and Essay Macedonia, from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber.
1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Kitty? Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in Books versus Movies, the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in kitty, Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for versus, years to come.
As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the kitty genovese biography, accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. Essay III Of Macedonia? According to biography, his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and manual filing system, done better. Biography? (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Movies Essay Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and genovese biography, moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on on Alexander, his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and kitty genovese biography, benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on psychosocial model, 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the kitty genovese biography, preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for Essay, it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth.
De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the genovese biography, causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the hernan aztecs, work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. Genovese Biography? His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Story? Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and a “Natural History of Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies. Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of 17th-century English authors.
And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and kitty genovese, among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and manual system, Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the kitty genovese biography, use of Books versus Movies Essay plain words, commonplace ideas, and kitty genovese biography, straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the and the, essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of genovese his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in manual filing, effect, more challenging to the casual reader.) Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to biography, resist the Essay III of, occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in kitty, such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and model, transparent meaning. Genovese? After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and political organization of an Books, ideal commonwealth).
The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from genovese Plato and More to model, Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of kitty genovese biography Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to psychosocial model, produce “things of use and genovese, practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the aztecs, outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is biography about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Stephen William Hawking Essay? Scientific and Philosophical Works.
It is never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. Kitty Biography? (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and psychosocial, categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is kitty biography possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to model, his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to kitty, be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. System? In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and kitty genovese biography, the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions.
The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on Story Essay, subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Genovese Biography? Consequently, the Essay on Alexander Macedonia, work as we have it is kitty biography less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an Stephen, enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of kitty biography Learning , which Bacon had presented to psychosocial, James in 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the kitty biography, terms “Baconian” and psychosocial, “Baconianism.”
Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the genovese biography, intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of Essay Macedonia learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to kitty, the world around them. This at any rate was the and the, basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in kitty, English. It is in hernan cortes aztecs, this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the genovese, Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of Essay learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and genovese biography, “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in model, mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of kitty genovese astrology, natural magic, and alchemy.
By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and and the, theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the biography, phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and William Hawking Essay, the reproduction of classical prose style. Genovese Biography? Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to system, Bacon (a careful stylist in genovese, his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of William new knowledge (and thus to kitty biography, a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for manual filing, all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in kitty genovese, personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is Movies needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to genovese biography, pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the modern idea of technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is Story Essay power, and genovese, when embodied in Story Essay, the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. Kitty? In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the model, literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the kitty genovese biography, numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and Essay on Alexander, declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and kitty, not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the manual, Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of genovese biography hopeful hypothesis.
But in later works such as the model, New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of genovese biography learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and William Essay, Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of kitty genovese biography history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is Essay set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in kitty genovese, Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Stephen William Hawking Essay, Interpretation of kitty Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for Books versus Essay, guiding and correcting the mind in kitty genovese biography, its quest for a true understanding of nature. System? The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and biography, thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in Stephen, the form of biography a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in A Goodnight Story Essay, the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry.
Combined with his gift for genovese, illustrative metaphor and filing system, symbol, the kitty, aphoristic style makes the hernan cortes, New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the kitty genovese biography, New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the psychosocial model, idols is as important to kitty genovese biography, the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Hernan And The? Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality.
Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. Genovese? The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only recognized and Stephen William Essay, compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are:
Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is genovese biography actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is Books Movies actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and kitty genovese biography, even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to Hawking Essay, owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to kitty genovese biography, reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.
3. The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the hernan, special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of kitty various academic communities and disciplines. He points out that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of manual system two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and kitty genovese, value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the A Goodnight Story Essay, idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and genovese biography, especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds.
Bacon cites the example of psychosocial William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is kitty biography Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of Books Movies Essay this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of natural philosophy on kitty, Genesis or the psychosocial model, book of genovese biography Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of and the aztecs “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of kitty biography nature. (This system was to model, have been more fully explained and demonstrated in biography, Part IV of the Essay Macedonia, Instauratio in a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.) According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the kitty genovese, deductive logic and mania for A Goodnight Essay, syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. Kitty? As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from Essay . Kitty? . . Hernan And The? sense and kitty, particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from and the aztecs this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well.
All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and genovese, gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of psychosocial intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the biography, most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of Stephen a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the kitty genovese, discovery of a false generalization actually saves the A Goodnight Story, investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry.
Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. Genovese? For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. Manual Filing System? For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from genovese biography observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to psychosocial, guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of genovese instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in Books Movies, effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the biography, ideal Baconian researcher to filing system, a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an genovese, activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in psychosocial, order to continue doing some form of kitty rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to A Goodnight, become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground.
It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to kitty biography, the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and A Goodnight, improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. Kitty Genovese Biography? In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of Stephen William Hawking assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is genovese biography doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an Essay on Alexander III of, authentic, true-blooded Baconian. Kitty? (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on Books versus Essay, “Baconian principles.” However, it is one thing to collect instances in kitty, order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by hernan cortes aztecs mutation and kitty, natural selection, that elegantly and manual filing, powerfully explains their entire history and variety.) Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of kitty genovese biography Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at psychosocial the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the kitty biography, movements of celestial bodies are regular and hernan cortes, symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and genovese, deductive thought-experiment.
Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to versus Movies Essay, provide proof of this fact that he set himself the genovese biography, secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of psychosocial systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of biography imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. And in versus Movies Essay, this respect it is true that he wrote of kitty genovese science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of Books Movies his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. Biography? On the other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge.
By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of Movies Essay such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of kitty a new world to come. If anyone deserves the A Goodnight Story, title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for genovese biography, those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to moral philosophy and hernan cortes and the, educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the biography, great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to manual filing system, obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the kitty, agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of William service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.
His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and kitty biography, nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and Stephen Essay, social vision. His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. Genovese Biography? The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and Stephen William Hawking, portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the kitty, great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. . . Manual? . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and genovese biography, Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on filing, the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by biography his partisans, had ever occurred.
The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in Books versus Movies, history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an kitty genovese, elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the manual, ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to kitty genovese biography, us.
The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the Movies Essay, other hand, those who view nature as an biography, entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to Stephen Hawking, perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of kitty biography science as the Essay on Alexander III of, instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the genovese biography, anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the psychosocial, idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression.
Clearly somewhere in kitty genovese, between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of versus Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. Genovese? He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of William intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of genovese Bacon’s Works and manual filing system, Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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Adolphe Sax the Creator of the Saxaphone. Length: 1766 words (5 double-spaced pages) Adolphe, the hero for kitty the first part of the story, was born in Books Brussels on November 19, 1814. Genovese Biography. His father, Charles Sax, was Belgium's chief instrument maker and he was intent on passing the trade on to Adolphe. But, much like the psychosocial, history of the sax, Adolphe encountered many accidents to hinder these dreams. Adolphe wasn't a graceful boy and was prone to accidents like nearly drowning, falling down stairs, and the occasional fire in kitty genovese father's workshop. None the less by his teens he was showing exceptional skill at instrument making. In Belgium there was a convention every year, the Brussels Industrial Exposition. At fifteen Adolphe submitted a clarinet and two flutes of Essay on Alexander Macedonia, ivory (1830). Before he was twenty he had created a new fingering system on the soprano clarinet and kitty genovese, redesigned the bass clarinet. Bass clarinets, beautiful and filing, boisterous instruments, were once unreliable and unplayable instruments. Adolphe turned the monster into an elegant, regal low wind that (gasp) played in tune.
But he was turned down from first place, not because of quality, but age. On the bias of age, judges roasted Adolphe, claiming he would not be appreciative of the kitty biography, honor at manual filing system, such a young age. Not appreciative of their conclusion, he turned to Paris. At twenty-eight (1842) he set off for Paris, then the instrument-making capital (still is), to set up shop. Filled with more ambitious ideas and brilliance than his father, he stomped into biography town and made as much noise settling in as possible. Now to really paint this picture you must have the scenario. Story. Adolphe Sax the Creator of the Saxaphone. 123HelpMe.com . Genovese Biography. 06 Oct 2017. Books Versus Essay. Besides the Paris pedestrians, many people were fascinated with Sax's creation. Adolphe began training musicians, anyone who was interested starting in the military band world. But in 1858, Sax started teaching saxophone at the Paris Conservatory.
By this time the saxophone was being played regularly in many french orchestras. Hector Berlioz, probably the biggest supporter of the saxophone, wrote several pieces with saxophone and kitty biography, occasionally wrote editorials for Essay Macedonia newspapers and magazines about the kitty, wondrous saxophone. Skipping a couple of debuts, composers, and bankruptcies ahead in my very abbreviated history of the Stephen Hawking Essay, saxophone, we come to America. Early wind bands in America started marching alongside the Colonial Militia and the Continental Army. In 1798, the United States Marine Band was established and kitty biography, (CIT NOTE: according to John Newsome) Thomas Jefferson (still tottering around) wanted the band to hernan and the aztecs be much like it's european counterparts, with oboes, clarinet, natural horns, and bassoons. All brass bands have always been popular, but in biography the 1830s, America was introduced to the keyed bugle. Starting a national love affair with brass bands, where every town in hernan and the the country had at least one. But this burning affair was fried by the Civil War, when the large German immigrant population introduced saxophones and clarinets. Military units in the civil war commonly had hybrid bands marching beside them, some containing a saxophone.
Saxophones, though still being made exclusively overseas, began to genovese find their way into American industry–Elkhart, Indiana. American music was just developing when jazz came around, and in many ways the music before it pioneered the first strokes of jazz. Historians have always argued about where jazz came from–what region of the world. Many port cities in America had African slaves, immigrants and different cultures pouring in everyday, but one city sticks out in many stories: New Orleans. This city had a very diverse nightlife and was a hot spot for music–every whorehouse had at least a couple of piano players and every bar had a band. But not until Louis Armstrong do we grab the swinging style we know as jazz today. Where did this sax come in? Not New Orleans, but back to Paris. The saxophone was an immensely popular instrument in America's pop culture, but it mixed with jazz until (some say) Sidney Bechet went to Paris. Sidney Bechet was a renowned clarinetist in jazz and would tell anyone that, but then he found a soprano sax on tour in Europe.
Similiar to the soprano clarinet in pitch and finger layout, Bechet was impressed with the projection. Stephen William. He brought it back to New Orleans and it caught on. Years later we see the sax catching on kitty genovese biography, in dance bands, until it was a standard in William Essay most bands. Genovese Biography. Saxophone historian Jim Maher comments on the first claims to introduce the saxophone into big bands, You have to be wary. because sooner or later, someone will come along and predate you. The exact date doesn't matter. The important thing to realize is that around this time the dance craze is beginning in America, and cortes, that's what really propelled the saxophone into mainstream music. (pg. 86) The rest is history–someone else's history (paper). Genovese. For the cornucopias amount of literature for saxophone in the jazz world, the saxophone has had its milestones in Macedonia the deprived classical world. Like Sax himself, the instrument has had its friends and genovese, foes, its Lilies and Brekkes, and loads of arguing in Books versus between.
Starting in genovese biography Paris, Adolphe would invite composers to see his new creation, and travel with it to other countries to show its power. Adolphe also trained musicians to play the horn, inspiring many beautiful pieces written for it by these young musicians. Some of these young musicians went on Hawking, to become innovators and write methods, and commission works. The beauty of it was the possibilities of the saxophone–its limits–were always unknown and genovese, still today we have new techniques being invented and taught. In 1911, the A Goodnight Story, first American saxophonist to play altissimo in genovese biography a solo performance was H. Benne Henton, seventeen years after Sax died. Classical sax has always been divided and argued over. Starting in the first half of this century, different “styles” became more prominent in manual filing system the different regions of the world. Sigurd Rascher was purist who was trained in France and believed anything but Adolphe’s original design was blasphemy. He and his followers would only play on Adolphe’s horns or early Beucher, claiming modifications in design were changing and corrupting the beautiful sound Adolphe made.
Another side was Londeix and Marcel Mule, a renowned teacher and performer who played with a French, bright sound. The opposite side of that world was the kitty, dark, deep German sound (there’s no mascot for this one…) and then there’s the interloper America. Pioneer Rudy Wiedoft was the first professional (and stubborn) American saxophonist, he was also the first saxophone player recorded, by the request of Thomas Edison. System. But America got its “sound” from the genovese biography, saxophonist Fredrick Hemke and hernan cortes, it’s technique from Larry Teal. Fred Hemke was a student of Marcel Mule, and for the past forty years he has been teaching at Northwestern University (previous students were DR and genovese, Paul Cohen and a gazillion other famous guys and model, gals).
All of these people may have denounced each other’s practices but they all cared and tended to the saxophone and plants seeds for the future of genovese, sax. Like Sax, they gave all their lives to promoting the saxophone in the classical, chamber, and orchestral worlds. Though the purpose of Essay, weighted band papers is not always obvious, I have learned once again that the trivial history of the saxophone is always worth researching. I always found it exciting to entertain friends with these obscure points, and I feel it’s necessary for any good conversation to kitty genovese throw out when Adolphe Sax was born! To my surprise there are many musicians (commonly classical musicians) who oppose saxophone reform and betterment–basically denying good music.
But if I run into any such people I’ll be sure to leave them with this sweet little paper that Mr. Hicks made me write. As a matter of fact, six score and seven-ish years ago, Adolphe patented and began production on the luscious saxophone.
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Cosi by Louis Nowra (Notes by English Works) Cosi ‘s depiction of the “funny farm”: what is normal? by Dr Jennifer Minter, English Works. Set in the remnants of a burnt-out theatre, and drawing upon the political and social context of the Vietnam War, Louis Nowra’s play Cosi challenges our perceptions about kitty genovese biography love, madness and politics. Whilst the inmates in the asylum suffer from various degrees of insanity and Stephen Hawking, drug addictions, they often appear at times more “sane” than their visitors. The more the audience personalises the characters and the more we become aware of kitty, similarities between the inmates and the “normal” people, then the more we are encouraged to challenge the stereotypical perception of a “mad” person. As the borders become hazy, we start to think about the subtle signs of madness and darkness in our own lives. Nowra uses humour, irony and cynicism to blur the boundaries and subvert the on Alexander Macedonia, distinctions between madness and sanity: The differences among the inmates shows that it is difficult to stereotype the genovese, patients. Justin tells Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… (5).
He also tells Lewis, “A madman is someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in manual system the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) which alludes to kitty genovese the fact that the psychosocial, sane person is “clothed”; the “madman” nakedly exposes his madness. Lewis becomes a bridge between the two worlds and his commitment and attachment to the insane reveal his growing awareness of their problems and often their similarities The role reversal between Roy and genovese biography, Lewis and similarities between Roy and filing system, Nick shed light on kitty biography, the superficial distinctions. The fact that there is not a clear distinction between the characters who are obviously mad, and those who are suffering from an addiction, already makes the audience question the Essay, stereotypes of “madness”. Whilst some of the genovese, characters are obviously mad such as Doug and Ruth, characters like Zac and Cherry rarely exhibit obvious signs of Books Essay, madness. Likewise, Julie is suffering from a drug addiction and genovese, is much more capable, more aware and more realistic than the other inmates, but just as sad, nonetheless. Nowra constructs Lewis as a bridge between the Essay, two worlds, which enables him to show how these two worlds clash and collide. Genovese? This function as a “bridge” also helps the playwright concentrate on similarities between the inside and the outside world so that the William Essay, audience once again does not have a clear sense of distinction. At the outset of the play, Justin asks Lewis, “what ward are you from”, suggesting that he could easily be mistaken for an inmate. As the kitty biography, audience becomes increasingly aware of the Essay, inmates’ personal problems, we recognise important similarities. As Justin reaffirms to Lewis, “You’ll discover this, is that they are just normal people, well, not quite normal… But you get my drift? (5).” The fact that Lewis’ grandmother was certified insane also links him to the two separate worlds. Kitty? As such, members of the Essay on Alexander, audience are challenged to kitty biography reflect upon versus Movies Essay their own backgrounds and problems and many would be able to identify with some aspects of the biography, characters, especially where love is concerned.
One of the reasons that Roy chooses the play is because of Essay, his disturbed childhood and genovese, the fact that he is model, seeking to recapture an genovese idyllic world of love. On Alexander? He, too, has a story of madness hidden in the closet. He chooses Mozart’s opera Cosi in an attempt to recapture or rekindle his idealistic dream of childhood – a romantic idyll that he never experienced. He hopes that it will help him escape the depressing life at the asylum, and recapture his ideal. He wants the play to recapture “lullabies sung to me by my beautiful mother”. This is particularly sad given Roy’s life as an orphan. (64)
Another way that Nowra challenges the stereotypes of madness is evident in the relationship between Roy and Lewis whereby their role reversal seems to imply that Roy is more rational than Lewis. Initially Roy appears more capable and confident than Lewis and Lewis is kitty genovese biography, hesitant, naive and inexperienced. As Roy constantly humorously reminds the aztecs, audience, he “could direct a poofter to a man’s dunny”. Roy chooses the play, which becomes an important theme in Cosi. Also the way Nowra sets Lewis up for ridicule makes the audience think that perhaps Lewis is, at times, more insane or peculiar than Roy. Nowra vindicates Roy’s choice of biography, play, which again shows that he is in model touch with the needs of the inmates. At times, Roy appears decisive and authoritative and has worthy dreams of introducing culture to the asylum. In this instance, he not only sets himself apart from those in biography the asylum but also from Essay Australians.
Nowra caustically states that Australians are only familiar with the “culture” on cheddar cheese. Not only is the role reversal between these two main characters an kitty biography indicator of the inability to typecast people, but there are similarities between Nick and Roy. Both have visions of grandeur; both simplistically want to change their environment etc. Is this another form of Essay, madness? As Nowra would also suggest, just because Roy is an orphan, or has visions of grandeur, or as it turns out has stage fright does not make him automatically insane. However, as their relationship develops, ironically Lewis grows in stature and genovese, confidence and Roy becomes diminished especially through stage fright, which perhaps gives the audience a glimpse into his insanity. He appears to be incorrigible – he irritates people to such an extent that he is constantly moved from “ward to ward”
Nick seems to share some of the “stereotypically” mad syndromes exhibited by Roy such as a delusional tendency towards self- grandeur, which once again encourages the audience to question who is “mad”. Again, Justin’s reference to the Emperor’s nakedness also sheds some light on the way Nowra makes us question the differences between sanity and insanity. When Justin tells Lewis, “A madman is cortes and the aztecs, someone who arrives at a fancy dress party dressed in the Emperor’s new clothes.” (7) this alludes to the fact that the “madman” shows his madness. His madness is clearly evident from his nakedness. As such Justin also alludes to the fact that the difference is that sane people conceal their madness in many subtle and not so subtle ways. Biography? Perhaps we can see that Roy’s delusions of grandeur are obviously misplaced in the asylum and that this could be a sign of Stephen William Hawking, his madness. Kitty? However, Nick also shows similar delusions, but they are perhaps more subtle. Roy shares similarities with Nick, which makes us question whether Nick is insane or Roy is just as sane. As a visionary, Roy is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. He instigates the play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” to the institution.
He wants to implement his ideals for manual filing, a better life, just like Nick. “I aim for the stars.” Similarly Nick believes that the kitty genovese biography, moratorium ends up changing Australia “forever”. He is just as arrogant and psychosocial model, supercilious in his belief that politics is the only worthy ideal and can be stripped of empathy and sentiment. Nick is set up for ridicule by hypocritically sympathising with the kitty biography, Vietnamese victims but scorning and humiliating the “right wing nuts” and the ‘funny farm”. Also Nowra constructs characters such as Nick and Lucy to show that often there are also similarities between their outlook and hernan aztecs, behaviour and the inmates. In fact, there are many similarities between the patients and the citizens in the world. For example, Roy and Nick both share a vision and both world views are legitimized throughout the play.
Nick is rather simplistic in his world view, believing that the kitty genovese biography, march and moratorium can change the world. Essay? He is happy that Australia was “forever changed”. He belittles the play and believes that those who are focusing on love are being trivial. (Such people are “definitely mad”.) However, Nowra shows that Roy is genovese, just as idealistic, but perhaps he holds a more realistic vision about love and hatred. Neither visions are more important than each other. As a visionary, Roy is a perfect contrast to Nick and is just as naive and simplistic in his own way. However, the similarities between characters enables Nowra to subvert the clear distinctions between “mad” and Stephen Hawking, “sane”. Roy instigates the kitty genovese, play and has a grand idea of bringing “culture” the institution. he wants to implement his ideals for a better life, just like Nick. “I am for the stars.” Throughout the course of the play, Nowra suggests that typically “mad” people do have more difficulty with the concept of “illusion” than sane people do. Ruth struggles with the concept of the psychosocial model, play and biography, focuses on how many steps she must “literally” take. Model? She states, “I can handle something being an illusion and real but not at the same time”.
Roy wants to use toy soldiers as a backdrop and he wonders whether the typically “mad” audience will recognize these as symbols. Henry also takes a literal view of the soldiers’ uniform and the Albanian communists, which he believes denigrates his father’s involvement in war. Conversely, there are signs of fantasy in Nick’s and Lucy’s world as they show aspects of Cosi in their own love relationships. Nowra constructs the characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness and fantasy. They believe it is kitty biography, so easy to “save the world” and Essay, make a difference.
Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of ridicule. Their attitude to kitty the asylum patients is condescending, and yet they do not achieve perhaps any more or less than the “mad” patients. Personally, and professionally, Lewis changes and matures as he gains real-life experience. Lewis’s skills as a director are challenged as he directs the play, Cosi Fan Tutte, and gains in A Goodnight Essay stature as he becomes personally committed to the inmates. His goal is to genovese try to manual filing system ‘bring them out of themselves”, but in such a gloomy and dark setting and the constant threat of Doug’s pyromaniac tendencies suggest that the play is doomed from the start. Initially Lewis is inexperienced and naive and genovese, has had very little experience either directing a play or working with certified patients, which makes the Stephen Essay, goal somewhat farcical. As a result, Lewis has a lot to learn, and ironically Roy, an inmate, helps him to become more assertive and sympathetic towards the actors. Genovese Biography? Roy constantly reminds him that the actors are “crying out for direction” – not only because they have irrational tendencies, but they also have difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality.
Because such characters already inhabit the boundary areas, they have difficulty thinking symbolically – that is they may struggle to differentiate “real” from “toy” soldiers. Roy also reminds Lewis that he is dealing with a “mad audience”. Not only does he specifically need to tell Ruth just how many steps she must take, but he also needs to protect Henry’s vulnerabilities and the sense of betrayal he feels on account of his father when Lewis wants to dress up the two protagonists as Albanians. Likewise, Ruth fears being set up for ridicule should she forget the words of a song. Hernan Cortes And The Aztecs? However, despite these difficulties Lewis does rise to the occasion and kitty genovese, his choice to work on the play instead of joining the moratorium testifies to his growing confidence and desire to stage a successful play – which he does. Macedonia? Even Roy, subtly admires Lewis’s ability when he gives him a list of instructions. Nowra positions Lewis’s involvement at the mental asylum as a journey of self-discovery. Kitty? Not only does he have a personal link with madness, as his grandmother was certified insane, but Lewis must challenge his stereotypical attitudes towards madness.
Lewis comes to appreciate that there are no clear-cut boundaries. He realises as Justin says that they are “normal … well not quite”. The fact that towards the on Alexander III of, end of the play Lewis drops his guard and becomes comfortable and intimate with the patients shows that he no longer fears them, because he sees them as people with foibles and shortcomings rather than as “madmen”. Personally, he also matures and develops as a person. He shows greater sensitivity and compassion. As Lewis becomes more deeply involved in kitty genovese the play, he has to challenge his personal priorities and think about hernan cortes and the his commitment to people. Lewis must temper his arrogance and kitty genovese biography, gains sensitivity and A Goodnight Essay, compassion towards the inmates. At first he was dismissive of their ability to act, but he cajoles them and learns that he must be careful of setting them up for ridicule. Genovese? He realises that they fear exposure and humiliation; he must provide a comfortable and reassuring context for them to explore their creative side. When he is forced to choose between attending the moratorium or practicing the play, he opts for the play which shows a fundamental shift in his views, values and priorities. Lewis also becomes more assertive when he categorically states to Lucy that he will not let the patients down.
He knows that if the play fails this could be embarrassing; they could look ridiculous which will severely harm their self-esteem. The sub-text of the manual, play within a play, makes Lewis realise the significance of kitty genovese, love as opposed to war. Initially he is flippant and cavalier, but when it affects him personally he is insulted. He realises that war is not necessarily the “real theatre” and that love plays an enormous role in people’s lives . In fact, although Nowra does not suggest that their lack of love causes madness, it is a contributing factor in many of their conditions whether it be madness or addiction. His views on love evolve.
If he previously echoed Lucy’s views that love is a “bourgeois indulgence of the privileged few”, he is forced to confront its significance when Lucy flippantly reveals her affair. Essay On Alexander? Nowra states that Lewis is kitty genovese, “stunned” thus showing the degree of his personal offence. Lewis spontaneously quotes Cosi , “Women’s constancy is like the Arabian phoenix..” which underscores his chauvinistic attitude which will be exposed as hypocritical. Essay? Finally, Lewis’ choice also shows his shift from believing that the arena of war is the most important issue, thus challenging the kitty genovese, priority of Nick’s views. Lewis’s views about on Alexander Macedonia love and politics are tested and eventually he shows a change in kitty biography priorities. Lewis’s flippant and cavalier view of love is tested. Previously he, like Lucy and Nick, prioritised to war as the Essay, “real theatre”. Kitty? This is the time of the Vietnam War and many students are involved in anti-war marches.
Lewis echoes Lucy’s and William, Nick’s beliefs that love is a “bourgeoise” indulgence. Lewis also reflects the view exposed in the opera that women could not be trusted. He also realises that many inmates lack love and kitty genovese, that this may be a contributing factor to their sadness, loneliness and desperation. Roy’s admission. He is Stephen Essay, forced to realise that he is not that “constant” either and enjoys the attention from kitty biography Julie and William, Cherry. Lewis’s chauvinistic views are challenged. Women’s fidelity and constancy are a subtext and he is found wanting; also social context of “free love” and independence.
One of the defining aspects within “Cosi” occurs with the irony of “a play within a play”, namely the production of Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutte” which works to genovese biography promote the importance of Stephen Essay, love within the genovese biography, wider spectrum of “Cosi”. It is no accident that Roy chooses a play so focused on love, and it this which serves as the basis for underlying ideas of Lewis and A Goodnight, the inmates about love and fidelity, regardless of whether or not they are agreement with the play. On numerous occasions ideas are extracted from Mozart’s opera supporting the importance of love and fidelity, such as the idea that a “Women’s constancy is like that of the Arabian Phoenix, everyone swears by it by no-one has seen it.”. Other characters draw upon the contentious idea of the play as a “comedy” and Henry remarks that “Cosi Fan Tutte” has corrupting influence, stating that “whether women can be true is genovese biography, a tragedy” not a comedy as Lewis suggests. Roy’s perception on Story, love’s place in the world is unique as he demonstrates both the destruction it can cause as well as the joy it can bring. Roy generally serves as the kitty, secondary protagonist, driving the psychosocial, plot through sheer determination at times coupled with sporadic fits of depression. It is during one of biography, those fits that the darker side of Roy is revealed when he states that “love is what you feel when you don’t have enough emotion left to hate”, a reference to Roy’s dissatisfaction with personal experiences in model love. Genovese? This becomes clear when Roy’s true childhood is William Hawking, exposed. Roy spent his childhood moving between orphanages, always deprived of love. His delusions about his mother’s “beautiful Parisian gowns” provides a form of release.
To balance the presence of love in Cosi , Nowra also injects an element of realism into the play through politics, primarily those surrounding the Vietnam War. Set in kitty biography a period of filing, political turmoil, the characters of Lucy and Nick prioritize politics over love, a concept which Lucy calls “an indulgence for the privileged few”. The concept of politics and biography, war is further embedded into “Cosi” symbolically through fire and darkness, and it this which weakens and almost destroys the production of “Cosi Fan Tutte” and by extension the ideas of love, demonstrating its vulnerability. This suggests that “love does shit all for Essay, the starving masses” and for all that love is within “Cosi Fan Tutte”, it is useless with the “real” world of Vietnam where fire and darkness prevail. Nick’s and Lucy’s attitude to the play about love reveals much about their own self-centred and rather arrogant attitude towards the kitty biography, vulnerable people in society.
Nick tells him that he is just performing an “opera about a few upper class twits” (76) at a “funny farm”. Model? (77) Lucy is insensitive when she tells Lewis that she is sleeping with him but having sex with Nick. Lucy belittles Lewis’s involvement in the play because she thinks a play about love is kitty biography, typical of the “upper class twits” who are removed from the psychosocial, real battle of life. Lucy thinks that “love is the last gasp of bourgeois romanticism” (33) Lucy interprets love according to her narrow political framework. She tells Lewis, that “love is an emotional indulgence of the privileged few” (70). She hates him doing an kitty genovese opera about love and fidelity while thousands of Vietnamese are being killed by American troops. Nick is aztecs, critical of their desire to do a play about love and biography, infidelity in this day and age (41) “They’re definitely mad”.
Nowra constructs these characters of the ‘real world” as supercilious, arrogant and politically naive. Their attitude to the asylum patients is condescending. However, in their own simplistic way perhaps there is also a hint of madness. That they believe it is so easy to “save the Movies, world” and make a difference. Their self-righteous attitudes and the belief in their own importance makes them a target of genovese, ridicule. In the world of Cosi , Nick and Lucy represent the aztecs, “real world”. They are typical of the informed, educated students who are trying to make a difference. They are involved in “real life issues”, “important” issues of the day, such as politics. They idealistically believe that they can make a difference and realize their world view. Nick believes that it is possible to make changes.
He is “getting fed up with our society”. He is typical of those who “changes and we want them now!” Lucy also extols Nick’s virtues because she notices how he “gets things done and does things that matter (70). The most important thing in their lives is the moratorium march which is genovese, critical of Australia’s involvement in Vietnam. Following the march, Nick is really happy that “Australia was changed forever” today. 76. Self-importantly, Lucy declares her support for Nick: “He’s doing a play that’s relevant and he’s doing something about the war in Vietnam. After rehearsals we’ll go on to the moratorium meeting. It’s going to be huge. Absolutely huge.
The biggest protest ever seen in Australia.” (70) Nowra deliberately constructs Roy as a character who hovers on the border between madness and sanity and thereby challenges the audience’s preconceived and settled notions about insanity and the audience is often left in suspense wondering why Roy has been certified. As an intellectual and “cultured” person, Roy appears to be one of the most lucid characters in the play and cynically mentors the on Alexander III of Macedonia, naive and simple-minded Lewis. Such a role reversal between them is instructive and the play about love eventually mirrors to Lewis his own hypocrisy, which proves to be a fortuitous choice. Also similarities abound between Roy and kitty genovese, Nick such as their simple-minded delusions of grandeur which once again undermines distinctions between sanity and insanity. Essay On Alexander III Of? If Roy “aims for the stars”, Nick believes that their march single-handedly changed the world. Genovese? Furthermore, Roy’s desire to “bring culture to this place” is portrayed in an honourable light, albeit sarcastically; however Nowra reserves his sarcasm not for A Goodnight Story Essay, Roy but for Australians who believe that culture is the “stuff that grows on kitty genovese, stale cheddar”.
Although Roy does have anti-social tendencies and shortcomings such as his paranoia and stage-fright and a deprived childhood which has yielded to romantic illusions, it would be too simplistic to conclude that these are a sign of madness. Notes on psychosocial model, Cosi , Dr Jennifer Minter (English Works Notes) For Excellence in VCE: please see our recently published Arguments and Persuasive Language.