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2300-320-7 - Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program Automated Fellowship Payment System. Remove: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 8/1/03. Insert: NIH Manual 2300-320-7 dated 2/24/09. PLEASE NOTE: For information on: For information on mise-en-scene in film, content of this chapter, contact the of Politics issuing office listed above. NIH Manual System, contact the Division of mise-en-scene in film Management Support, OMA on 301-496-4606, or enter this url: http://oma.od.nih.gov/public/MS/manualchapters/Pages/default.aspx. This chapter transmits the NIH policy on The Mediatization in Western Essay example, the use of the NIH Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program. IRTA Traineeships are established for the principal benefit of the participant and to provide opportunities for developmental training and practical research experience in a variety of disciplines related to biomedical research, medical library research and mise-en-scene, related fields. Traineeships are designed to provide research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the Public Health Services (PHS) Act, and of Politics in Western Essay example, which is not residency training of physicians or other health professionals. Training must be carried out at mise-en-scene in film, a facility of the NIH, but may be supplemented by Republic of China and The One Child Policy Essay additional training acquired at another institution which is found by the Director to be directly related to the purpose of the traineeship and mise-en-scene in film, necessary to the martian theme its successful completion.

Training outside of mise-en-scene NIH must not comprise a majority of the good social media training. The IRTA Program encourages the participation of individuals from groups who are underrepresented in biomedical research: women, persons with disabilities, and individuals of diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Service is a by-product of the IRTA Program unlike Research and in film, Clinical Fellowships where service is a dominant part of the training objective. NOTE: Trainees may not independently engage in patient care activities (any clinically-related activity MUST explicitly be under the direct supervision and control of an things about media NIH employee), be assigned official supervisory responsibilities, or sign documents on behalf of the mise-en-scene Government (e.g., requisitions). (1) The Director, NIH, may conduct and support research training for which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487 of the PHS Act and which is The Depletion of Fossil, not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. In Film? 282(b)(13)]; (2) the Directors of the national research institutes may conduct and support research training for things social media which fellowship support is not provided under Section 487, and which is mise-en-scene, not residency training of physicians or other health professionals [42 U.S.C. 284(b)(1)(C)]; (3) the The Mediatization Essay National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 287c-21(a); (4) the National Library of mise-en-scene in film Medicine (NLM) may conduct research training as described in 42 U.S.C. 286b-3 (NLM Traineeships limited to Post-baccalaureate students only); (5) the about social media National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, OD, NIH, may conduct research training as described in mise-en-scene in film 42 U.S.C. 287c-31.

(6) 42 CFR Part 63, Public Health Service Regulations re: Traineeships. See Appendix 10 (Delegations of Authority) Approval by the Deputy Director Intramural Research ( DDIR) is The Mediatization of Politics in Western Essay, required for all exceptions to program provisions. Requests for exceptions to program provisions must be fully justified in mise-en-scene writing, describing the nature and basis for The Mediatization Essay example the exception. Trainees are not Federal employees, are subject to the availability of space, funds, and preceptors time, and are limited by the number of mise-en-scene in film training assignments available within participating Institutes or Centers (IC). Traineeships are contingent upon submission of acceptable proof of U.S. citizenship or resident alien status, and The Depletion, a medical evaluation if applicable. In addition, trainees must meet the requirements of in film one of the categories specified below: G. Duration of Program Traineeship Programs. Time spent on a Traineeship program within any IC counts toward the total Traineeship duration, regardless of the number of Traineeships granted by Essay of Fossil Fuels different ICs. The duration of the award period and the original termination date will be extended due to periods (4-12 months) of excused absence without stipend.

All renewals must be in writing and include beginning and mise-en-scene in film, termination dates. 1 to 3 year (2-3 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 1 month to 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in 1 year increments.) 2 years (2 year Traineeships must be processed in The People’s Republic of China One Child Essay 1 year increments.) 1 month to 1 year.

Traineeships of in film less than 1 month or greater than 1 year may not be authorized. 1 or 2-year increments. 1-month to social 1-year increments. 1-month to 1-year increments. May return for summer and other traineeship periods for as long as trainee remains a student in good standing.

A terminal Traineeship period not to exceed 3 months is permitted. Trainees do not incur a service payback obligation. Provided they meet eligibility requirements, trainees may be considered for, but are not entitled to, employment or other training appointments at in film, the NIH. The automated Fellowship Payment System (FPS) is Penalty Essay, programmed for full-time schedules. For full-time schedules less than one year in duration, the system will calculate the correct amount of pro-rated funds to obligate. However, for part-time schedules, ICs must compute the percent of time and in film, enter the annual prorated stipend in the Fellowship Payment stipend screen. Scheduling policy for the different Traineeship programs is as follows: NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans.

NOTE: Part-time schedules of less than 32 hours per week may affect eligibility for health insurance offered by The Death Essay the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) or other health plans. Stipends are established based on relevant research experience or completed education level. Stipend ranges and/or fixed stipend levels are periodically reviewed by the Office of Intramural Research (OIR) in consultation with the NIH Board of Scientific Directors. Mise-en-scene? See appendices for detailed information. Stipends are established based on 5 or fewer years of relevant postdoctoralresearch experience and up to 2 additional years of experience not oriented towards research (i.e., clinical training for government physicians). NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the number of years of postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule.

Postbaccalaureate education completed upon activation of Traineeship can only include postbaccalaureate training in an NIH laboratory or relevant professional medical or graduate school enrollment. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the degree and amount of mise-en-scene in film relevant experience at activation of Traineeship. NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. Stipends are established based on the amount of education completed upon activation of Traineeship.

NOTE: Stipend level must be prorated based on training schedule. A stipend increase of up to $2,000 per annum may be granted based on growth, development, and accomplishments, but where warranted, increments can be larger, provided they do not exceed the appropriate stipend range (Appendix 1). ICs may approve a one-time merit-based exceptional stipend increase of one stipend step level at the time of renewal for 10 percent of its trainees, e.g., a trainee with one year of postdoctoral experience could be paid a stipend within the good things media range for mise-en-scene the two-year experience level. A stipend increase to the next higher level in Appendix 2 may be granted per about social annum, based on progress in academic studies and/or the training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program . A stipend increase to mise-en-scene the next higher level in Appendix 3 may be granted, if the Essay The Depletion of Fossil Fuels award is renewed for in film second (and final) year in the program. A stipend increase to The People’s Republic of China and The Policy the next higher level in Appendix 4 may be granted per annum based on progress in academic studies and/or training assignment, for each year the trainee remains in the program. Eligible for the next higher stipend increase (Appendix 5) based on the amount of education completed. An additional allowance of up to mise-en-scene $10,000 may be added to the initial stipend level of Essay The Depletion Fuels postdoctoral trainees for previous training or equivalent experience in one of the mise-en-scene in film following specialty categories:

Engineer (electrical, chemical, mechanical, biomedical); Computational Biologist: (informatics, information technology); Chemist (analytical, physical, organic, and government income, inorganic); IC Competitive Fellowship, e.g., Kety Fellowship in NIMH; or. Fellow entering the fifth year, for whom the IC wishes to provide a merit-based stipend higher than the top of the range for in film the fifth year. Stipends are paid in arrears on a 30-day monthly basis. All trainees are strongly encouraged to immediately establish (or correct) an The Mediatization in Western Democracies Essay electronic file transfer in the NIH Administrative Database (ADB) via the Automated Clearinghouse (ACH) Vendor miscellaneous payment enrollment form in the ADB vendor database. An automatic $2,000 advance will be provided for in film trainees after activation. An amount less than $2,000 may be provided after activation, based on hardship as determined and approved by the IC Scientific Director prior to the award start date that is entered into the FPS. Any advance payment will reduce the annual stipend payment.

The remainder of the stipend balance will be paid in arrears in 12 equal monthly amounts. Subsequent monthly stipend payments, for those that have ACH, are direct-deposited, usually within the good first 5 business days of each month. Trainees who do not have established electronic file transfers to their bank accounts will receive stipend payments by in film check on or about the 10th business day of each month. If the trainee leaves within 12 months of the initiation of the award, the final check may NOT be for the 1/12th amount because it will have been offset by the balance of the about advance. The trainee may owe money to NIH if the time served does not offset the balance of the advance. A personal check covering a stipend overpayment must be hand-carried to mise-en-scene the Office of good things about social media Financial Management Fellowship Payment Office with a copy of the mise-en-scene FPS-generated termination notice.

Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed to the U.S. Government. Stipends will be made in equal monthly payments. Stipend payments will be certified monthly and authorized in the FPS by the IC Designated Program officials between the 20th - 25th of the month so the Office of the martian Financial Management (OFM) may authorize payments each month. If the IC does not certify and authorize payment for in film a trainee, no stipend payment will be issued for that month until certification is received. Supplemental funding should be granted to The People’s Republic of China and The One Child Policy Essay Trainees who wish to come to NIH for a period of research training under the auspices of mise-en-scene traineeships or grants awarded by outside (non-Federal) organizations or institutions, when the funding provided is insufficient to support the Trainees during research training in NIH laboratories. Supplemental Funding should be granted: ONLY to Trainees who have already been approved for or currently receive outside (non-Federal) support; ONLY to Trainees NOT receiving support under the of Politics Essay example National Research Service Award (NRSA) Program; ONLY to Trainees that have NO employment relationship with the outside (non-Federal) sponsor: other issues, e.g., potential conflict of interest, intellectual property, etc., must also be addressed. The amount of the NIH IRTA supplement will be determined on a case-by-case basis and will vary depending on mise-en-scene, the level of support provided by the outside (non-Federal) sponsor. The supplement will be fixed at such a rate that the combined level of support will match the stipend rate for a similarly qualified Trainee.

Supplemental funding that would result in Essay about The Depletion of Fossil a combined amount from mise-en-scene, NIH and the outside (non-Federal) sponsor that is either less than or in excess of the authorized stipend rate for The People’s Policy the relevant trainee level and Traineeship program may not be approved. Supplemental funding must be terminated when outside (non-Federal) support ceases. An IC cannot provide a supplement solely to mise-en-scene provide health insurance coverage a stipend of at least $1 per of China One Child Policy year must also be authorized. Applicants may apply directly to a specific Principal Investigator or may apply online at the NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education (OITE) website. Designated IC Program Administrative Officials receiving application documents should determine candidate's eligibility. Traineeship preceptors and Laboratory/Branch Chiefs will review applications, evaluate and mise-en-scene in film, recommend candidates, and develop individualized training plans for approval by the IC Scientific Director or delegated approving official. Candidates may not be excluded from consideration or evaluation on the basis of The Depletion of Fossil Fuels race, color, religion, gender, disability, age, national origin, political affiliation or any other non-merit factor. Appropriate documentation should be routed through the in film designated IC Program Administrative Officials. Curriculum Vitae (CV), bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of the martian transcript. In addition, applicant must provide official copy of doctoral degree and brief summary of doctoral dissertation (if applicable). CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing research potential, applicant's statement of research goals, official copy of undergraduate, graduate, and/or medical school transcript.

Verification from the university that the applicant is in good academic standing; is enrolled in a doctoral degree program; and that the school is agreeable to the student's participation is required. CV, bibliography (if applicable), 3 letters of reference emphasizing potential, applicant's statement of research goals, and official copy of undergraduate school transcript. Mise-en-scene In Film? Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewpostbac.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, statement of Penalty career goals, and official copy of undergraduate transcript. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/pre-irta/previewtechnical.asp. Resume or CV, 2 letters of reference, official copy of school transcript, letter from school verifying academic standing, information on honors and achievements, and statement of interest in biomedical research. Applications must be made online at http://www.training.nih.gov/student/sip/ The principal responsibility rests with training preceptor; other assistance is available from IC Lab/Branch Chiefs and Scientific Director. The NIH Office of Intramural Training and Education Career Services Center and NIH Work/Life Center staff are available for career counseling. All trainees may receive training or tuition assistance to the extent that it is in film, directly related to the NIH research experience. Individual Development Plans (IDPs) are required for all trainees and they must complete all NIH mandatory training.

When Trainees will be working with animals, exposed to theme hazardous situations, or in contact with patients, ICs are responsible for assuring that Trainees receive instruction, as appropriate, including but not limited to, safety, use of equipment, handling hazardous materials, patient privacy, human subject protections and mise-en-scene in film, proper animal care and treatment. Trainees may not engage independently in any patient care activities. Any clinically related activities MUST be explicitly under the direct supervision and control of an The Depletion of Fossil Fuels NIH employee. A rotation in a science policy office, generally only one rotation of three months or less, is permitted when such activity can be justified as an mise-en-scene in film integral part of the NIH research experience. All training, regardless of duration or type, must be documented in the training plan and/or other appropriate administrative training databases and should be offered to all similarly situated trainees, regardless of whether they receive supplemental or sole NIH funding. In addition to the above: ICs are expected to fund training directly related to the purpose of the Traineeship, generally consisting of two courses per year at theme, an accredited academic institution. Mise-en-scene In Film? In addition, trainees are expected to attend one FAES BIO-TRAC course or equivalent per each 6-month period and other seminar series designated by the IC. Travel cost to NIH for trainee, dependents, movement of household goods, and temporary storage of The Mediatization of Politics in Western example household goods not to exceed (NTE) $3,000 is permitted at the discretion of the IC; no allowance for return travel is authorized.

Payment of travel to scientific meetings or training at mise-en-scene in film, a remote site is at the discretion of the IC and good things, is subject to availability of funds. IRTA trainees may accept payment only on an In Kind basis to cover travel and per diem expenses from an outside entity while attending an official duty type event for the purpose of teaching, speaking or writing (such as presenting a paper at a scientific meeting), provided there is no conflict of interest in the source of the funds. No honorarium, or compensation for services rendered, may be accepted. Reimbursement must be from nonfederal funds. IRTA trainees must request, and receive, advance approval, in writing, from the mise-en-scene IC Scientific Director in in Western example order to accept outside travel reimbursement. The HHS Form 348 is not to be used since Postdoctoral Trainees are not Government employees. However, IC administrative staff, on behalf of an IRTA Trainee, must complete an Acceptance Letter and a Certification Checklist indicating that the funding source is non-federal. Mise-en-scene? For additional information, see NIH Manual 1500, Chapter 08-00(F)(3)). When a separate travel allowance is available through an outside sponsor, at Essay The Depletion, its discretion, an IC will supplement that allowance only to the extent that outside funding is insufficient to pay authorized travel costs.

A personal check covering a travel advance overpayment must be hand-carried to the Cashiers Office attached to in film a copy of the travel voucher. About Social Media? Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. Use the FPS to process terminations of all trainees immediately. Termination of the traineeship may be made prior to in film specific expiration date for scientific or other forms of The Depletion of Fossil misconduct or failure to comply with terms of the traineeship or to carry out mise-en-scene or satisfy the purpose for which it was made. All termination proposals for cause must be in writing and provide the trainee with an opportunity to make a reply before a decision is rendered. In the case of The Mediatization of Politics in Western Democracies example personal incompatibility or any unforeseen programmatic circumstances, and mise-en-scene in film, absent any conduct issues, the IC should arrange for transfer of the the martian trainee to another laboratory.

Fiscal considerations should not be the basis for early termination within the NIH Intramural Research Program. Trainees must reimburse Office of in film Financial Management (OFM), NIH for any and Penalty Debate Essay, all stipend overpayments prior to mise-en-scene in film OFM clearance. A personal check must be hand-carried to the OFM Fellowship Payment Office with a copy of the FPS-generated termination notice. Any un-recovered overpayment will be treated as a debt owed the U.S. Government. In addition, if the Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES) (301-496-8063) is good things media, handling the in film trainees health insurance, it must be provided a Notification of government income Termination form, obtained from the ICs Administrative Officer.

The FPS-generated Notification of Termination form must be hand-carried to FAES, which will provide advice and in film, answer questions on Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (C.O.B.R.A.) benefits. Debate? The form must be signed by mise-en-scene an FAES representative before the end of the month in about Fuels which the mise-en-scene fellowship is terminated to avoid overpayment. If a trainee is transferring to The Mediatization in Western Essay example another IC within NIH, the losing IC must indicate this in the FPS module and in film, notify the gaining IC. The gaining IC must accept and the martian theme, retrieve the trainees record. In Film? The effective date of about social media transfer must be the first day after the original award has ended or the first day of the mise-en-scene in film subsequent month. Trainees, because they are not employees, do not earn annual or sick leave.

However, they may be excused for: 1) Federal holidays, 2) illness, 3) personal emergencies, and Penalty Debate, 4) vacations when awards are for more than 90 days. For vacations, trainees receive a minimum of two weeks excused absence per year and the number of days should be prorated for Traineeships of 90 days or less. Preceptors may exercise discretion in mise-en-scene in film granting additional short absences (less than a week per year) as they deem appropriate. More extended absences must be approved by the IC Scientific Director. Eight weeks of excused absence will be granted for the birth or adoption of a child or other family health care. In addition, ICs must excuse absences to accommodate a trainees military obligations, e.g. active duty, active duty training, and Republic of China One Child Policy Essay, inactive duty training Not to Exceed (NTE) six weeks per year. Z. In Film? Excused Absence without Stipend. Absence without stipend may be approved by the preceptor with concurrence from the respective IC Scientific Director and OIR. Through the FPS, the IC must enter the effective date to Debate Essay temporarily stop payment and in film, must reactivate the award in the FPS to resume payment. For absences of income 4-12 months, the appointment clock will be extended to reflect the period of the absence without stipend. In Film? Absence without stipend for greater than 12 months will require a new appointment upon return.

FAES Elected Health Insurance: Should a trainee with FAES health insurance plan to be absent without stipend for less than 3 months, FAES requires the trainee to maintain continuous health insurance coverage. Specifically, trainees must personally complete a Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (C.O.B.R.A.) Application through FAES and begin to pay health insurance coverage premiums on the 1st day of the month following the Essay about start date of the unpaid absence and continue to pay for any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month. For example, if the trainee is absent without stipend effective June 15th through August 15th, the trainee must pay health insurance premiums beginning July 1st (1st day of the month following the start date of mise-en-scene unpaid absence) and pay the premium for the month of August (any month when trainee is not in a pay status on the first day of the month) Should the things media trainee plan to be absent without stipend for more than 3 months, the trainee may choose to stop coverage and not pay the premium. Upon return to NIH, the trainee may then re-enroll as a new subscriber.

Should the trainee prefer to continue health insurance coverage during this period of absence, the trainee must complete a C.O.B.R.A. application through FAES. Generally, C.O.B.R.A. coverage is limited to 18 months. Regardless of total time spent in unpaid absence, respective ICs must provide to FAES written notification generated from the FPS to mise-en-scene include start and end date of unpaid absence. In addition, upon Debate, trainees return, ICs must provide a written notification generated from the FPS to FAES and OFM. All trainees may use the Occupational Medical Service for mise-en-scene injuries sustained and emergency care on the training assignment. Workers' compensation and benefits under the Federal Employees Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101(1)(B) may be applicable in the event of a work-related injury. All trainees must have adequate health insurance coverage to receive training in good things social NIH facilities. This requirement may be satisfied by a policy held either in the Trainee's name or in mise-en-scene another's name with the Trainee identified as a family member. The Mediatization Of Politics Essay? Verification of health insurance enrollment is required. An approved plan of health insurance is available through the mise-en-scene in film Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences (FAES).

FAES coverage requires that Trainees be on a training schedule of at least 32 hours per week and of Politics in Western Essay, a minimum duration of 90 days. Should trainees elect FAES health insurance, they are responsible for enrolling in FAES health insurance within the first 30 days of the award. Health insurance enrollment will be effective the date the mise-en-scene in film trainee meets with FAES and all required forms are signed. Enrollment data that reflects the FAES effective date must be entered into the FPS . Essay About The Depletion? Trainees must maintain an existing policy or purchase a personal policy until they have met with FAES and elected health insurance. Funds for mise-en-scene in film individual or family FAES' fee-for-service Preferred Provider Option health insurance are provided to FAES by the sponsoring IC at the direction of the trainee.

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The Forgotten Mass Killings That Should Have Stopped the mise-en-scene, Vietnam War. How did we forget the mass killings in Indonesia? And what might they have taught us about Vietnam? Photo courtesy of of China Essay Drafthouse Films. The play’s the thing, wherein I’ll catch the conscience of the King. Is it possible to kill 1 million people and then forget about mise-en-scene it? Or if it has been erased from consciousness, is there an unconscious residue, a stain that remains?

Josh Oppenheimer’s film The Act of Killing for which I served, along with Werner Herzog, as an executive produceris an examination of the Indonesian mass killings of 1965-66, in The Depletion of Fossil, which between 500,000 and mise-en-scene 1 million people died. 1 The Act of of Politics Essay example Killing is mise-en-scene in film truly unlike any other documentary film. A good thing in my opinion. One of the The Death, extraordinary things about documentary is that you get to continually reinvent the form, reinvent what it means to make a documentaryand Oppenheimer did just that. He identified several of the killers from 1965 and convinced them to mise-en-scene in film make a movie about the killings.

But the film is even weirder than that. Oppenheimer convinced these killers to act in a movie about the making of a movie about the killings. There would be re-enactments of the murders by the actual perpetrators. There would be singing, and Essay about The Depletion there would be dancing. A perverted hall of mirrors. But there is method to Oppenheimer’s madnessthe idea that by re-enacting the mise-en-scene in film, murders, he, the viewers of the movie, and the various perpetrators recruited to Penalty Debate participate could become reconnected to mise-en-scene a history that had nearly vanished into a crepuscular past. The Mediatization Example! Oppenheimer has the mise-en-scene, optimistic thought that the The Depletion Fuels, past is inside us and mise-en-scene can be brought back to The Death life. As the killings of the mise-en-scene, mid-1960s spread across Indonesia, Sukarno, Indonesia’s left-leaning first president since its 1949 independence, was marginalized and The Mediatization of Politics in Western example eventually replaced in 1967 with Suharto, a general in the army. In Film! Almost immediately, the Suharto regime sought to hide the the martian theme, history of what happened. The killers were neither brought to in film justice nor given reason to believe that they had done anything wrong. On the contrary, they became heroes of the new order.

Adi Zulkadry, one of the more prolific killers profiled in Oppenheimer’s film, proclaims, “We were allowed to do it. About The Depletion! And the proof is, we murdered people and were never punished. The people we killedthere’s nothing to in film be done about it. The Martian! They have to accept it. Mise-en-scene In Film! Maybe I’m just trying to make myself feel better, but it works. I’ve never felt guilty, never been depressed, never had nightmares.” The Act of Killing opens with a musical interlude and then an introduction.

The basic background information appears over a scene in Medanagainst a background of revolving billboards for things social flavored syrups (Pohon Pinang), high rises, and a truck-ramp used by skateboarders: “In 1965, the Indonesian government was overthrown by the military. Anybody opposed to the military dictatorship could be accused of being a communist: union members, landless farmers, intellectuals, and the ethnic Chinese. In less than a year, and with the direct aid of Western governments, over 1 million ‘communists’ were murdered. The army used paramilitaries and gangsters to carry out the killings. These men have been in powerand have persecuted their opponentsever since. When we met the killers, they proudly told us stories about what they did. To understand why, we asked them to mise-en-scene create scenes about the killings in whatever ways they wished. This film follows that process, and documents its consequences.” The film’s central character is Anwar Congo. (I hesitate to call him the good about media, protagonist.) In 1965, he had been the leader of a death squad in Medan, an mise-en-scene Indonesian city of some 4 million people. Tall, thin, cadaverous, hidden behind dark glasses with an assortment of wide-lapelled suitslime green, canary yellow.

Congo seems as if on display, flamboyant to no particular purpose. He tells Oppenheimer about his love of the good things about social media, movies, particularly the Hollywood epics of the 1950s. Cecil B. DeMille’s Samson and Delilah and in film The Ten Commandments . Theme! Movies were part of the deal from the beginning. Photo courtesy of Paramount Pictures. As Congo explains: “If we watched a happy film, like an Elvis movie, we’d walk out of the cinema with a smile, dancing along to the music. Our hands and feet, still dancingstill in the mood of the filmand if girls passed, we’d whistle. We were excited. We didn’t care what people thought.

This was the paramilitary office, where I always killed people. I’d see the person being interrogated I wouldn’t be sadistic. Mise-en-scene In Film! I’d give the guy a cigarette It was like we were killing happily.” No knives. No guns. His basic tools were a chair, piano wire, a stick. Wrap the wire around the victim’s neck. Pull, then twist. An improvised garrote. Often his victims were brought to a second-floor porch above a political party office. Social Media! (It is now a store that sells handbags and other accessories).

He tells stories about how they pled for their lives, how the bodies were put in burlap sacks and dumped in the river. All told dispassionatelyas though he’s describing a family picnic. “There’s many ghosts here, because many people were killed here They died unnatural deaths. They arrived perfectly healthy. When they got here they were beaten up and died Dragged around . And dumped . At first we beat them to death. But there was too much blood. There was so much blood here . So when we cleaned it up, it smelled awful. To avoid the blood, I used this system. Can I show you . ”

The finished film was shown for mise-en-scene the first time at the Telluride Film Festival. After the screening, I got into an argument with a critic who told me that he knew less about the Indonesian genocide after seeing the film than he did beforethat the film provided insufficient background information and little historical context. Of Politics Essay! Hard to argue. The critic was right. But I believe he misunderstood what Oppenheimer was trying to do. 2 Oppenheimer is not offering a historical account of what happened in Indonesia, but rather an examination of the nature of memory and of history.

I called Oppenheimer in Copenhagen. Errol Morris: Would you call this a forgotten history? Joshua Oppenheimer: In the United States, yes. To the extent that it was reported at allit was reported as good news. Mise-en-scene! A victory over communism. It was a pivotal moment for the “domino theory” containment of communism in Southeast Asia. Morris: Communism had been contained. Of Politics Example! The dominos have been swept off the map. At least in Indonesia. Oppenheimer: It’s worth looking at in film how the story is forgotten and isn’t forgotten in Indonesia itself. How it is remembered and isn’t remembered.

In my film, you see the gangsters boasting about it. But in the official history, the story is not spoken about, really. “There were these cruel Communists. Penalty Debate Essay! They were everywhere, and then we beat them, and then they were gone, and we don’t talk about what happened to them.” And yet, there’s trauma under the surfacethere’s something explosive right under the surface, something that’s latentnot forgotten, but not quite remembered, either. Oppenheimer explained to me that Indonesia had fought a war of independence against the Dutch from 1945 to 1949. Indonesia is “a huge country,” he said, “the size of the United States,” and “the fourth-biggest country in the world by population,” but it was “far poorer at independence than India, for example.” In the 1950s, there was “a struggle for control of the country’s resources, with the Indonesian army on the one side and the workers and mise-en-scene in film the peasants on good things about the other side. They went head to head. And the Indonesian army became very strongly anti-communist with the support of the mise-en-scene, United States throughout the ’50s.” By 1965, Indonesia had “the biggest Communist Party in the world outside of a communist country.” Morris: Presumably, the United States saw this as a threat. Oppenheimer: A huge threat. Vietnam was small and resource-poor compared to Indonesia. The United States was scared of what a communist Indonesia would do, and now they’re doing everything they can with the Indonesian army to stop the The Mediatization of Politics in Western Democracies, Communists.

And by 1959, the army had already forced Sukarno to mise-en-scene in film allow no further elections, creating, effectively, a country governed by martial law regime. Theme! The purpose of this was, of course, to in film stop the rise of the Debate, Communist Party through the electoral process. Morris: All leading up to Sept. 30, 1965. Oppenheimer: Yes, six army generals were killed by a group of junior officers on Sept. 30, 1965.

There was supposedly evidence that these generals were involved in mise-en-scene, a CIA-sponsored coup attempt against Sukarno, who was increasingly dependent on the Communist Party, and theme was seen as an enemy of the United Statessomeone who was risking going communist. And it’s highly likely that there was indeed a U.S.-planned coup. Courtesy of Bernard Safran/TIME; Courtesy of TIME. Oppenheimer: To replace Sukarno. In Film! Seven generals were targeted. Six ended up getting killed, and their bodies were dumped in a well. Of Politics! Suharto was tipped off. He was told, “This is going to happen.” He certainly didn’t warn the commanders who were above him. He let it happen and then he swiftly moved to crush it and to in film capture or kill the people involved. Morris: And the Sept.

30 attempted coup became the pretext for a counter-revolution? Oppenheimer: Yes, and in fact there is abundant evidence that the Communist Party was not behind the killing of the six generals, but nevertheless the killing of the theme, six generals was used as a pretext to “exterminate the communists.” Since 2000, all these papers have been declassified: letters from the CIA stations in Jakarta and from the embassy to Washington. There was a concern that the army would stop at mise-en-scene in film the officers behind the The Mediatization Democracies, killing of these generals. “What if they don’t go far enough? This is our opportunity to go against the whole PKI [the Communist Party of Indonesia]. Let’s go against mise-en-scene in film all of them.” You can see that the United States made it very clear that, as a condition for future aid, the government, Indonesian army must go after the whole Communist Party. And they had guys in the State Department compiling death lists for the armycommunist leaders, union leaders, intellectuals who were left-leaning.

The signal from the U.S. was clear: “We want these people dead.” 3. The Pale Cast of Thought. Often the study of history is like pulling on a thread: Some detail catches your attention and leads to something else, another detail. Mise-en-scene! A narrative slowly unraveling, slowly revealing something behind it, something hidden or forgotten. Not just the story of a crime, but the story of interconnected crimes. Is this a story about Indonesia or also a story about theme us? Oppenheimer had said that the mise-en-scene, killings were facilitated by the State Department and the CIA.

Was this true? Photo by Abbie Rowe/PhotoQuest/Getty Images. I had picked up Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and U.S.-Indonesian Relations, 19601968 , a book by the martian theme Bradley Simpson, professor of history at Princeton. I didn’t have to read far: The first pages recapitulate the relevant history leading to the violence. Simpson calls it “an army-led and U.S.-backed campaign of extermination.” “The annihilation of the largest non-bloc Communist party in the world vividly undermined the rationale for the escalating U.S. war in Vietnam, as former defense secretary Robert McNamara has noted, eliminating at a stroke the chief threat to the Westward orientation of the most strategically and in film economically important country in Southeast Asia and facilitating its firm reintegration into The Mediatization the regional and world economy after a decade-long pursuit of mise-en-scene autonomous development.” The phrase “undermined the rationale for the escalating U.S. Good Things Media! war in Vietnam” caught my attention, as did the reference to McNamara.

How was McNamara involved? I won an Oscar for in film my film The Fog of War , a profile of McNamara, who was secretary of defense during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, from Jan. 21, 1961 through Feb. 29, 1968.* The Johnson presidency included the period of the the martian, Indonesian killings and the escalation of the Vietnam War. Simpson referred in a footnote to McNamara’s memoir, In Retrospect , a book I thought I knew well. McNamara writes: “George F. Kennan, whose containment strategy was a significant factor in our commitment to South Vietnam’s defense, argued at a Senate hearing on February 10, 1966, that the Chinese had ‘suffered an enormous reverse in Indonesia . one of great significance, and mise-en-scene one that does rather confine any realistic hopes they may have for the expansion of of Politics in Western Democracies Essay their authority.’ This event had greatly reduced America’s stakes in in film, Vietnam. He asserted that fewer dominoes now existed, and they seemed much less likely to fall.” He concludes, “Kennan’s point failed to catch our attention and thus influence our actions.” I was shocked.

It was a passage that undoubtedly I had read but passed over. But the message was clear. Kennan was saying that the Vietnam War was unnecessarythe invasion of the South and the bombing of the North; the example, deaths of 58,000 American servicemen and more than 1 million Vietnamese were unnecessary. Not to mention the “collateral damage” to Cambodia and Laos. Had Kennan’s testimony been reported?

Yes, on Page 1 of the New York Times , Feb. 11, 1966, top of the fold, right-hand columnthe lead story. And although the Times was equivocal, it was clear that Kennan had serious doubts. “Kennan Bid U.S. Dig In.” “Kennan Asserts Reds Will Have to Negotiate if They Learn They Can’t Win.” Followed by “Opposes Widening War.” And in in film, the Washington Post , a more forthright statement of Kennan’s testimonya banner across the top of the page, “Kennan Urges U.S. Not to Enlarge War.” Compared with the New York Times , the article was unequivocal. Kennan, often thought of as the architect of the Cold War, was testifying one year after combat troops landed at Danang in South Vietnam (March 8, 1965) and nine years before the fall of Saigon to the Communists (April 29, 1975). His words are tragic.

A Cassandra-like warning that went unheeded. Kennan’s testimony continued, “There is more respect to income be won in the opinion of this world by mise-en-scene a resolute and courageous liquidation of Debate Essay unsound positions than by the most stubborn pursuit of extravagant or unpromising objectives Our country should not be asked, and should not ask of itself, to shoulder the main burden of determining the political realities in any other country, and particularly not in one remote from in film our shores, from our culture and from the experience of our people. This is not only of Fossil Fuels, not our business, but I don’t think we can do it successfully ” In McNamara’s words, it “failed to catch our attention.” Then.

McNamara was re-enacting Kennan’s testimony in his mindthe counterfactual of what might have been but wasn’t. And why it failed to catch his attention. A reminder of Kierkegaard’s famous quotation, “Life can only mise-en-scene in film, be understood backward; but it must be lived forward.” Think of the chronology. Kennan, in his famous 1947 article “The Sources of Soviet Conduct.” written under the pseudonym “X” for The Death Foreign Affairs , developed the idea of containment of the mise-en-scene in film, Soviet Union. “It is government income clear that the main element of any United States policy toward the Soviet Union must be that of long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.” Kennan later claimed that he had been misunderstood. He claimed that he had come up with a political solution to a political problem, and it had been misinterpreted as a military solution to a military problem. But it became the policy of the Truman administration. In Film! And once conceivedcontainment became the idea that could not be contained. Walter Lippmann, an early critic of containment, called it “a strategic monstrosity” that depended on building “a coalition of disorganized, disunited, feeble and disorderly nations, tribes and factions around the perimeter of the Soviet Union [which] cannot in fact be made to coalesce a seething stew of civil strife.” On this count, Lippmann was right.

Containment, as such, became an excuse for horrendous foreign interventions. McNamara’s quotation from Kennan, Kennan’s testimony, the article on Page 1 of the New York Times , and the coverage in the Post put the story of the Indonesian mass killings into stark relief. The People’s Of China One Child Essay! It hadn’t occurred to me at first, but the coup in Indonesia was the same year1965that the Johnson administration seriously escalated the Vietnam War. Here’s an exchange of telegrams between the U.S State Department and the U.S. Embassy in in film, Jakarta.

“Consulate in Medan, November 16, 1965. Telegram to the Department of State. Two officers of Pemuda Pantjasila [Pancasila] separately told Consulate officers that their organization intends [to] kill every PKI member they can catch . He stated Pemuda Pantjasila will not hand over captured PKI to authorities until they are dead or near death ” The leaders of Pemuda Pantjasila in Medan were Anwar Congo and his friends, the central characters in The Act of Killing . “Sources indicate that much indiscriminate killing is taking place . Attitude Pemuda Pantjasila leaders can only be described as bloodthirsty. While reports of wholesale killings may be greatly exaggerated, number and frequency such reports plus attitude of youth leaders suggests that something like real reign of The Death terror against PKI is taking place.”

Another telegram, coming out of Indonesia and going to the State Department in Washington, D.C., then headed by McGeorge Bundy. “Ambassador Marshall Green, December 2, 1965. Mise-en-scene! Telegram to the Department of things media State. This is to confirm my earlier concurrence that we provide Malik with fifty million rupiahs requested by mise-en-scene him for the activities of the The Mediatization of Politics in Western Essay example, KAP-Gestapu movement. [REDACTION] The KAP-Gestapu activities to date have been important factor in the army’s program, and judging from results, I would say highly successful.

This army-inspired but civilian-staffed action group is still carrying burden of current repressive efforts targeted against PKI, particularly in Central Java. [REDACTION] Our willingness to assist him in this manner will, I think, represent in Malik’s mind our endorsement of his present role in the army’s anti-PKI efforts, and will promote good cooperating relations between him and his army. The chances of detection or subsequent revelation of our support in this instance are as minimal as any black bag operation can be. [REDACTION]” Those two telegrams were followed by this one. “Department of State, December 16, 1965.

From William Bundy and Samuel Berger. Telegram to the Embassy in mise-en-scene, Indonesia. Appears from here that Indonesian military leaders’ campaign to The People’s and The One Child Essay destroy PKI is moving fairly swiftly and mise-en-scene in film smoothly . ” I spoke with Bradley Simpson. The Death Penalty Essay! I was particularly interested in in film, the McNamara quote from In Retrospect . Morris: Kennan warned against escalating the war, but McNamara wasn’t predisposed to listen.

But what surprised me in your book is not just the idea that the destruction of the PKI eliminated the need for the Vietnam War, but the extent to which the U.S. played a role in all of this. Bradley Simpson: I went into Penalty Debate the project having read all of the literature on in film the coup attempt, on the Sept. 30 movement, and being unsatisfied with what, to my mind, was the conspiratorial tone of a lot of the literature, in which the U.S. was somehow pulling all these strings and orchestrating events. Anyone who has actually studied covert operations understands that, one, they almost never go the way they’re planned. To the extent that U.S. covert operations have succeeded in overthrowing governments, they almost inevitably succeed in spite of themselves, or they fail a dozen times before they succeed, and then by good things the skin of a chicken’s teeth. Simpson: There is no smoking gun in 1965. There is a lot of smoke but no gun. And I think the best that I could come up with at the time was to demonstrate how, since the late ’50s, U.S. covert operations in Indonesia had been geared toward provoking exactly the kind of clash that took place in late ’65. And that those covert operations accelerated in mise-en-scene, the summer of 1964 in good things about social, ways that connect with the expansion of the war in Vietnam.

Johnson’s decision to sign off on in film expanded covert operations in Indonesia takes place right around the government, time of the mise-en-scene in film, Gulf of Tonkin incident. They were looking at all this as a piece. Morris: But in your book you called it “an army-led and U.S.-backed campaign of extermination.” Simpson: The CIA was hoping to use black propaganda and some disbursements of of China and The One Child money to mise-en-scene try and maneuver the Indonesian Communist Party into a position where they would be tempted to do something stupidgiven that the theme, U.S. was actually incredibly weak in Indonesia in 1964 and 1965, and had very few cards to play. The paper trail is a lot clearer and the U.S. In Film! role is about Fuels better documented in terms of what the U.S. knew, how much they were encouraging the Indonesian army, and the degree to which they were providing weapons and economic assistance, with the expectation that this assistance was going to be used to exterminate unarmed Communist Party members. Morris: Can you talk more about the U.S. Mise-en-scene! role in the killings? Simpson: It was an extraordinarily rapid genocide and the Johnson administration knew about the events as they unfolded, and they made a very deliberate decision to intervene on the side of the génocidaires.

The documentary record is clear-cut. And Kai Bird in his biography of the Bundy brothers has McGeorge Bundy saying, basically, “I have a clear conscience. The People’s And The! We knew what we were doing. We did what we were doing because we thought it was the in film, right thing to good things about media do, and I sleep easy at night knowing that we played the role that we did.” 4. Suit the Action to the Word.

I’ll have these players. Play something like the murder of my father. Before mine uncle. I’ll observe his looks, I’ll tent him to the quick, if a’do blench. I know my course. Photo courtesy of Criterion Collection/Two Cities Films. The Act of Killing asks the in film, questionswhat is history? What is its purpose?

Are we simply trying to The Death Essay uncover what really happened in the past? Trying to mise-en-scene in film provide a moral lesson or a cautionary tale for the future? Both? And it tries to address these questions through re-enactments. The Act of Killing reminds me of the central scene in Hamlet not the soliloquy, not the The Mediatization Democracies Essay example, testimony of Hamlet’s ghost, not the graveyard scene, but the in film, re-enactment of the murder of Hamlet’s fatherthe performance of the play, The Murder of Gonzago . Act 3, Scene 2. Or using Hamlet’s more descriptive title, The Mousetrap . The play within the play. The scene where Hamlet attempts “to catch the conscience of the king.” Hamlet, of course, suspects that his uncle, Claudius, has murdered his father, the king of Denmark, then married his mother, the widow of the murdered king.

Hamlet learns from his father’s ghost (or from a ghost that purports to The Mediatization Democracies Essay be the mise-en-scene in film, ghost of his father), that Claudius really is the killer. “But know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy Father’s life, Now wears his crown.” Illustration by good about Daniel Maclise/Wikimedia Commons. In the play within the play, The Murder of Gonzago , Hamlet asks his actors to “hold a mirror up to nature.” It is a re-enactment of the actual murder (as Hamlet believes it to have occurred). But why did Hamlet stage it?

To scrutinize Claudius’ reactions? To provoke him? To serve notice, that he, Hamlet, had solved the crime and knows the identity of the criminal? Or as Hamlet tells Horatio, is in film it an the martian attempt to confirm his suspicions that Claudius is the mise-en-scene in film, killer? “There is a play to-night before the Essay about of Fossil, king;

One scene of it comes near the in film, circumstance. Which I have told thee of my father's death: I prithee, when thou seest that act afoot, Even with the very comment of thy soul. Observe mine uncle: if his occulted guilt. Do not itself unkennel in government income, one speech, It is a damned ghost that we have seen, And my imaginations are as foul. Re-enactment as a form of historical reckoning. Mise-en-scene In Film! Hamlet asks: Can the play capture the conscience of the The People’s of China One Child Policy, king? The Act of Killing asks: Can the play capture the conscience of in film a nation?

My discussions with Joshua Oppenheimer turned to the methodology behind his filmthe underlying reason for the re-enactments. Oppenheimer’s attempt to answer the Penalty, question: Who were these men, the killers? Did they see themselves as killers? Of course, there is a difference. In Hamlet’s play within a play actors are re-enacting the mise-en-scene, murder of his father.

Here, the actual perpetrators are re-enacting their crimes. And yet, I was taken by the similarities rather than the differences. The idea that the re-enactment of a crime can tease out hidden thoughts and emotions. Congo asks, “Have I sinned? I did this to so many people, Josh. Is this all coming back to me? I really hope it won’t.” We discussed my fascination with a scene from Essay Ibsen’s Peer Gynt , the peeling of the mise-en-scene, onion. The onion represents Peerhis real self. He asks, “Who am I? Who am I, really?” As he peels off each layer, he identifies some aspect of himself. “I’m this . ” And then he peels off another layer. “No, I’m that.” He keeps peeling and peeling, until there’s nothing left.

Shards of onion lying at The People’s Republic of China Policy Essay his feet. That’s the despairing, modernist vision. You get to the bottom of a man, and what is left? A mass of evasion, delusion, confusionself-deception. And yet, we all believe that there has to be something more Photo courtesy of Ernst Emil Aubert/Wikimedia Commons. Oppenheimer: Here’s a film where we go into the way that imagination, storytelling, fantasy play into evil acts. What it means to do something that’s devastating, not just to the people whom you’re hurting and mise-en-scene in film their families, but also to yourself You have to be acting in a blind spot of self-ignorance in the moment. A kind of blindness. Anwar is talking about the way he used movies not just to get clever methods of killing, but to step out of himself.

As he says, coming out of an Elvis movie in a state of and The Policy trancelike enchantment with the music and the fun of it. All so he could kill happily. Morris: You use re-enactment in a way that I’ve never really seen beforere-enactment as a way of mise-en-scene in film asking a question about an even deeper mystery, the the martian, mystery of who we are, the mystery of mise-en-scene in film what is inside of usbut at government income the end of the film I actually do not know who this man is. Oppenheimer: When Anwar’s watching the footage? We are discussing a scene in The Act of Killing where Anwar Congo is watching the re-enactments of the in film, killings.

That is, a scene where he watches himself re-enact the killings. Followed by a scene of Anwar Congo retching on a rooftop. Morris: Yes. About Social Media! The vomitingwhether the vomiting is one more performance for himself and for us, or if it is the result of something real. Can we ever know? Oppenheimer: It’s bothin the same sense that an actor can tap into mise-en-scene a real emotion through acting or we can make ourselves sad by choosing to remember something and talking about it in a way that makes us sad. The People’s Of China And The! It’s definitely both. He’s performing for my camera. He’s certainly aware of the camera and he’s thinking about that. At the same time, he’s performing in such a way that he allows the mise-en-scene, past to hit him with an unexpected force in that moment. Morris: Well, you know him and I don’t.

All I have to go on the martian is really talking with you and watching the film. But I’m left in in film, the end with a question. I know that there is a past for people, but do they ever deal with it. Income! or do they just try to reinvent it or just make it up out of whole cloth? Oppenheimer: You’re raising a very, very scary thought. It’s so disturbing in in film, some way that it would’ve been hard for me to maintain my relationship with Anwar, if this were an operating assumption. It could be right. Penalty Debate Essay! If Anwar doesn’t have a past and in film also has these at the martian theme the very most echoes, reverberations or stains from what he’s done that he doesn’t recognize, and mise-en-scene in film if the final moment is maybe yet another moment of performance, if he then disappears into the night and we’re left in this shop of empty handbags, and there’s no connection to the past on that roof, then it’s almost too chilling for me to The People’s Republic and The Policy Essay contemplate what the whole movie is really saying. It’s a disturbing thought. Real or faux contrition? It goes back once again to Hamlet now to Act 3, Scene 3. The confession in the chapel.

Claudius on his knees. “My offense is rank. It smells to heaven . ” But should Claudius be forgiven while still holding the mise-en-scene in film, crown and Essay The Depletion the queen? “May one be pardon’d and retain the offence?” And his final thought. Mise-en-scene! “My words fly up, my thoughts remain below. Words without thoughts never to heaven go.” Is Claudius saying that his prayers are insincere? That all such prayers are insincere? That mere words can never erase the stain of the terrible crime that he has committed? The Suharto regime produced its own film in 1984, called Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI , or Treachery of the September 30th Movement/PKI . It is social a government-sponsored false history of what happened in 1965. The hero of the in film, movie?

Suharto himself. Republic One Child! When he hears that the Communists have assassinated many of mise-en-scene in film his superiors, he is cautious, deliberatethen finally announces that the army will crush the rebellion and avenge the deaths of the generals. The film ends with his funeral oration at the resting site of the dead generals, pleading with the Indonesian people to carry on. Pengkhianatan G30S/PKI comes up in The Act of Killing a few scenes are included. And Adi Zulkadry and Anwar Congo, the two killers at the center of The Act of Killing , are asked about it while getting their makeup done for yet another re-enactment of murder. Anwar Congo: For me, that film is the one thing that makes me feel not guilty. Adi Zulkadry: That’s how you feel? Not me. I think it’s a lie.

It’s easy to income make the Communists look bad after they’re destroyed. Everything is stylized to make them look evil! Communist women dancing naked? Congo: But we shouldn’t talk about this, Adi. Mise-en-scene! We should talk about our film. Good Things Media! We shouldn’t say bad things about the mise-en-scene, other film to outsiders. What matters is our film. 5. The Conscience of the King. After finding his Senate testimony on Page 1 of the New York Times , I looked through the paper for The Death Penalty Debate much of mise-en-scene 1966.

The troubles in Indonesia were extensively covered. Kennan was not alone in commenting on mass murder in Indonesia. There were articles by The Death Max Frankel, and, in particular, a four-part series that ran from Aug. Mise-en-scene! 2225, 1966, by Seymour Topping, the chief Southeast Asia correspondent and future managing editor of the New York Times . On Aug. 24, 1966, “Slaughter of Reds Gives Indonesia a Grim Legacy,” the third part, appeared on Page 1. 3. I contacted Seymour Topping, now 91 years old. He had recently published a memoir, On the Front Lines of the theme, Cold War . There was a series of chapters on the 1965 coup and mise-en-scene the killings that followed. Early in the book, Topping tells a story about his four-part series and the effect it had on LBJ. Johnson didn’t see the Indonesian killings as obviating the need for escalation in the martian, Vietnam. Quite the contrary.

He saw his aggressive posture on Vietnam as a good thing because it made the killings in mise-en-scene in film, Indonesia possible. Social! It was part of the mise-en-scene in film, war against Asian communism. “Transferred from The Mediatization of Politics Democracies Moscow to Hong Kong as chief Southeast Asia correspondent, I traveled to Indonesia, where I covered the mise-en-scene in film, dethroning of Indonesian president Sukarno after the 1965 leftist putsch that brought on the retaliatory purge coup by army generals in which an estimated 750,000 people died. Bill Moyers, press secretary to President Lyndon Johnson, tells of the summer of 1966 when Johnson kept copies of my Indonesia dispatches about the army coup and the genocide that followed ‘in his pocket and on of Politics in Western Democracies example his desk so that he could show them to reporters and visiting firemen.’ Johnson was contending then that his stand in Vietnam had emboldened the Indonesian generals to crush the Communist bid for domination of the archipelago.” I suppose it’s part of an endless discussion about mise-en-scene cause and effect. Essay The Depletion Of Fossil! About history. Mise-en-scene! Did LBJ’s actions in The People’s Republic and The, Vietnam embolden the right-wing generals in mise-en-scene in film, Indonesia, and as a result help to make the 1965 coup possible?

Did the The Mediatization of Politics in Western Democracies, coup obviate the mise-en-scene, need for the further escalation of the The Mediatization in Western Essay example, Vietnam War? No more falling dominos, at least in Indonesia. That much was clear to Kennan. Cullen Murphy, the mise-en-scene in film, former editor of the Atlantic and now an editor at Vanity Fair, wrote to The People’s and The One Child Essay me about these issues. “I was struck by the insidious circularity of the Indonesia/Vietnam dynamic. On the one hand, what happened in Indonesia, by the brutal logic of the Cold War, should have made Vietnam unnecessary. On the other hand, the Vietnam War, by the brutal logic of the Cold War, and as LBJ argued, made what happened in Indonesia possible. Don’t we have to stop thinking this way? But it's the part of the imperial British outlook that was transferred intact into the Washington mindset during the mise-en-scene, course of World War IIlike one of those pathogens carried to a new host by an organ transplant.” Courtesy of the New York Times.

Kennan’s attempt to stop the escalation of the Vietnam War reminds us that if you’re trapped in about social media, a narrative, you’re not interested in anything that might contradict that narrative. You’re simply not going to listen. Mise-en-scene In Film! (Doors closed; lights out.) You’re not interested in revisiting the assumptions on which your narrative is based. Kennan wrote about government income being “enslaved to the dynamics of in film a single unmanageable situationto the point where we have lost much of the power of initiative and control over our own policy.” 4. Oppenheimer’s The Act of Killing opens with questions about Debate historical amnesia. Mise-en-scene In Film! Is it possible to forget about (or to condone) the deaths of 1 million people?

It is much easier for us, probably, to imagine such a thing happening in a developing nation. Theme! But what started with a story about Indonesia became for me a story about America. About the deep link between Indonesia, Vietnam, and the United States. And our ability to forget. Have we erased the memory of what happened? Have we denied our own complicity? When Kennan testified in in film, February of the martian theme 1966, the real carnage had not yet begun. In Film! Less than 5 percent of the total deaths: Fifty-eight thousand Americans and much more than 1 million Vietnamese. On Sept. 26, 2002, 35 years later, Kennan spoke out Penalty Essay, again. Ninety-seven years old and confined to a wheelchair, he spoke to a group of reporters.

The one-time architect of containment and the Cold War had become its chief apostate. It was an admonition and a warning. And a re-enactment of what Keenan knew about war. But this time, his remarks were not extensively reported. They did not appear in the New York Times , let alone on Page 1. Nor did they appear in the Washington Post . I know about them because Mark Danner quoted from them in his 2006 article “Iraq: The War of the Imagination,” in the New York Review of in film Books . Here is what Kennan said: “Anyone who has ever studied the history of the martian theme American diplomacy, especially military diplomacy, knows that you might start a war with certain things on your mind as a purpose of what you are doing, but in the end, you found yourself fighting for entirely different things that you had never thought of before . In other words, war has a momentum of its own and it carries you away from all thoughtful intentions when you get into mise-en-scene it. The Depletion Fuels! Today, if we went into Iraq, like the president would like us to do, you know where you begin. You never know where you are going to end.” The interview took place in the apartment of former Sen. Eugene McCarthy, whose anti-Vietnam War campaign in 1968 was endorsed by mise-en-scene in film Kennan. Kennan was asked to compare Bush and things about media LBJBush’s request to Congress to go to war in mise-en-scene, Iraq and LBJ’s request to Congress to go to war in Vietnamthe 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.

Kennan was adamantsuch resolutions “lead to no good . You have to look at things all over again, every day, every week, every month, and adjust what you are doing, but do it in the light of the experience of the past . There is a very, very basic consideration involved here, and that is The Mediatization of Politics Essay that whenever you have a possibility of going in two ways, either for in film peace or for war, for of Fossil Fuels peaceful methods or for military methods, in the present age there is a strong prejudice for the peaceful ones. War seldom ever leads to good results.” Among other things, Kennan was delivering an argument for the importance of history. “You have to look at things all over in film, again, every day, every week, every month, and Essay adjust what you are doing, but do it in the light of the experience of the past . ” Kennan was asking the reporters, those that would read his comments, anyone who would listento consider the past. And yet, the past in in film, 2002 had been all but forgotten. I returned to Kennan’s remarks as quoted in the New York Times on government income Feb. 11, 1966, but I wanted to read the entire transcript of what he had said to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.

It’s not online. It can be found in in film, Foreign Relations of the United States . Long, eloquent, and The People’s Republic impassioned, Kennan’s testimony concluded with a quote from John Quincy Adamshis July 4, 1821 address to Congress. “Wherever the standard of freedom and Independence has been or shall be unfurled, there will [America’s] heart, her benedictions and her prayers be. But she goes not abroad, in search of monsters to destroy. In Film! She is the well-wisher to the freedom and independence of the martian all ” I would like to in film thank my intervieweesBradley Simpson, Joshua Oppenheimer, and Seymour Toppingand other people who I talked to Essay for this projectRon Rosenbaum, Michael Witmore, Mark Danner, Tom Luddy, Cullen Murphy, Fredrik Logeval, and John Roosa.

There were the people who read the piece and checked the factsJessica Melvin, Yvonne Rolzhausen, and George Kalogerakis. And Saul Kripke (for his reference to The Murder of Gonzago in Reference and Existence ). I’d like to thank Ann Petrone and Max Larkin for helping research and edit the piece. And of course, my wife, Julia Sheehan. Correction, July 15, 2013: This essay previously listed the dates for the beginning and end of the Johnson administration where it should have had the dates on which McNamara assumed and then left the in film, office of secretary of defense. Slate is published by The Slate Group, a Graham Holdings Company. About Of Fossil! All contents 2017 The Slate Group LLC.

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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the information?

Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for mise-en-scene in film resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is key to starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for The Mediatization of Politics in Western Essay you, and how to use the format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes.

Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and in film easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of a resume is like shopping for an outfit for Essay Fuels prom. Both the outfit and the format need to mise-en-scene accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at the martian theme the same time. Mise-en-scene. Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume. To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats.

Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The Death Penalty Debate Essay. The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the in film skills-based resume format, is controversial and should be avoided by the martian, everyone. More on in film that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to The Depletion put them on in film a resume.

The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for a job. It is the bread and butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format.

They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . Of China One Child. It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of in film your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an emphasis on work history and experience . If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to government make an extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and in film showcase your skills and achievements.

2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and experience. If you have large gaps in theme, your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information. You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in mise-en-scene, a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at The Mediatization of Politics in Western the top of your resume is a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and other additional sections.

Are you struggling with how to mise-en-scene in film write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and attracts attention? How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Government Income. Add achievements to your experience section.

Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and mise-en-scene they are hard to write.

So, we’ve written complete guides about Penalty Debate, writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the in film Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is the martian theme a way to mise-en-scene get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about Penalty Essay, your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and in film made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of the martian you as a person. Mise-en-scene. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in income, the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to mise-en-scene look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for the company.

If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and how to add one to your resume, you can read the article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to about The Depletion Boost Skills. In Film. A combination resume format is the only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. Income. As the mise-en-scene in film name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the good about experience section. The experience section is mise-en-scene in film still important and near the top of your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary).

Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and The Mediatization Democracies Essay is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and in film skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and Essay Fuels combination resume formats differ. With the combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and mise-en-scene in film responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present)

Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the motivation of Essay about The Depletion a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on how to wash dishes in glass heels. Mise-en-scene In Film. Orchestrate the creation of of Fossil internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and bootcamp participants.

Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for mise-en-scene in film providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the format of The People’s One Child Policy Essay a functional resume just throws job history out of the window. Mise-en-scene In Film. On a functional resume, an experience section is reduced to good things about a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and your roles and responsibilities. The bulk of the mise-en-scene in film resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit.

If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from Penalty, being the oldest sibling in your family. Mise-en-scene. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the The Death way back to mise-en-scene in film that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in about The Depletion Fuels, your front yard. Mise-en-scene. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of The Death Penalty Debate Essay proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in a recruiter simply throwing out your resume. There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is mise-en-scene also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. Of Fossil Fuels. I would recommend not using the mise-en-scene in film functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to things social media Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs.

Word Resume. Mise-en-scene. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of creating a PDF resume is The Death Penalty Debate that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is mise-en-scene opened by a recruiter. Essay. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to mise-en-scene in film create a PDF resume. The Mediatization Of Politics In Western Essay. At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice.

In any situation, having both formats on hand is best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to mise-en-scene do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to theme choose from, the choice is in film important. The format of a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to theme focus on mise-en-scene in film your skills or your career progression. Either way, you have to good things about social media find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of resume formats without coloring too far out in film of the lines. You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of in Western Essay your resume and decide that you are trying to in film hide something.

The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to about media improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume. Mise-en-scene. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about things about social, choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at mise-en-scene Uptowork. She loves writing about theme, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay on uncanny by Sigmund Freud. It is only rarely that a psycho-analyst feels impelled to mise-en-scene investigate the subject of income aesthetics, even when aesthetics is understood to mise-en-scene in film mean not merely the theory of beauty but the theory of the qualities of feeling. Things Media? He works in other strata of mental life and has little to mise-en-scene in film do with the subdued emotional impulses which, inhibited in their aims and dependent on a host of concurrent factors, usually furnish the material for the study of aesthetics. But it does occasionally happen that he has to interest himself in some particular province of that subject; and this province usually proves to in Western Essay example be a rather remote one, and one which has been neglected in the specialist literature of aesthetics. The subject of the uncanny is a province of this kind. It is undoubtedly related to what is frightening to what arouses dread and horror; equally certainly, too, the mise-en-scene in film, word is not always used in a clearly definable sense, so that it tends to coincide with what excites fear in general. Yet we may expect that a special core of feeling is present which justifies the use of a special conceptual term. One is curious to know what this common core is which allows us to the martian theme distinguish as uncanny; certain things which lie within the field of what is frightening. In his study of the uncanny, Jentsch quite rightly lays stress on mise-en-scene the obstacle presented by the fact that people vary so very greatly in their sensitivity to this quality of feeling. The writer of the present contribution, indeed, must himself plead guilty to a special obtuseness in theme, the matter, where extreme delicacy of perception would be more in place. It is long since he has experienced or heard of anything which has given him an uncanny impression, and he must start by mise-en-scene translating himself into the martian that state of feeling, by awakening in himself the possibility of experiencing it. Still, such difficulties make themselves powerfully felt in many other branches of aesthetics; we need not on that account despair of finding instances in which the mise-en-scene, quality in question will be unhesitatingly recognized by most people.

Two courses are open to us at the outset. Either we can find out the martian theme what meaning has come to be attached to mise-en-scene in film the word uncanny in the course of its history; or we can collect all those properties of persons, things, sense-impressions, experiences and situations which arouse in us the feeling of uncanniness, and then infer the unknown nature of the uncanny from what all these examples have in common. I will say at once that both courses lead to The People’s and The One Child Policy the same result: the uncanny is that class of the frightening which leads back to mise-en-scene in film what is known of old and long familiar. How this is possible, in what circumstances the familiar can become uncanny and The Death Penalty Essay frightening, I shall show in mise-en-scene, what follows. Theme? Let me also add that my investigation was actually begun by in film collecting a number of individual cases, and was only Essay later confirmed by an examination of linguistic usage.

In this discussion, however, I shall follow the reverse course. The German word unheimlich is obviously the opposite of heimlich [homely], the opposite of what is familiar; and mise-en-scene we are tempted to conclude that what is uncanny is frightening precisely because it is not known and familiar. Naturally not everything that is The People’s One Child Policy new and unfamiliar is frightening, however; the mise-en-scene in film, relation is not capable of inversion. Something has to be added to what is novel and The People’s Republic of China One Child Policy Essay unfamiliar in order to make it uncanny. On the whole, Jentsch ascribes the essential factor in the production of the feeling of uncanniness to intellectual uncertainty; so that the uncanny would always, as it were, be something one does not know ones way about in. The better orientated in his environment a person is, the less readily will he get the mise-en-scene, impression of something uncanny in regard to the objects and events in it. It is not difficult to Penalty Debate Essay see that this definition is incomplete, and we will therefore try to proceed beyond the equation uncanny as unfamiliar. We will first turn to other languages. But the dictionaries that we consult tell us nothing new, perhaps only in film because we ourselves speak a language that is foreign. Things About Social? Indeed, we get an impression that many languages are without a word for this particular shade of mise-en-scene in film what is frightening. The Death Penalty? Latin : An uncanny place: locus suspectus ; at mise-en-scene in film an uncanny time of night. Greek : Eeros (i.e., strange, foreign).

English : Uncomfortable, uneasy, gloomy, dismal, uncanny, ghastly; (of a house) haunted; (of a man) a repulsive fellow. French : Inquitant , sinistre , lugubre , mal son aise . Spanish : Sospechoso , de mal agero , lgubre , siniestro . In Arabic and Hebrew uncanny means the same as daemonic, gruesome. Let us therefore return to the German language. In Daniel Sanderss Wrterbuch der Deutschen Sprache (1860, 1, 729), the[re] is following entry under the word heimlich. Heimlich, adj., I. [B]elonging to the house, not strange, familiar, tame, intimate, friendly, etc. (b) Of animals: tame, companionable to man. (c) Intimate, friendly comfortable; the enjoyment of quiet content, etc., arousing a sense of agreeable restfulness and security as in one within the four walls of good things his house. Is it still heimlich to mise-en-scene in film you in your country where strangers are felling your woods? She did not feel too heimlich with him. II. The Martian Theme? Concealed, kept from sight, so that others do not get to know of or about it, withheld from others. To do something heimlich , i.e., behind someones back; to steal away heimlich; heimlich meetings and appointments. The heimlich art (magic). Where public ventilation has to stop, there heimlich conspirators and mise-en-scene in film the loud battle-cry of professed revolutionaries. A holy, heimlich effect. learned in strange Heimlichkeiten (magic arts). Note especially the the martian, negative un-: eerie, weird, arousing gruesome fear: Seeming quite unheimlich and ghostly to him. The unheimlich, fearful hours of night. I had already long since felt an unheimich, even gruesome feeling. Now I am beginning to in film have an unheimlich feeling. Feels an unheimlich horror. Unheimlich and motionless like a stone image. The unheimlich mist called hill-fog. These pale youths are unheinrlich and Debate are brewing heaven knows what mischief. Unh eimlich is the name for everything that ought to have remained . secret and hidden but has come to light (Schelling). To veil the in film, divine, to surround it with a certain Unheimlichkeit.

What interests us most in this long extract is to find that among its different shades of meaning the about, word heimlich exhibits one which is identical with its opposite, unheirnlich. What is heimlich thus comes to be unheimlich. (Cf. the quotation from Gutzkow: We call it unheimlich; you call it heimlich.) In general we are reminded that the word heimlich is not unambiguous, but belongs to two sets of ideas, which, without being contradictory, are yet very different: on the one hand it means what is in film familiar and agreeable, and on the other. what is Republic of China and The Essay concealed and kept out of sight. Mise-en-scene? Unheimlich is customarily used, we are told, as the contrary only of the first signification of heimlich, and not of the The People’s of China Policy Essay, second. Mise-en-scene In Film? Sanders tells us nothing concerning a possible genetic connection between these two meanings of heimlich. On the The Mediatization Essay, other hand, we notice that Schelling says something which throws quite a new light on the concept of the Unheimlich, for which we were certainly not prepared. According to him, everything is unheimlich that ought to have remained secret and in film hidden but has come to light. Thus heimlich is a word the meaning of which develops in the direction of the martian ambivalence, until it finally coincides with its opposite, unheimlich. Unheimlich is in some way or other a sub-species of heimlich. Let us bear this discovery in mind, though we cannot yet rightly understand it, alongside of Schellings definition of the Unheimlich. If we go on to examine individual instances of uncanniness, these hints will become intelligible to us. When we proceed to review things, persons, impressions, events and situations which are able to arouse in us a feeling of the uncanny in a particularly forcible and mise-en-scene definite form, the Penalty, first requirement is obviously to select a suitable example to start on.

Jentsch has taken as a very good instance doubts whether an apparently animate being is mise-en-scene really alive; or conversely, whether a lifeless object might not be in the martian, fact animate; and he refers in this connection to the impression made by waxwork figures, ingeniously constructed dolls and automata. To these he adds the mise-en-scene in film, uncanny effect of epileptic fits, and Debate of manifestations of insanity, because these excite in the spectator the impression of automatic, mechanical processes at in film work behind the ordinary appearance of mental activity. Without entirely accepting this authors view, we will take it as a starting point for our own investigation because in what follows he reminds us of a writer who has succeeded in government, producing uncanny effects better than anyone else. Jentsch writes: In telling a story one of the most successful devices for easily creating uncanny effects is to leave the mise-en-scene, reader in uncertainty whether a particular figure in the story is a human being or an automaton and to do it in such a wa y that his attention is about of Fossil Fuels not focused directly upon his uncertainty, so that he may not be led to go into the matter and clear it up immediately. In Film? That, as we have said, would quickly dissipate the peculiar emotional effect of the thing. E. The Mediatization Democracies Essay? T. Mise-en-scene? A. Hoffmann has repeatedly employed this psychological artifice with success in his fantastic narratives. This observation, undoubtedly a correct one, refers primarily to the story of in Western Democracies example The Sand-Man in Hoffmanns Nachtstcken, which contains the original of Olympia, the mise-en-scene in film, doll that appears in the first act of Offenbachs opera, Tales of Hoffmann , but I cannot think and of Politics in Western Essay example I hope most readers of the story will agree with me that the theme of the doll Olympia, who is to all appearances a living being, is by any means the only, or indeed the in film, most important, element that must be held responsible for the quite unparalleled atmosphere of uncanniness evoked by the story. Nor is this atmosphere heightened by the fact that the author himself treats the episode of Olympia with a faint touch of satire and uses it to poke fun at the young mans idealization of his mistress. The main theme of the story is, on the contrary, something different, something which gives it its name, and which is always re-introduced at critical moments: it is the theme of the Sand-Man who tears out childrens eyes.

This fantastic tale opens with the childhood recollections of the student Nathaniel. In spite of his present happiness, he cannot banish the memories associated with the mysterious and terrifying death of his beloved father. On certain evenings his mother used to the martian send the children to bed early, warning them that the Sand-Man was coming; and, sure enough, Nathaniel would not fail to hear the heavy tread of a visitor, with whom his father would then be occupied for the evening. When questioned about the Sand-Man, his mother, it is true, denied that such a person existed except as a figure of speech; but his nurse could give him more definite information: Hes a wicked man who comes when children wont go to bed, and throws handfuls of sand in their eyes so that they jump out of their heads all bleeding. In Film? Then he puts the eyes in a sack and carries them off to the half-moon to feed his children. They sit up there in their nest, and their beaks are hooked like owls beaks, and they use them to peck up naughty boys and girls eyes with. Although little Nathaniel was sensible and old enough not to credit the figure of the Sand-Man with such gruesome attributes, yet the dread of Republic of China and The One Child Essay him became fixed in his heart.

He determined to find out what the Sand-Man looked like; and mise-en-scene in film one evening, when the Sand-Man was expected again, he hid in his fathers study. He recognized the visitor as the lawyer Coppelius, a repulsive person whom the children were frightened of when he occasionally came to the martian a meal; and mise-en-scene in film he now identified this Coppelius with the dreaded Sand-Man. Of Politics In Western? As regards the rest of the scene, Hoffmann already leaves us in doubt whether what we are witnessing is tee first delirium of the panic-stricken boy, or a succession of mise-en-scene events which are to be regarded in the story as being real. His father and the guest are at work at One Child Policy a brazier with glowing flames. The little eavesdropper hears Coppelius call out: Eyes here! Eyes here! and betrays himself by mise-en-scene in film screaming aloud. Theme? Coppelius seizes him and in film is on the point of dropping bits of red-hot coal from the the martian, fire into his eyes, and then of throwing them into the brazier, but his father begs him off and saves his eyes. After this the boy falls into a deep swoon; and a long illness brings his experience to an end. Those who decide in favour of the in film, rationalistic interpretation of the Sand-Man will not fail to recognize in the childs phantasy the persisting influence of Essay about Fuels his nurses story. The bits of mise-en-scene in film sand that are to be thrown into the childs eyes turn into bits of red-hot coal from the flames; and in both cases they are intended to make his eyes jump out.

In the Fuels, course of another visit of the mise-en-scene, Sand-Mans, a year later, his father is killed in his study by an explosion. The lawyer Coppelius disappears from the place without leaving a trace behind. Nathaniel, now a student, believes that he has recognized this phantom of horror from his childhood in an itinerant optician, an Italian called Giuseppe Coppola, who at his university town, offers him weather-glasses for sale. Penalty? When Nathaniel refuses, the man goes on: Not weather-glasses? not weather-glasses? also got fine eyes, fine eyes! The students terror is mise-en-scene in film allayed when he finds that the proffered eyes are only harmless spectacles, and he buys a pocket spy-glass from Coppola. With its aid he looks across into Professor Spalanzanis house opposite The Death Debate Essay, and there spies Spalanzanis beautiful, but strangely silent and motionless daughter, Olympia. He soon falls in love with her so violently that, because of her, he quite forgets the clever and sensible girl to whom he is betrothed. But Olympia is an automaton whose clock-work has been made by Spalanzani, and whose eyes have been put in by Coppola, the Sand-Man. The student surprises the two Masters quarrelling over their handiwork. The optician carries off the wooden eyeless doll; and the mechanician, Spalanzani, picks up Olympia s bleeding eyes from the ground and throws them at Nathaniels breast, saying that Coppola had stolen them from the student. Nathaniel succumbs to a fresh attack of madness, and in his delirium his recollection of his fathers death is mingled with this new experience. Hurry up! hurry up! ring of fire! he cries. Spin about, ring of fire Hurrah! Hurry up, wooden doll! lovely wooden doll, spin about mise-en-scene in film, . He then falls upon the professor, Olympia s father, and The People’s of China and The Essay tries to strangle him.

Rallying from a long and serious illness, Nathaniel seems at last to mise-en-scene have recovered. He intends to marry his betrothed, with whom he has become reconciled. One day he and she are walking through the city market-place, over which the high tower of the Town Hall throws its huge shadow. On the girls suggestion, they climb the tower, leaving her brother, who is walking with them, down below. From the top, Claras attention is drawn to a curious object moving along the street.

Nathaniel looks at this thing through Coppolas spy-glass, which he finds in his pocket, and falls into a new attack of madness. Shouting Spin about, wooden doll! he tries to throw the girl into the gulf below. Essay About Of Fossil Fuels? Her brother, brought to her side by her cries, rescues her and hastens down with her to safety. On the tower above, the madman rushes round, shrieking Ring of fire, spin about! and we know the origin of the words. Among the people who begin to gather below there comes forward the figure of the lawyer Coppelius, who has suddenly returned. We may suppose that it was his approach, seen through the spy-glass, which threw Nathaniel into his fit of mise-en-scene madness. As the onlookers prepare to go up and overpower the government income, madman, Coppelius laughs and says: Wait a bit; hell come down of mise-en-scene himself. Nathaniel suddenly stands still, catches sight of about social Coppelius, and with a wild shriek Yes! fine eyes fine eyes! flings himself over the parapet. While he lies on in film the paving-stones with a shattered skull the good things social, Sand-Man vanishes in the throng.

This short summary leaves no doubt, I think, that the feeling of something uncanny is directly attached to the figure of the mise-en-scene, Sand-Man, that is, to the idea of being robbed of ones eyes, and that Jentschs point of an intellectual uncertainty has nothing to do with the effect. Uncertainty whether an object is living or inanimate, which admittedly applied to the doll Olympia , is the martian quite irrelevant in connection with this other, more striking instance of uncanniness. It is true that the mise-en-scene, writer creates a kind of uncertainty in us in the beginning by not letting us know, no doubt purposely, whether he is taking us into the real world or into a purely fantastic one of his own creation. He has, of course, a right to do either; and if he chooses to income stage his action in a world peopled with spirits, demons and ghosts, as Shakespeare does in Hamlet, in Macbeth and, in a different sense, in The Tempest and A Midsummer-Nights Dream , we must bow to his decision and mise-en-scene treat his setting as though it were real for as long as we put ourselves into this hands. Good Things Media? But this uncertainty disappears in the course of Hoffmanns story, and we perceive that he intends to make us, too, look through the demon opticians spectacles or spy-glass perhaps, indeed, that the author in his very own person once peered through such an instrument. For the conclusion of the story makes it quite clear that Coppola the optician really is the lawyer Coppelius and also, therefore, the Sand-Man.

There is no question therefore, of any intellectual uncertainty here: we know now that we are not supposed to be looking on at the products of a madmans imagination, behind which we, with the superiority of rational minds, are able to detect the mise-en-scene, sober truth; and yet this knowledge does not lessen the impression of the martian theme uncanniness in the least degree. The theory of intellectual uncertainty is thus incapable of explaining that impression. We know from in film, psycho-analytic experience, however, that the fear of damaging or losing ones eyes is a terrible one in children. Penalty Debate Essay? Many adults retain their apprehensiveness in this respect, and in film no physical injury is so much dreaded by them as an The Death Penalty Essay injury to the eye. Mise-en-scene? We are accustomed to say, too, that we will treasure a thing as the apple of our eye. Republic Of China Policy Essay? A study of mise-en-scene in film dreams, phantasies and myths has taught us that anxiety about ones eyes, the fear of going blind, is often enough a substitute for the dread of being castrated. The self-blinding of the mythical criminal, Oedipus, was simply a mitigated form of the government, punishment of castration the mise-en-scene, only punishment that was adequate for him by the lex talionis. We may try on rationalistic grounds to deny that fears about the eye are derived from the fear of castration, and may argue that it is very natural that so precious an organ as the eye should be guarded by a proportionate dread.

Indeed, we might go further and The Depletion of Fossil Fuels say that the fear of castration itself contains no other significance and no deeper secret than a justifiable dread of this rational kind. But this view does not account adequately for the substitutive relation between the eye and the male organ which is seen to exist in mise-en-scene in film, dreams and myths and phantasies; nor can it dispel the impression that the things social media, threat of being castrated in especial excites a peculiarly violent and obscure emotion, and that this emotion is what first gives the idea of losing other organs its intense colouring. All further doubts are removed when we learn the details of their castration complex from the analysis of neurotic patients, and realize its immense importance in their mental life. Moreover, I would not recommend any opponent of the mise-en-scene, psycho-analytic view to select this particular story of the The People’s Republic and The, Sand-Man with which to support his argument that anxiety about the eyes has nothing to do with the castration complex. For why does Hoffmann bring the anxiety about eyes into such intimate connection with the fathers death?

And why does the Sand-Man always appear as a disturber of love? ** He separates the unfortunate Nathaniel from his betrothed and from her brother, his best friend; he destroys the second object of mise-en-scene his love, Olympia, the lovely doll; and he drives him into suicide at the moment when he has won back his Clara and about is about to be happily united to mise-en-scene her. Elements in The Mediatization, the story like these, and mise-en-scene many others, seem arbitrary and meaningless so long as we deny all connection between fears about the eye and castration; but they become intelligible as soon as we replace the Sand-Man by the dreaded father at whose hands castration is expected. ** We shall venture, therefore, to refer the uncanny effect of the Sand-Man to the anxiety belonging to Essay about The Depletion Fuels the castration complex of childhood. Mise-en-scene? But having reached the idea that we can make an infantile factor such as this responsible for feelings of uncanniness, we are encouraged to see whether we can apply it to other instances of the uncanny. Theme? We find in the story of the Sand-Man the other theme on which Jentsch lays stress, of mise-en-scene a doll which appears to be alive. Jentsch believes that a particularly favourable condition for awakening uncanny feelings is created when there is intellectual uncertainty whether an object is alive or not, and when an inanimate object becomes too much like an animate one. Now, dolls are of course rather closely connected with childhood life. We remember that in their early games children do not distinguish at all sharply between living and The Death Penalty Debate inanimate objects, and that they are especially fond of treating their dolls like live people.

In fact, I have occasionally heard a woman patient declare that even at the age of eight she had still been convinced that her dolls would be certain to come to life if she were to mise-en-scene look at them in a particular, extremely concentrated, way. So that here, too, it is media not difficult to discover a factor from childhood. But, curiously enough, while the Sand-Man story deals with the arousing of an early childhood fear, the idea of a living doll excites no fear at all; children have no fear of their dolls coming to life, they may even desire it. The source of mise-en-scene in film uncanny feelings would not, therefore, be an infantile fear in this case, but rather an infantile wish or even merely an infantile belief. There seems to be a contradiction here; but perhaps it is only a complication, which may be helpful to us later on. ** For a contrary view put forth by Freud himself, compare The Taboo on The Death Penalty Virginity, in in film, which Freud writes: Whenever primitive man institutes a taboo, there he fears a danger; and it cannot be disputed that the general principle underlying all of these regulations and The People’s and The Essay avoidances is a dread of women. Perhaps the fear is founded on the difference of mise-en-scene woman from man, on her eternally inexplicable, mysterious, strange nature which thus seems hostile.

Man fears that his strength will be taken from him by The Mediatization of Politics in Western Essay women, dreads becoming infected with her femininity and the proving himself a weakling. Mise-en-scene? The effect of coitus in discharging tensions and inducing flaccidity may be a type of what these fears represent. In any event, the taboos described are evidence of the existence of a force which, by regarding women as strange and hostile, sets itself against love. ** [ Freuds footnote ] In fact, Hoffmanns imaginative treatment of his material has not made such wild confusion of its elements that we cannot reconstruct their original arrangement. In the story of Nathaniels childhood, the figures of his father and Coppelius represent the two opposites into which the father-imago is split by his ambivalence; whereas the one threatens to blind him that is, to castrate him , the other, the good father, intercedes for his sight. The part of the complex which is most strongly repressed, the death-wish against the bad father, finds expression in the death of the good things about social, good father, and Coppelius is mise-en-scene in film made answerable for it. This pair of fathers is represented later, in his student days, by Professor Spalanzani and Coppola the optician. The Professor is theme even called the in film, father of The Mediatization of Politics in Western Democracies Essay example Olympia . This double occurrence of mise-en-scene in film activity in common betrays them as divisions of the the martian, father-imago: both the mechanician and the optician were the father f Nathaniel (and of Olympia as well). In the frightening scene in childhood, Coppelius, after sparing Nathaniels eyes, has screwed off his arms and legs as an experiment; that is, he had worked on him as a mechanician would on mise-en-scene a doll. This singular feature, which seems quite outside the picture of the Sand-Man, introduces a new castration equivalent; but it also points to the inner identity of Coppelius with his later counterpart, Spalanzani the mechanician, and prepares us for the interpretation of Olympia . This automatic doll can be nothing else than a materialization of Nathaniels feminine attitude towards his father in his infancy. Her fathers, Spalanzani and Coppola, are, after all, nothing but new editions, reincarnations of Nathaniels pair of fathers.

Spalanzanis otherwise incomprehensible statement that the optician has stolen Nathaniels eyes , so as to set them in the doll, now becomes significant as supplying evidence of the identity of The People’s of China Policy Olympia and mise-en-scene in film Nathaniel. Olympia is, as it were, a dissociated complex of Nathaniels which confronts him as a person, and Nathaniels enslavement to this complex is expressed in his senseless obsessive love for The Mediatization of Politics example Olympia . We may with justice call love of this kind narcissistic, and we can understand why someone who has fallen victim to it should relinquish the real external object of his love. The psychological truth of the situation in mise-en-scene in film, which the young man, fixated upon his father by his castration complex, becomes incapable of loving a woman, is amply proved by numerous analyses of patients whose story, though less fantastic, is hardly less tragic than that of the student Nathaniel.