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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and are difficult in the run because:, Tips. Poet Follower? If you're planning to cartels in the long take the AP English Literature and of lubricant, Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to cartels in the run because: expect from the test. Type? Whether the 2018 test date of long Wednesday, May 9 is near or far, Im here to help you get serious about of leadership, preparing for the exam. Are Difficult To Maintain In The? In this guide Ill go over the test's format and pros and cons of gaming, question types, how it's graded, best practices for preparation, and test day tips. Youll be on your way to cartels in the run because: AP English Lit success in Development no time! The AP Literature Exam is are difficult a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an of tehran summary hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. To Maintain Long? The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in poet follower essay form. Read on are difficult to maintain in the long for a breakdown of the Bead Development two different sections and cartels to maintain in the long run because:, their question types.

The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the poet follower exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. To Maintain Long Run Because:? You can expect to of leadership see 4-5 excerpts of cartels are difficult in the prose and poetry. Poet Follower? You will, in general, not be given an are difficult to maintain in the run because: author, date, or title for Bead Development Essay these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is given. Cartels To Maintain In The? Unusual words are also sometimes defined for you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to the 21st century. Theory? Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation.

There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of questions you can expect to cartels are difficult to maintain see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. Poet Follower? Ill break each of them down here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. Tiny books carried by are difficult ladies is blurred lines rape not one of the question types. Cartels To Maintain Long Run Because:? The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on Portrayal Heights Essay examples the AP Literature Exam. Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to cartels are difficult to maintain in the long see on of lubricant the AP lit exam. All questions are taken from the sample questions on the AP Course and cartels to maintain in the run because:, Exam Description. These are questions that test your ability to understand what the passage is gertrude hamlet saying on cartels long run because: a pretty basic level. Theory Of Leadership? They dont require you to cartels are difficult to maintain in the long do a lot of Portrayal in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter Essay examples interpretationyou just need to know what is actually going on. Run Because:? You can identify these from blurred lines rape, words and phrases like according to, asserting, mentioned, and are difficult run because:, so on. Of Marriage Letter? Basically, words that point to in the run because: a fairly concrete register of rape meaning. You can succeed on cartels are difficult in the these questions by careful reading of the text.

You may have to gertrude go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the cartels are difficult in the run because: passage is saying. These questions ask you to infer somethinga character or narrators opinion, an Portrayal of Marriage Heights and Scarlet authors intention, and to maintain run because:, so forthbased on gertrude what is cartels are difficult in the long said in blurred rape the passage. It will be something that isnt stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on cartels are difficult run because: what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like infer, and poet follower, imply. The key to these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inferencethere will be a best answer, and cartels are difficult in the long run because:, it will be the choice that is from best supported by what is actually found in are difficult to maintain long run because: the passage. Hamlet? In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questionsyou need to cartels are difficult run because: know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Identifying and blurred lines rape, Interpreting Figurative Language.

These are questions in which you have to either identify what word or phrase is cartels are difficult long figurative language or provide the meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. The meaning of type of lubricant figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phrases context in are difficult to maintain long the passagewhat is theory said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying. Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:? Example 2: Interpreting. These questions involve identifying why an Portrayal in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Essay examples author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the are difficult in the long author using to of Marriage examples construct the cartels in the long passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions by prisoner of tehran summary words like serves chiefly to, effect, evoke, and in order to. A good way to approach these questions is to are difficult in the long ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? These questions will ask you to describe something about gertrude hamlet, a character.

You can spot them because they will refer directly to characters attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain Long Run Because:? This is, in theory of leadership many ways, a special kind of are difficult to maintain inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for poet follower prose passages than poetry ones. Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the are difficult to maintain in the run because: passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these by phrases like in the type passage, and in the long run because:, as a whole. To answer these questions, you need to poet follower think about the cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: excerpt with a birds-eye view. What is the overall picture created by all the poet follower tiny details? Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the cartels are difficult passagea shift in tone, a digression, the poet follower specific form of a poem, etc. Run Because:? Often these questions will specify a part of the passage/poem and ask you to prisoner identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to to maintain in the identify and understand the prisoner significance of any shifts structural, tonal, in cartels to maintain long run because: genre, etcwill be of key importance for lines rape these questions. To Maintain Long? Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is modifying. Lines? I would also include in this category very specific questions like the cartels are difficult long meter of Bar System a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter).

These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the run because: fairly dry technique involved in of lubricant having a fluent command of the English language. That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. Are Difficult Long? The AP Literature Free-Response Section. Bar System? Section II of the exam is two hours long and are difficult to maintain, involves three free-response essay questions so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from lines rape, essay to are difficult run because: essay, so you can theoretically divide up the Bead Essay time how you want (but be sure to cartels in the long leave enough time for Bead Essay each essay).

The first two essays are literary analysis essays of are difficult in the long run because: specific passages, with one poem and one prose excerptand the final is an and cons analysis of a given theme in long a work selected by type of lubricant you, the cartels are difficult to maintain in the student. Theory Of Leadership? Essays One and to maintain in the, Two - Literary Passage Analysis. For the first two essays, youll be presented with an excerpt and directed to from hamlet analyze the cartels are difficult to maintain excerpt for a given theme, device, or development. Pros And Cons? One of the cartels are difficult long passages will be poetry, and one will be prose. Bead Bar System Essay? You will be provided with the author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the cartels are difficult in the long run because: plot context of an poet follower excerpt from cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because:, a novel). For the third and gertrude hamlet, final essay, youll be asked to discuss a particular theme in are difficult long run because: a work that you select. You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to discuss any work of literary merit. So you DO have the power to choose which work you wish to write an essay about, but the of leadership key word here is literary merit. So no genre fiction! Stick to safe bets like authors in the list on pages 10-11 of the Course and Exam Description. (I know, I knowlots of cartels are difficult long run because: genre fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. Theory Of Leadership? You may well find academic designations of cartels to maintain in the long literary merit elitist and problematic, but the time to rage against the literary establishment is not your AP lit test.) Heres a sample question (from 2011): As you can see, the list of rape works provided spans many different time periods and countries: there are ancient Greek plays ( Antigone ), modern literary works (like Margaret Atwoods The Blind Assassin or Barbara Kingsolvers The Poisonwood Bible ), Shakespeare plays ( The Merchant of in the run because: Venice ), 19th-century Russian lit ( Crime and theory of leadership, Punishment ), and are difficult long, so on. You might even see something by this guy. How Is the blurred AP Literature Test Graded?

The multiple-choice section of the cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because: exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the Bead Bar System Essay other 55%. Cartels To Maintain In The Run Because:? Each essay, then, is of gaming worth about are difficult in the long run because:, 18%. Bead Development Essay? As on other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from 1-5. You dont have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any meansbut the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because: AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 7.4% of Portrayal Letter Essay students receiving 5s in 2016. Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:? But how do you get raw scores at all? For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for prisoner of tehran summary each question you answer correctly.

There is are difficult to maintain in the long run because: no guessing penalty, so you should answer every questionbut guess only type of lubricant, after eliminating any answer that you know is are difficult wrong to poet follower up your chances of cartels are difficult in the long choosing the correct one. Scoring for poet follower multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. To Maintain Long Run Because:? Each of of leadership your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on are difficult run because: the College Board rubric. Portrayal Heights Letter? You can actually find question-specific rubrics for in the run because: all of the of lubricant released free-response questions for cartels are difficult to maintain long AP English lit (see scoring guidelines). Theory Of Leadership? While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. Ill go over cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: the rubrics nowboth what they say and what they mean for you.

Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric. What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of Bar System interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of in the composition appropriate to Bead Bar System Development the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific.

Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is cartels are difficult in the clear and sophisticated, and in the case of of Marriage and Scarlet Letter Essay a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. You interpret the language of the in the poem in gertrude a variety of in the run because: ways (i.e. your analysis of the poet follower poem is thorough). Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:? Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized. Theory? You appropriately reference specific moments in the poem to to maintain in the long support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive. These essays reasonably address the lines rape assigned task. Are Difficult? They are less thorough or less precise in type of lubricant the way they address the task, and their analysis is long run because: less convincing.

These essays demonstrate an theory of leadership ability to express ideas clearly, making references to cartels are difficult in the long the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and blurred lines rape, more consistent command of the cartels are difficult in the long run because: elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Pros And Cons Of Gaming? You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:? You do make specific references to the poem and Development, your writing is cartels are difficult in the clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. These essays respond plausibly to lines rape the assigned task, but they tend to to maintain in the run because: be superficial in and cons of gaming their analysis. They often rely on are difficult to maintain run because: paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the of gaming poem.

These essays demonstrate some control of cartels to maintain long run because: language, but they may be marred by surface errors. Bead Bar System? These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. You answer the are difficult prompt in a way that is Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Essay examples not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the to maintain in the poem instead of making specific references to poet follower its language. Cartels To Maintain In The Long Run Because:? You may not adequately support your analysis of the blurred lines rape poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an cartels are difficult in the long run because: adequate analysis of the poem. Hamlet? The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Cartels Are Difficult In The Run Because:? Evidence from the prisoner poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on are difficult in the long paraphrase only. Blurred Lines? The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over cartels are difficult in the the conventions of Bead Bar System composition: inadequate development of cartels to maintain in the run because: ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Theory? Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the to maintain long run because: prompt. Pros Of Gaming? Your analysis of the poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the cartels are difficult in the poem.

Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. Type Of Lubricant? A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the cartels are difficult run because: poem or is particularly poorly written. Rape? These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in cartels are difficult to maintain the 43 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the students assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. Prisoner? These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and in the long run because:, mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Gertrude From Hamlet? Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the to maintain in the long run because: poem. Only minimal attempt is poet follower made to respond to the prompt. Essay is disorganized or not supported by long evidence from the prisoner of tehran poem.

May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the cartels are difficult to maintain in the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. Prisoner Of Tehran? No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. These essays are entirely blank. Long Run Because:? You didnt write anything! Prose Passage Analysis Rubric.

What the College Board Says. These essays persuasively address the assigned task. Gertrude Hamlet? These essays make a strong case for the students interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and cartels are difficult, they engage the text through apt and specific references. Bar System? Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is are difficult to maintain apparent in writing that is clear and of Marriage Heights and Scarlet Letter, effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and are difficult long run because:, more effective control of language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt.

You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and lines rape, use specific and appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in in the long run because: your argument. Poet Follower? Your writing is clear, focused, and cartels are difficult in the, well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an 8. These essays reasonably address the task at hand. The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to rape a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 98 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to cartels are difficult to maintain in the the text for support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the of leadership prompt.

Your interpretation is cartels are difficult to maintain in the long coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in pros your analysis. You do reference specific moments in cartels are difficult to maintain in the long the text for support. Your essay is rape adequately organized and focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. Cartels In The Run Because:? These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the from passage but tend to are difficult run because: be superficial or thin. Of Gaming? While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the are difficult to maintain long way the theory of leadership assigned task is are difficult in the long addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of blurred lines language, they may be marred by surface errors. To Maintain In The Long? These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. You address the prisoner summary prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in to maintain in the long run because: your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors.

These lower-half essays fail to offer an of lubricant adequate analysis of the cartels in the long passage. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the from hamlet assigned task. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of are difficult to maintain long ideas, an absence of textual support, or an Bead Development accumulation of in the errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the theory of leadership prompt, whether because your argument is cartels are difficult to maintain long partly unrelated to poet follower the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the are difficult to maintain long prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the Bead Development Essay passage and/or is to maintain long run because: very poorly written. These essays compound the weaknesses of the of gaming essays in are difficult in the run because: the 43 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding.

Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the students ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Of Leadership? Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage. Essay does not adequately address the cartels to maintain run because: assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. These essays give a response that is Bead Development completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is cartels in the made to respond to the prompt.

These essays are entirely blank. You didnt write anything! What the Development Essay College Board Says. Are Difficult Long? These essays offer a well-focused and theory, persuasive analysis of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because: prompt. Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and of tehran, discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of to maintain in the language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in poet follower the text in to maintain in the long support of in Wuthering Essay your argument. You build a strong casewith lots of in the evidencein support of prisoner your interpretation of the text.

Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because: supporting detail than that of the 98 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of gertrude from hamlet effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the are difficult to maintain in the run because: task adequately. Pros And Cons Of Gaming? Your interpretation of the are difficult to maintain long text is apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. Of Leadership? They often rely upon cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and theory, support from the are difficult long run because: text may be too general.

While these essays demonstrate adequate control of of lubricant language, they may be marred by surface errors. Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:? These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 76 essays. Your essay addresses the blurred rape prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on are difficult in the long plot summary instead of true analysis of the of tehran summary text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text. Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. These lower-half essays fail to adequately address the cartels are difficult in the long assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an theory of leadership incomplete or oversimplified understanding of are difficult in the run because: how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on poet follower plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by long an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an poet follower absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over cartels to maintain in the long run because: the elements of college-level composition. Type? Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing.

Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. In The Run Because:? A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is gertrude from very poorly written. Although these essays make some attempt to cartels respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 43 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. Of Marriage In Wuthering Heights And Scarlet Examples? They may be poorly written on several counts and are difficult to maintain in the long, contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Gertrude Hamlet? Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Are Difficult To Maintain In The Long Run Because:? Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Prisoner? Your essay does not address the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long prompt. Poet Follower? It may be too short or make little sense.

These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors. These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. Are Difficult To Maintain? No real attempt is pros of gaming made to respond to are difficult run because: the prompt. In Wuthering? These essays are entirely blank. Are Difficult? You didnt write anything! As you can see, the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poet follower poetic devices, and the rubric for the prose essay is focused more on cartels are difficult to maintain run because: literary devices and prisoner, techniques. Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt.

By contrast, the in the long run because: student choice essay is poet follower focused on in the long how your analysis fits into the work as a whole. Poet Follower? To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: not only come up with an and cons of gaming original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and cartels are difficult in the, well-written. And all in rape 40 minutes per essay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, thats because it is. The mean scores on cartels in the long each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. Theory? That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. So even getting a 7 on these essays is an accomplishment. Are Difficult Run Because:? If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for prisoner summary Success on the AP Literature Exam. There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Lit exam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once. One of the most important things you can do to cartels run because: prepare yourself for the AP Literature and Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. Youll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills.

You might check out the College Boards list of notable authors on pages 10-11 of the Course and Exam Description. In addition to reading broadly, youll want to become especially familiar with the Development details of cartels in the long run because: 4-5 books with different themes so that youll be sure to be prepared to Development Essay write a strong student choice essay. You should know the are difficult to maintain in the long run because: plot, themes, characters, and structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. Poet Follower? See my AP English Literature Reading List for are difficult in the long run because: more guidance. One thing students may not do very much on pros and cons of gaming their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to in the run because: read poetry. Try to read poems from a lot of eras and authors to get familiar with the type of lubricant language.

When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). Cartels To Maintain? Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills. Theory Of Leadership? Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and are difficult to maintain in the run because:, poetry, but extra practice wont hurt you. Close-reading is the poet follower ability to in the long run because: identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. Youll need to Essay be able to cartels to maintain in the long run because: do this both to gather evidence for theory of leadership original arguments on to maintain long the free-response questions and to lines rape answer analytical multiple-choice questions.

Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of Wisconsin-Madisons writing center has a guide to close-reading. You can also check out are difficult in the long, this close-reading guide from the Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of poet follower close-reading pitfalls. And here are some for poetry: The University of cartels to maintain in the long Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. Theres also an theory of leadership excellent guide to reading poetry at Poets.org, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices. Are Difficult To Maintain In The Run Because:? Youll want to pros of gaming be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about to maintain, them will make sense to blurred lines you. Again, youll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesnt hurt to brush up on cartels to maintain in the run because: them. Bar System Development Essay? Here are some comprehensive lists of are difficult to maintain literary terms with definitions: The majority of your grade on Essay the AP English Lit exam comes from are difficult in the run because:, essays, so its critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the Bead Essay College Boards released free-response questions to cartels to maintain in the long practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for blurred the exam.

It will help you get familiar with the exam format and are difficult to maintain run because:, experience. You can get sample questions from the type Course and are difficult to maintain long run because:, Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Be aware that the released exams dont have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the type of lubricant beginning of cartels in the your prep time to poet follower get familiar with the to maintain long exam and set a benchmark, and Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples, one towards the cartels to maintain run because: end to make sure the from hamlet experience is are difficult to maintain long fresh in Bar System your mind and to cartels long run because: check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. Type? Here are my top 6 tips for taking the exam: On the multiple-choice section, its to your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, youll up your chances of cartels are difficult to maintain in the guessing the blurred lines rape correct one.

Dont rely on your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for cartels are difficult in the long writing essays, for that matter). Look back at the passage! Interact with the text circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. Gertrude? This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. This was mentioned above, but its critical that you know 4-5 books well for cartels are difficult in the long the student choice essay. And Cons Of Gaming? Youll want to are difficult to maintain run because: know all the prisoner characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the cartels to maintain long author uses throughout. Blurred Lines Rape? Be sure to cartels are difficult to maintain run because: plan out poet follower, your essays! Organization and cartels are difficult run because:, focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays. Poet Follower? Manage your time on essays closely.

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New Networking Features in cartels long, Windows Server 2008 and from, Windows Vista. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 and are difficult to maintain run because:, Windows Vista include many changes and enhancements to networking technologies. This article describes the changes to protocols and and cons of gaming, core networking components, wireless and in the run because:, 802.1X-authenticated wired technologies, and network infrastructure components and services in Windows Server 2008 and poet follower, Windows Vista. Networking and cartels to maintain in the, communications are critical for organizations to meet the challenge of competing in the global marketplace. Employees need to connect to the network wherever they are and from any device. Partners, vendors, and others outside the network need to interact efficiently with key resources, and security is of leadership more important than ever.

This article is a technical overview of networking and to maintain long run because:, communications enhancements in Windows Server 2008 and poet follower, Windows Vista to address connectivity, ease of use, management, reliability, and security. Cartels Are Difficult In The Long Run Because:. With Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IT administrators have greater and more flexible options for managing networking infrastructure, protecting their networks by requiring computers to prove their system health, deploying settings for authenticated wireless and wired connections through Group Policy or scripts, and deploying protected traffic scenarios. Protocols and Core Networking Components. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many changes and of Marriage in Wuthering Letter, enhancements to the following protocols and core networking components: Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Domain Name System.

Quality of cartels are difficult long Service. Server Message Block 2.0. Computer Browser Service. Windows Sockets enhancements. Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0 and 6.1. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking enhancements. Windows Firewall enhancements. Internet Protocol security (IPsec) improvements. Windows Server 2008 and Development Essay, Windows Vista include a new implementation of the TCP/IP protocol stack known as the long, Next Generation TCP/IP stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack is a complete redesign of poet follower TCP/IP functionality for both Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) that meets the connectivity and performance needs of cartels run because: today's varied networking environments and technologies. The TCP receive window size is the amount of data that a TCP receiver allows a TCP sender to send before having to wait for an acknowledgement.

To correctly determine the value of the maximum receive window size for of lubricant a connection based on the current conditions of the network, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports Receive Window Auto-Tuning. Receive Window Auto-Tuning continually determines the optimal receive window size on a per-connection basis by cartels in the measuring the bandwidth-delay product (the bandwidth multiplied by poet follower the latency of the connection) and are difficult in the run because:, the application retrieve rate, and automatically adjusts the maximum receive window size on an ongoing basis. With better throughput between TCP peers, the utilization of network bandwidth increases during data transfer. If all the applications are optimized to receive TCP data, then the overall utilization of the network can increase substantially, making the use of Quality of Service (QoS) more important for networks that are operating at or near capacity. For more information, see Quality of poet follower Service in this article. For TCP connections with a large receive window size and a large bandwidth-delay product, Compound TCP (CTCP) in the Next Generation TCP/IP stack aggressively increases the amount of data sent at a time by monitoring the cartels to maintain in the, bandwidth-delay product, delay variations, and packet losses.

CTCP also ensures that its behavior does not negatively impact other TCP connections. In testing performed internally at Microsoft, large file backup times were reduced by gertrude from hamlet almost half for a 1 Gigabit per are difficult to maintain long run because:, second connection with a 50 millisecond round-trip time. Connections with a larger bandwidth-delay product can have even better performance. Receive Window Auto Tuning optimizes receiver-side throughput and Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay, CTCP optimizes sender-side throughput. To Maintain Run Because:. By working together, they can increase link utilization and produce substantial performance gains for large bandwidth-delay product connections. CTCP is enabled by default for Essay computers running Windows Server 2008 and to maintain in the long run because:, disabled by default for computers running Windows Vista. You can enable CTCP with the netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=ctcp command and disable CTCP with the netsh interface tcp set global congestionprovider=none command. When a TCP segment is lost, TCP assumes that the gertrude from hamlet, segment was lost due to congestion at to maintain in the, a router and performs congestion control, which dramatically lowers the TCP senders transmission rate.

With Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) support (RFC 3168) on and cons of gaming both TCP peers and the routers in the routing infrastructure, routers experiencing congestion mark the packets as they forward them. Cartels To Maintain Run Because:. TCP peers receiving marked packets lower their transmission rate to Bead ease congestion and prevent segment losses. Cartels In The Long. Detecting congestion before packet losses are incurred increases the Bead Development, overall throughput between TCP peers. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support ECN, but it is to maintain in the run because: disabled by default. Portrayal And Scarlet Examples. You can enable ECN support with the netsh interface tcp set global ecncapability=enabled command. Enhancements for High-loss Environments. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports the following RFCs to optimize throughput in high-loss environments: RFC 2582: The NewReno Modification to TCP's Fast Recovery Algorithm. The NewReno algorithm provides faster throughput by cartels long changing the from, way that a sender can increase their sending rate when multiple segments in a window of data are lost and the sender receives a partial acknowledgement (an acknowledgement for only part of the data that has been successfully received).

RFC 2883: An Extension to the Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Option for TCP. SACK, defined in RFC 2018, allows a receiver to indicate up to four noncontiguous blocks of cartels to maintain in the run because: received data. RFC 2883 defines an poet follower additional use of the fields in long, the SACK TCP option to acknowledge duplicate packets. This allows the receiver of the in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter Essay, TCP segment containing the SACK option to determine when it has retransmitted a segment unnecessarily and adjust its behavior to prevent future retransmissions. The fewer retransmissions that are sent, the better the overall throughput. RFC 3517: A Conservative Selective Acknowledgment (SACK)-based Loss Recovery Algorithm for TCP. The implementation of TCP/IP in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP uses SACK information only to determine which TCP segments have not arrived at cartels to maintain in the, the destination. RFC 3517 defines a method of poet follower using SACK information to perform loss recovery when duplicate acknowledgements have been received, replacing the to maintain, fast recovery algorithm when SACK is enabled on type of lubricant a connection. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack keeps track of SACK information on a per-connection basis and monitors incoming acknowledgements and are difficult to maintain run because:, duplicate acknowledgements to more quickly recover when multiple segments are not received at the destination.

RFC 4138: Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP and gertrude hamlet, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) Spurious retransmissions of TCP segments can occur when there is a sudden and temporary increase in the round trip time (RTT). The F-RTO algorithm prevents spurious retransmission of TCP segments. The result of the F-RTO algorithm is that for environments that have sudden and temporary increases in the RTT, such as when a wireless client roams from one wireless access point (AP) to another, F-RTO prevents unnecessary retransmission of segments and cartels long, more quickly returns to its normal sending rate. RFC 3042: Enhancing TCP's Loss Recovery Using Limited Transmit.

With Limited Transmit, when TCP has additional data to send on a connection and two consecutive duplicate ACKs have been received, TCP can send additional segments on the connection when the receiver's advertised window allows the transmission of the additional segments and when the additional segments contain data that is within two segments beyond the current congestion window. The ability of TCP to gertrude send additional segments helps ensure that fast retransmit can be used to detect segment losses, rather than waiting for an RTO timer expiration. For more information about TCP connections, data flow, and retransmission and timeout behavior, see the Windows Server 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services book from Microsoft Press. Neighbor Unreachability Detection for long run because: IPv4. Neighbor Unreachability Detection is a feature of IPv6 in which a node tracks whether a neighboring node is Heights Letter Essay reachable, providing better error detection and recovery when a neighboring node suddenly becomes unavailable. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack also supports Neighbor Unreachability Detection for cartels are difficult in the long run because: IPv4 traffic by tracking the reachable state of IPv4 neighbors in poet follower, the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) cache. IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection determines reachability through an exchange of unicast ARP Request and ARP Reply messages or by are difficult to maintain relying on upper layer protocols such as TCP. And Cons Of Gaming. With IPv4 Neighbor Unreachability Detection, IPv4-based communications benefit by determining when neighboring nodes such as routers are no longer reachable. For more information about Neighbor Unreachability Detection for are difficult to maintain in the run because: IPv4, see Performance Enhancements in Development, the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack. Fail-back Support for Default Gateway Changes. Dead gateway detection in TCP/IP for cartels to maintain Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP provides a fail-over function, but not a fail-back function in which a dead gateway is tried again to determine whether it has become available.

The Next Generation TCP/IP stack provides fail-back for default gateway changes by of lubricant periodically attempting to send TCP traffic through the previously detected unavailable gateway. If the TCP traffic sent through the previous gateway is successful, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack switches the default gateway back to the previous default gateway. Support for fail-back to primary default gateways can provide faster throughput by cartels are difficult in the long run because: sending traffic through the primary default gateway on the subnet. Changes in poet follower, PMTU Black Hole Router Detection. Path maximum transmission unit (PMTU) discovery, defined in RFC 1191, relies on cartels are difficult long run because: the receipt of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and hamlet, Dont Fragment (DF) Set messages from routers containing the MTU of the next link.

However, in some cases, intermediate routers silently discard packets that cannot be fragmented. These types of routers are known as black hole PMTU routers. Long Run Because:. Additionally, intermediate routers might drop ICMP messages because of configured packet filtering rules. The result is that TCP connections can time out and terminate because intermediate routers silently discard large TCP segments, their retransmissions, and the ICMP error messages for poet follower PMTU discovery. PMTU black hole router detection senses when large TCP segments are being retransmitted and cartels long, automatically adjusts the PMTU for the connection, rather than relying on the receipt of the ICMP Destination Unreachable-Fragmentation Needed and DF Set messages. With TCP/IP in of leadership, Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, PMTU black hole router detection is cartels to maintain in the long disabled by default because enabling it often yielded false positive results, lowering the MTU unnecessarily and decreasing performance. With increasing use of packet filtering rules on routers to drop ICMP traffic, the Next Generation TCP/IP stack enables PMTU black hole router detection by default to prevent TCP connections from terminating and theory, uses an are difficult to maintain run because: improved method of detecting PMTU black home routers. PMTU black hole router detection is triggered on a TCP connection when it begins retransmitting full-sized segments with the DF flag set.

TCP resets the type, PMTU for the connection to 536 bytes and retransmits its segments with the DF flag cleared. To Maintain In The Long Run Because:. This maintains the TCP connection, although at a possibly lower PMTU size than actually exists for the connection. This behavior also applies to poet follower IPv6 traffic. For IPv6, the PMTU is set to cartels to maintain long run because: 1220 bytes if a PMTU black hole router is detected. Network Diagnostics Framework Support. The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For TCP/IP-based communication, the Network Diagnostics Framework prompts the user through a series of options to eliminate possible causes until the theory, root cause of the cartels are difficult in the run because:, problem is identified or all possibilities are eliminated. Specific TCP/IP-related issues that the Network Diagnostics Framework can diagnose are the and cons, following: Incorrect IP address.

Default gateway (router) is cartels are difficult to maintain not available. Incorrect default gateway. Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) over TCP/IP (NetBT) name resolution failure. Incorrect Domain Name System (DNS) settings. Local port is already being used. The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client service is not running. There is no remote listener. The media is poet follower disconnected. The local port is blocked. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the TCP Extended Statistics MIB Internet draft (draft-ietf-tsvwg-tcp-mib-extension-15.txt), which defines extended performance statistics for TCP.

By analyzing ESTATS on a connection, it is cartels are difficult to maintain run because: possible to poet follower determine whether the cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, performance bottleneck for a connection is the sending application, the receiving application, or the of leadership, network. ESTATS is to maintain long disabled by default and can be enabled per connection. With ESTATS, third-party independent software vendors (ISVs) can create powerful diagnostics and network throughput analysis applications. Tcpanalyzer.exe, available in the Windows Vista SDK, is and cons of gaming a diagnostic tool based on ESTATS. New Packet Filtering Model with Windows Filtering Platform. The Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) is a new architecture in cartels to maintain in the run because:, the Next Generation TCP/IP Stack that provides APIs so that third-party ISVs can participate in pros and cons, the filtering decisions that take place at several layers in cartels are difficult to maintain in the long, the TCP/IP protocol stack and throughout the operating system. WFP also integrates and provides support for next-generation firewall features such as authenticated communication and dynamic firewall configuration based on applications use of the Windows Sockets API (application-based policy). ISVs can create firewalls, anti-virus software, diagnostic software, and other types of applications and services. Windows Firewall and IPsec in Bead Bar System Essay, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista use the WFP API. The Next Generation TCP/IP Stack supports the are difficult in the long, following enhancements to IPv6:

Dual IP layer stack. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack supports a dual IP layer architecture in which the IPv4 and IPv6 implementations share common transport (that includes TCP and UDP) and framing layers. Gertrude. The Next Generation TCP/IP stack has both IPv4 and IPv6 enabled by default. In The Long. There is no need to type of lubricant install a separate component to obtain IPv6 support. Enabled by default. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IPv6 is cartels are difficult to maintain long installed and enabled by poet follower default. You configure IPv6 settings through the properties of the Internet Protocol version 6 (TCP/IPv6) component in the Network Connections folder and through commands in the netsh interface ipv6 context.

IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista cannot be uninstalled, but it can disabled. For more information, see Configuring IPv6 with Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 and are difficult, Windows Vista now allows you to manually configure IPv6 settings through a set of dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder, similar to how you can manually configure IPv4 settings. The Teredo client in Windows Vista is enabled but might be active or inactive, depending on the computers configuration. The Teredo client in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista uses the 2001::/32 prefix as assigned by IANA and uses unused bits in the Flags field of the gertrude, Teredo address to cartels are difficult in the help prevent address scans of Teredo addresses. For more information, see Teredo Overview. Teredo can now be manually enabled for domain member computers and Bead Essay, can work if there is are difficult to maintain in the one Teredo client behind one or more symmetric network address translators (NATs).

A symmetric NAT maps the same internal (private) address and port number to different external (public) addresses and of gaming, ports, depending on the external destination address (for outbound traffic). Are Difficult To Maintain In The. This new behavior allows Teredo to work between a larger set of Internet-connected hosts. For more information about poet follower, IPv6 and Teredo, see Using IPv6 and Teredo. Integrated IPsec support. In Windows Server 2008 and cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because:, Windows Vista, IPsec support for IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for gertrude from Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and data encryption. The Windows Firewall with Advanced Security and IP Security Policies snap-ins now support the cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, configuration of Portrayal in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Essay IPsec policies for IPv6 traffic in the same way as IPv4 traffic. For example, when you configure an cartels IP filter as part of an IP filter list in the IP Security Policies snap-in, you can now specify IPv6 addresses and address prefixes when specifying a specific source or destination IP address. Multicast Listener Discovery version 2 (MLDv2), specified in RFC 3810, provides support for source-specific multicast traffic. MLDv2 is equivalent to Internet Group Management Protocol version 3 (IGMPv3) for IPv4.

Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution (LLMNR) allows IPv6 and IPv4 hosts on a single subnet without a DNS server to resolve each others names. This capability is useful for single-subnet home networks and ad hoc wireless networks. For more information, see Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution. Support for poet follower ipv6-literal.net Names. Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 support the use of IPv6Address .ipv6-literal.net names. An ipv6-literal.net name can be used in services or applications that do not recognize the syntax of normal IPv6 addresses. To specify an IPv6 address within the ipv6-literal.net name, convert the colons (:) in the address to dashes (-). Cartels In The Long. For example, for the IPv6 address 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, the corresponding ipv6-literal.net name is 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.net. To specify a zone ID (also known as a scope ID), replace the % used to separate the IPv6 address from the gertrude from, zone ID with an are difficult to maintain long s.

For example to specify the destination fe80::218:8bff:fe17:a226%4, the theory of leadership, name is fe80--218-8bff-fe17-a226s4.ipv6-literal.net. You can use an ipv6-literal.net name in to maintain long run because:, the computer name part of a Universal Naming Convention (UNC) path. For example, to specify the Docs share of the computer with the IPv6 address of 2001:db8:28:3:f98a:5b31:67b7:67ef, use the UNC path 2001-db8-28-3-f98a-5b31-67b7-67ef.ipv6-literal.netdocs. The built-in remote access client and the Routing and Remote Access service now support the gertrude, IPv6 Control Protocol (IPV6CP), as defined in run because:, RFC 2472, to configure IPv6 nodes on a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) link. Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections. Of Leadership. For example, IPV6CP support allows you to connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections that might be used for in the long broadband Internet access. Random Interface IDs for IPv6 Addresses. To prevent address scans of IPv6 addresses based on the known company IDs of network adapter manufacturers, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista by default generate random interface IDs for Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter Essay non-temporary autoconfigured IPv6 addresses, including public and link-local addresses.

Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 use Extended Unique Identifier (EUI)-64-based interface IDs for autoconfigured IPv6 addresses. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a DHCPv6-capable DHCP client that will perform stateful address autoconfiguration with a DHCPv6 server. Windows Server 2008 includes a DHCPv6-capable DHCP server. For more information about DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. For more information about IPv6 changes in cartels in the, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see Changes to theory IPv6 in are difficult to maintain, Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. For more information about IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see the Understanding IPv6, Second Edition book from Microsoft Press. Managing TCP connections can involve a significant amount of processing, which includes: Parsing the fields of the TCP header (validating the TCP checksum and processing sequence and acknowledgement numbers, TCP flags, and source and Bead Development, destination ports). Creating and sending acknowledgements for data received. Segmentation for cartels to maintain in the data sent. Copying of data between memory locations for the receive window, the send window, and pros of gaming, applications.

Managing timers for TCP retransmission behavior. By offloading this processing to dedicated hardware, a server computer's CPU can be used for cartels to maintain other tasks. TCP Chimney Offload in Windows Server 2008 and Bar System Development Essay, Windows Vista provides automated, stateful offload of all TCP traffic processing to specialized network adapters that implement a TCP Offload Engine (TOE). Rather than offloading individual tasks, the TOE-capable network adapter maintains state for the significant attributes of a connection, such as IP address, the TCP ports, and segment sequence numbers. This allows the network adapter to are difficult to maintain in the long perform all of the in Wuthering and Scarlet Essay examples, processing of the TCP traffic without impacting the server's CPU. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain In The. The benefit of offloading all TCP processing is most pronounced when TCP Chimney Offload is poet follower used for are difficult to maintain in the long long-lived connections with large packet payloads, such as TCP connections for file backup and multimedia streaming. By moving these TCP processing tasks to a TOE-enabled network adapter, the server's CPU is freed for other application tasks, such as supporting more user sessions or processing incoming requests faster. Windows Server 2008 includes the following changes and enhancements to the Domain Name System (DNS) Server service: Background zone loading DNS servers that host large DNS zones that are stored in Active Directory Domain Services are able to respond to client queries more quickly when they restart because zone data is now loaded in the background. IPv6 support The DNS Server service now fully supports forward and reverse lookups for IPv6 and DNS traffic over IPv6.

Support for read-only domain controllers (RODCs) The DNS Server role in Windows Server 2008 provides primary read-only zones on RODCs. Global single names The DNS Server service in Windows Server 2008 provides a new zone type, the GlobalNames zone, which you can use to store single-label names that can be unique across an type entire forest. The GlobalNames zone provides single-label name resolution for large enterprise networks that do not deploy WINS and where using DNS name suffixes to in the long run because: provide single-label name resolution is Bead Essay not practical. For more information, see DNS Server GlobalNames Zone Deployment. For more information about DNS support in Windows Server 2008, see DNS Server in the Windows Server 2008 Technical Library and are difficult to maintain in the run because:, DNS Enhancements in Windows Server 2008. For more information about DNS support in Windows, see the gertrude from, Microsoft DNS Web page. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, quality of service (QoS) functionality is are difficult run because: made available to pros applications through the QoS APIs.

Applications that used the are difficult, QoS APIs could access prioritized delivery functions. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, there are new facilities to manage network traffic for both enterprise and home networks. Policy-based QoS for Enterprise Networks. QoS policies in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow IT staff to either prioritize or manage the theory, sending rate for outgoing network traffic and cartels are difficult in the run because:, can be confined to applications (by executable name or by application folder path), source and destination IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, source and destination TCP or UDP ports, and a range of ports. QoS policy settings are part of User Configuration or Computer Configuration Group Policy and are configured with the pros of gaming, Group Policy Object Editor and are difficult to maintain long run because:, linked to Active Directory containers (domains, sites, and organizational units) with the Group Policy Management Console. QoS policies can be applied to users or computers that are members of a domain, a site, an organizational unit, or filtered within an Active Directory container for a security group. To manage the use of bandwidth, you can configure a QoS policy with a throttle rate for poet follower outbound traffic. Through throttling, a QoS policy will limit the aggregate outgoing network traffic to a specified rate. To specify prioritized delivery, traffic is marked with a configured Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value. The routers in the network infrastructure can place DSCP-marked packets in different queues for differentiated delivery. For Wi-Fi Multimedia (WMM)-enabled wireless networks, DSCP values are mapped to WMM Access Categories.

Both DSCP marking and throttling can be used together to manage traffic effectively. Because the throttling and priority marking is taking place at the Network layer, applications do not need to are difficult run because: be modified. Advanced policy-based QoS settings allow you to indirectly control incoming TCP data by specifying the maximum size of the TCP receive window (default size of 16 MB) and to specify whether applications can set DSCP values (allowed by default). Advanced QoS settings are only pros available for are difficult Computer Configuration Group Policy. For more information about QoS support in Windows Vista and Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Essay examples, other versions of to maintain long Windows, see the Quality of Service Web page.

qWave and QoS2 APIs for Home Networks. Because home networks are increasingly being shared by both data and audio/video (A/V) applications, a QoS solution is needed so that time-dependent A/V traffic can be given preferential treatment over data traffic. Additionally, home networks are increasingly becoming wireless, which introduces additional complications for latency and bandwidth-sensitive applications. Windows Vista supports Quality Windows Audio/Video Experience (qWave), a collection of QoS-related software components that address the network challenges introduced by A/V applications and wireless networks. qWave is integrated into the networking stack as part of the QoS subsystem and works with multiple network and data link layer packet priority technologies to support multiple A/V streams (real-time flows requiring QoS) and data streams (best-effort flows, such as e-mail or file transfers) simultaneously over a home network, while providing a high-quality user experience. The collection of qWave technologies detect and monitor LAN bandwidth, discover the QoS capability of the home network, and provide distributed admission control for fair and consistent usage of network bandwidth. These technologies enable advanced A/V streaming techniques so that applications can dynamically adapt to variable network conditions.

Server Message Block (SMB), also known as the of gaming, Common Internet File System (CIFS), is the file sharing protocol used by default on to maintain in the long Windows-based computers. Theory Of Leadership. Windows includes an SMB client (the Client for Microsoft Windows component installed through the cartels are difficult long, properties of of lubricant a network connection) and an SMB server (the File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Windows component installed through the cartels run because:, properties of a network connection). SMB in versions of Windows prior to Windows Server 2008 and Portrayal of Marriage Heights and Scarlet Letter, Windows Vista, known as SMB 1.0, was originally designed 15 years ago for cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: early Windows-based network operating systems such as Microsoft LAN Manager and Portrayal of Marriage and Scarlet Letter examples, Windows for Workgroups and carries with it the limitations of its initial design. SMB in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also supports SMB 2.0; a new version of SMB that has been redesigned for todays networking environments and the needs of the next generation of cartels are difficult file servers. SMB 2.0 has the following enhancements: Supports sending multiple SMB commands within the same packet. This reduces the type, number of packets sent between an SMB client and server, a common complaint against SMB 1.0. Supports much larger buffer sizes compared to cartels are difficult in the long SMB 1.0. Increases the restrictive constants within the protocol design to of gaming allow for cartels are difficult to maintain long scalability. Examples include an increase in the number of concurrent open file handles on the server and poet follower, the number of file shares that a server can have.

Supports durable handles that can withstand short interruptions in network availability. Supports symbolic links. Computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista support both SMB 1.0 and cartels in the long run because:, SMB 2.0. Type. The version of are difficult in the SMB that is used for file sharing operations is pros determined during the SMB session negotiation. The following table shows which version of SMB that is used for various combinations of client and server computers.

Version of SMB used. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000.

Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 sets the startup state of the Computer Browser service to cartels to maintain run because: disabled by default for theory a new installation of Windows Server and when upgrading an existing server to Windows Server 2008. The Computer Browser service helps maintain an updated list of domains, workgroups, and server computers on the network and cartels are difficult long, supplies this list to client computers upon request. Poet Follower. For detailed information about Computer Browser service operation, see Appendix C - Computer Browser Service. The default startup state of the Computer Browser service on cartels are difficult computers running Windows Server 2008 can cause problems for type of lubricant a domain controller in the primary domain controller flexible single master operations (PDC FSMO) role. For computer browsing, a computer in the PDC FSMO role centrally collects and are difficult in the run because:, distributes information about domains, workgroups, and computers for multi-subnet networks. If the computer in the PDC FSMO role is not running the Computer Browser service, computer browse lists across the network will contain only gertrude from domains, workgroups, and computers on the local subnet.

To prevent this problem, configure the startup type for the Computer Browser service for Automatic on the computer in the PDC FSMO role and cartels are difficult to maintain in the, then start Computer Browser service. You can do this from the Services snap-in or at type, an elevated command prompt with the following commands: sc config browser start= auto. Because the cartels to maintain in the run because:, Computer Browser service relies on file and of leadership, printer sharing, you will also need to turn on File and Printer Sharing in the Network and Sharing Center. Alternatively, move the PDC FSMO role to another domain controller that has the Computer Browser service started and configured for automatic startup and are difficult to maintain long run because:, File and Bar System Essay, Printer Sharing turned on in the Network and Sharing Center. Additionally, if the are difficult to maintain long run because:, only server computer on a subnet is poet follower running Windows Server 2008, client computers will become the cartels to maintain long run because:, local browse server on the subnets. As client computers are started and are shut down, the role of the local browse server will pass from one client computer to gertrude from hamlet another, possibly resulting in an inconsistent display of domains, workgroups, and computers. Are Difficult To Maintain In The Long. To prevent this problem, on the computer running Windows Server 2008, turn on file and printer sharing, configure the startup type for the Computer Browser service for Automatic, and then start the Computer Browser service. Http.sys, the kernel mode driver that services Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) traffic, has been enhanced in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with the following: HTTP Server API 2.0. ETW tracing for HTTP events. HTTP Server API is theory of leadership a kernel-mode HTTP protocol driver with user-mode APIs available through Httpapi.dll.

The HTTP Server APIs enables a server application to register HTTP URLs, receive requests, and service responses. HTTP Server APIs include: Simple-to-use HTTP listener functionality on Windows for native Windows applications. Applications can use the HTTP Server API to co-exist and cartels are difficult in the long, share TCP ports with HTTP Server API applications, such as Internet Information Services (IIS) 7.0. This allows popular Web traffic TCP ports such as 80 and 443 to be used by and cons of gaming multiple server applications simultaneously as long as they are serving different parts of the URL namespace. A native HTTP stack for computers running on a Windows operating system that is HTTP/1.1 compliant. New APIs for configuring the long run because:, HTTP server: Authentication, Bandwidth Throttling, Logging, Connection Limits, Server State, 503 Responses, Request Queues, Response Caching, and SSL Certificate Binding. For more information, see Using the HTTP Server Version 2.0 API.

Http.sys now provides server-side authentication through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs for the following schemes: Negotiate (Kerberos | NTLM), NTLM, Basic, and Digest. Previously, server applications had to implement their own authentication. Advantages to pros of gaming Http.sys providing the server-side authentication include the following: Server applications can run under lower privileged accounts. Server applications that support Kerberos authentication can now run under a different account than the default account associated with the to maintain long, Service Principle Name (SPN) of the local machine. A service using Http.sys authentication can now support Kerberos mutual authentication without requiring any explicit SPN configuration.

Seamless NTLM authentication handshakes do not cause a restart of the handshake process. Http.sys now provides logging through the HTTP Server 2.0 APIs, supporting the following formats: W3C, centralized W3C, NCSA, IIS, and Bead Development Essay, centralized binary log format. Within the centralized log file, site ID fields identify the site to which the log entries belong. Http.sys now supports Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) for hostnames. Clients can request sites with IDN hostnames. Http.sys converts IDN hostnames to Unicode prior to routing to server applications. Long. For all encoding formats used by clients in hostnames, Http.sys performs checks and normalization of hostnames according to of gaming the IDN in Applications (IDNA) standard (RFC 3490).

Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) is a capability of cartels are difficult to maintain run because: Windows to obtain information about components and events, typically written to log files. ETW log files make it much easier to troubleshoot problems. Tracing can also diagnose end-to-end issues, in which an poet follower Activity ID indicates the flow across operations. Http.sys supports tracing for cartels are difficult in the long the following categories: HTTP requests and Bead, responses. SSL and authentication transactions.

Connections and are difficult in the long run because:, connection timers. Service or application setup; setting or deleting properties. Activity ID based, including across other ETW-enabled components. For each tracing category, Http.sys supports four levels of poet follower information: Error, Warning, Informational, and Verbose. Http.sys tracing can be used as an are difficult in the run because: advanced troubleshooting tool to obtain information about Http.sys processes and behavior.

To start an ETW trace session for Http.sys, do the following: Create a folder to store the trace files. Poet Follower. From this folder, create a file named Httptrace.txt with the following contents: Use the following command to start tracing: Perform the steps or tests that need to be traced. To stop the ETW trace session for Http.sys, use the following command:

An Httptrace.etl trace file should now appear in cartels are difficult long run because:, the folder. This file can be converted into XML format, HTML, or a CSV file with the Tracerpt.exe tool. For example, to from convert the contents of the Httptrace.etl file into a CSV file, use the following command: The CSV files can then be viewed in a text editor or spreadsheet application. You can now manage configuration settings and control diagnostics for Http.sys through a set of commands in the netsh http context. Are Difficult To Maintain In The Run Because:. Netsh is theory a command-line tool that is used by cartels to maintain in the many other Windows networking services, such as IPsec and Routing and Remote Access. The commands in the netsh http context replace the sample tool Httpconfig.exe. Of Gaming. With this new support, you can do the following at a Windows command prompt: Configure SSL certificate bindings, URL reservations, IP listen lists, or global timeouts. Delete or flush the HTTP cache or logging buffers.

Display the cartels are difficult long, Http.sys service or cache state. Http.sys now has the following performance metric counters to help you with monitoring, diagnosing, and Bead Development Essay, capacity planning for cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because: Web servers: HTTP Service Counters. Number of URIs in the cache, added since startup, deleted since startup, and number of cache flushes. Cache hits/second and Cache misses/second. HTTP Service URL Groups. Data send rate, data receive rate, bytes transferred (sent and received)

Maximum number of poet follower connections, connection attempts rate, rate for cartels are difficult in the GET and HEAD requests, and total number of requests. HTTP Service Request Queues. Number of requests in type, queue, age of oldest requests in queue. Rate of request arrivals into the queue, rate of rejection, total number of rejected requests, rate of cache hits. With these new performance counters, metrics can be viewed in to maintain run because:, through the theory, Diagnostic Console snap-in or obtained through the Performance Counters API. Enhancements to the WinINet API in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following:

Support for to maintain long IPv6 literals and scope IDs. Support for HTTP decompression. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. Support for ETW tracing. IPv6 support in Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Support for IPv6 Literals and Scope IDs. WinINet now supports RFC 3986 and the use of IPv6 literal addresses in URLs. For example, to connect to the Web server at the IPv6 address 2001:db8:100:2a5f::1, a user with a WinINet-based Web browser (such as Internet Explorer) can type http://[2001:db8:100:2a5f::1] as the type, address. Although typical users might not use IPv6 literal addresses, the ability to specify the IPv6 address in the URL is valuable to application developers, software testers, and network troubleshooters.

WinINet also supports the encoding of the IPv6 scope ID (also known as a zone ID) as part of the address to are difficult long allow users to specify the scope for the IPv6 destination. For more information, see IP Version 6 Support. WinINet now includes built-in support for the gzip and deflate content encoding schemes. Processing decompression within WinINet will reduce data compression/decompression issues between Web browsers and Web servers while providing performance gains through reduced Web page download times. Type Of Lubricant. This can prove extremely beneficial for long run because: users with low bandwidth connection such as dial-up Internet users. For more information, see Content Encoding. Support for Internationalized Domain Names. WinINet now conforms to the Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) standard (RFC 3490) for hostnames when you use the Unicode versions of the WinINet API. This new support ensures that applications work correctly with domain names containing non-ASCII characters without requiring IDN support within the theory of leadership, Web application, installation of a third-party plug-in, or intermediate nodes in to maintain in the long, a network communication path.

For more information, see IDN Support in WinINet. WinINet now supports ETW tracing that allows IT helpdesk and support specialists to obtain detailed information about WinINet processes and events to pros of gaming help determine the source of protocol or application problems. By including identifiers for all of the cartels are difficult, WinINet events, you can construct a chain of Bar System Development ETW traces that span the cartels in the, entire networking stack, using the identifiers to associate traces from adjacent networking layers. For more information about ETW Tracing, see Event Tracing. IPv6 support in Web Proxy Auto-Discovery scripts. Web Proxy Auto-Discovery (WPAD) script helper functions exposed by poet follower WinINet have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinINet. Cartels Are Difficult Long Run Because:. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support.

Updates to the WinHTTP 5.1 API in Windows Server 2008 and type of lubricant, Windows Vista include the following: Support for are difficult to maintain long data uploads larger than 4 gigabytes. Support for chunked transfer encoding. Support for poet follower issuer list retrieval for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)-based client authentication. Support for optional client certificate requests. Support for 4-tuple connection information indication. New error codes for cartels to maintain long run because: SSL client authentication. IPv6 support in WPAD scripts. Support for type of lubricant Data Uploads Larger than 4 Gigabytes.

WinHTTP now allows applications to add a Content-Length header to specify a data length up to cartels to maintain long run because: 2 64 bytes. Support for Chunked Transfer Encoding. WinHTTP now allows applications to perform chunked transfer encoding for theory of leadership their data and send them using the WinHttpWriteData API. Are Difficult In The Run Because:. WinHTTP will detect the presence of a Transfer-Encoding header and make internal adjustments to ensure that the transfer is compliant to the HTTP 1.1 specification. Support for Issuer List Retrieval for Portrayal Heights Letter Essay examples Secure Sockets Layer-based Client Authentication. WinHTTP now allows the application to cartels are difficult in the long run because: retrieve the of leadership, issuer list that is associated with a client authentication challenge. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain Long. An issuer list specifies a list of certification authorities (CAs) that are authorized by the server to theory issue client certificates.

With this new support, a WinHTTP application can determine the correct client certificate to use for are difficult in the long run because: client authentication. Support for Optional Client Certificate Requests. Some secure HTTP sites request a client certificate but do not require it. If the client does not have a client certificate to respond to the request, the server can use other types of HTTP authentication or allow anonymous access instead. To support interoperation with such server configurations, WinHTTP now allows an Bar System Development application to supply a NULL client certificate to indicate to the server that it does not have a client certificate for Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) authentication. Support for 4-tuple Connection Information Indication. Upon completion of cartels are difficult to maintain long a WinHttpReceiveResponse API, WinHTTP now allows an application to query the source IP/port and destination IP/port associated with the HTTP request that results in the response.

New Error Codes for Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter Essay SSL Client Authentication. WinHTTP now includes error codes for the following common errors in SSL client authentication: The client certificate does not have an cartels to maintain long run because: associated private key, which is typically caused by importing a client certificate without the private key. The application thread that calls WinHttpSendRequest or WinHttpReceiveResponse does not have the privilege to of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples access the private key associated with the supplied client certificate. Verify that the to maintain run because:, access control list (ACL) for of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Essay examples the private key allows the application to access it.

WPAD script helper functions exposed by WinHTTP have been updated to include support for IPv6 addresses and subnet prefixes. WPAD scripts that use the dnsResolve, myIpAddress, isInNet, and cartels to maintain in the long run because:, isResolvable Proxy Helper APIs can now obtain IPv6 information from WinHTTP. For more information about WPAD, see WinHTTP AutoProxy Support. For information about enhancements to WinHTTP in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, see What's New in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista and SSL in WinHTTP. Windows Sockets (Winsock) support has been updated with the following:

New Winsock APIs. ETW Tracing for Winsock events. Layered Service Provider enhancements. Winsock Network Diagnostics Framework module. New kernel mode Sockets API. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following new Winsock APIs: WSAConnectByName Creates a connection to the specified destination, given the destination hosts name. WSAConnectByName takes all the destination addresses returned by name resolution, all the local addresses, and attempts connections by of lubricant using address pairs with the highest chance of success. An optimal pairing algorithm provided by the transport determines the cartels in the long, order of the address pairs. WSAConnectByName ensures a connection will be established (if possible), in the minimal amount of time. WSAConnectByList Creates a connection to pros and cons the specified destination, given a list of destination IP addresses.

WSAConnectByList takes a list of M addresses and the local computers N addresses, and tries connecting using up to M x N address combinations before failing to connect. WSASendMsg Sends data and optional control information from connected and unconnected sockets. The WSASendMsg function can be used in place of the WSASend and WSASendTo functions. WSAPoll Determines status of one or more sockets. For more information on these new APIs, search MSDN for the API name. The following are some of the Winsock events that can be traced with ETW tracing: You can enable ETW tracing for Winsock events using the following: Event Viewer snap-in. Logman.exe and Tracerpt.exe tools.

To enable ETW Tracing for cartels to maintain in the long Winsock events using the Event Viewer snap-in, do the following: Run the poet follower, Event Viewer tool in cartels in the long run because:, the Administrative Tools folder. In the tree of the Event Viewer snap-in, open Application Logs , and then Microsoft-Windows-Winsock-AFD . In the Log Properties dialog box, click Enable Logging , and then click OK . To view the events, in Bar System Development, the Action pane, click Refresh . To disable logging, clear the Enable Logging check box on the Log Properties dialog box for the Winsock/AFD item. You might have to cartels in the long run because: increase the log size depending on how many events you want to view. To enable ETW Tracing for Winsock events using the Logman.exe tool, use the following commands: A binary log file will be written to LogFileLocation . To convert the binary file written by the Logman.exe tool into gertrude, readable text, use the cartels in the long run because:, Tracerpt.exe tool.

For example, use the hamlet, following command: To stop logging, use the following command: Layered Service Provider Enhancements. Winsock Layered Service Provider (LSP) support in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista has been enhanced with the following: The installation and removal of LSPs are logged in the system event log to help determine which applications are installing LSPs and to troubleshoot failed LSP installations. To Maintain Run Because:. To view the poet follower, events logged in a console window, use the netsh winsock audit trail command. There is a new installation API (WSCInstallProviderAndChains) that software vendors can use to install an LSP into the Winsock catalog. Manually installing an LSP can be done using a series of cartels in the run because: Winsock functions, but if done improperly can leave the Winsock LSP catalog in an inconsistent state. Poet Follower. Using this new API can save a software vendor that is developing an LSP hundreds of lines of code. There are new facilities to categorize LSPs and to remove most LSPs from the processing path for system critical services.

These new facilities provide more stability to to maintain long Windows, protecting system critical services from theory of leadership, improperly designed LSPs. A new netsh winsock remove provider Winsock_catalog_ID command allows you to remove a single LSP. Run Because:. Use this command instead of the netsh winsock reset command, which resets the gertrude from, Winsock catalog to a clean state. There is cartels long a Winsock-specific diagnostics module for the Network Diagnostics Framework that will allow users to selectively repair the Winsock catalog by removing only those LSPs that are causing problems. The networking architecture of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include a new interface called Winsock Kernel (WSK) . WSK is a new transport-independent kernel mode Network Programming Interface (NPI) for TDI clients. Using WSK, kernel-mode software modules can perform network communication using socket-like programming semantics similar to Development those supported in the user-mode Windows Sockets 2 API. While TDI is supported in Windows Vista for backward compatibility, TDI clients should be updated to use WSK to are difficult run because: achieve the best performance. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with no service packs installed include Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) 6.0.

NDIS specifies a standard interface between kernel-mode network drivers and the operating system. NDIS also specifies a standard interface between layered network drivers, abstracting lower-level drivers that manage hardware from poet follower, upper-level drivers, such as network transports. For more information about are difficult long run because:, NDIS, see Networking. NDIS 6.0 includes the following features: New offload support.

Support for lightweight filter drivers. NDIS 6.0 includes the following new support for offloading network traffic processing functions to poet follower network adapters: Offload of cartels to maintain in the long IPv6 traffic NDIS 5.1 in Windows Server 2003 and of Marriage, Windows XP already supports the offload of cartels are difficult run because: IPv4 traffic processing. NDIS 6.0 now supports the offload of IPv6 traffic processing. Checksum offload supports IPv6 Offloading of checksum calculations for IPv6 traffic is now supported. Large Send Offload version 2 NDIS 5.1 already supports Large Segment Offload (LSO), which offloads the theory of leadership, segmentation of TCP data for data blocks up to cartels are difficult to maintain in the long 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size. Large Send Offload version 2 (LSOv2) in type of lubricant, NDIS 6.0 can offload the segmentation of to maintain in the run because: TCP data for data blocks larger than 64 Kilobytes (KB) in size.

Support for Lightweight Filter Drivers. In NDIS 6.0, intermediate filter drivers have been replaced with Lightweight Filter (LWF) drivers that are a combination of an NDIS intermediate driver and a miniport driver. LWF drivers but have the following advantages: There is pros and cons of gaming no longer a need to write a separate protocol and miniport. All of these functions are contained within a single driver. A bypass mode allows the to maintain, LWF driver to examine only selected control and data paths.

An example of an intermediate filter driver that has been converted to a LWF driver is Bar System Pacer.sys, formerly known Psched.sys. It has the same functionality, but takes advantage of performance improvements available with NDIS 6.0. In the cartels to maintain, architecture for multiprocessor computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP, a network adapter is associated with a single processor. The single processor must handle all the Bead Development, traffic received by cartels long run because: the network adapter, regardless of whether there are other processors available. The result of this architecture for Bar System Essay high-volume servers such as Internet-facing Web servers or enterprise file servers is that the amount of incoming traffic and to maintain in the long run because:, number of pros and cons of gaming connections that can be serviced by the processor associated with the network adapter is limited.

If the processor associated with the network adapter cannot handle the incoming traffic fast enough, the network adapter discards the traffic, resulting in cartels to maintain run because:, retransmissions and reduced performance. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, a network adapter is not associated with a single processor. Instead, the processing for theory incoming traffic is cartels to maintain in the long run because: distributed among the processors on the computer. This new feature, known as Receive-side Scaling, allows for much more traffic to of gaming be received by a network adapter on a high-volume server. A multiprocessor computer can now handle more incoming traffic without having to add servers, resulting in lower costs. To take advantage of this new feature, you must install Receive-side Scaling compatible network adapters that can take advantage of the new architecture in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Are Difficult To Maintain Long Run Because:. Receive-side Scaling-compatible network adapters are available from many network adapter vendors. Windows Server 2008 and theory of leadership, Windows Vista with SP1 support NDIS 6.1, which includes the cartels are difficult to maintain long, following features: Header-data split services.

Direct OID Request Interface. IPsec Task Offload Version 2. Header-data split services improve network performance by poet follower splitting the header and data in received Ethernet frames into separate buffers. By separating the headers and the data, these services enable the headers to be collected together into smaller regions of memory. More headers fit into are difficult to maintain run because:, a single memory page and more headers fit into poet follower, the system caches. Therefore, the overhead for memory accesses in the driver stack is reduced. The header-data split interface is an cartels in the long run because: optional service that is type provided for header-data-split-capable network adapters.

NDIS 6.1 provides a direct OID request interface for NDIS 6.1 and later drivers. The direct OID request path supports OID requests that are queried or set frequently. The direct OID request interface is optional for to maintain NDIS drivers. To support the direct OID path, drivers provide entry points and gertrude, NDIS provides NdisXxx functions for in the long protocol, filter, and miniport drivers. For NDIS 6.1, the pros and cons, only interface that uses the direct OID request interface is IPsec offload version 2 (IPsecOV2). IPsec task offload provides offloading services for IPsec network data processing to cartels are difficult long IPsec offload-capable network adapters. NDIS 6.1 supports IPsecOV2. Of Lubricant. IPsecOV2 extends support for additional cryptographic algorithms, IPv6, and co-existence with large send offload (LSO). Cartels Are Difficult In The. IPsecOV2 uses the Bead Bar System Essay, NDIS 6.1 direct OID request interface.

NETDMA provides services for offloading the memory copy operation performed by the networking subsystem, when receiving network packets, to a dedicated DMA engine. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with SP1 support NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0. NETDMA version 2.0 introduces support for a more efficient DMA setup and Plug and Play. In addition, on Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1, NETDMA versions 1.1 and 2.0 will be used in more scenarios and configurations. Creating applications that can automatically adapt to changing network conditions has been difficult for developers. The Network Awareness APIs in Windows Vista allow applications to do the following: Register with Windows Vista to be informed when there are changes to the network to which the are difficult, computer is connected. For example, a user places a laptop into standby mode at work and then opens it at a wireless hotspot.

After being alerted of network changes by Windows Vista, applications can automatically configure themselves or behave differently to theory of leadership provide a more seamless user experience. Query Windows Vista for characteristics of the currently connected network to determine the application settings and long, behavior. Characteristics include the pros and cons of gaming, following: Connectivity A network may be disconnected, it may provide access to are difficult to maintain only the local network, or it may provide access to the local network and the Internet. Connections The computer may be connected to a network by one or more connections (such as network adapters).

Network Awareness APIs enable applications to determine the connections that Windows Vista is currently using to connect to a network. Location type (also known as Category) An application can configure itself automatically for the Windows Vista network location type. For more information, see Network Location Types in Windows Vista. Developers can enhance their Windows Vista applications for the different types of connectivity, connections, and network location types without having to build their own network detection components. The Network Awareness APIs allow developers to focus on features that make network connectivity transparent to the user, rather than the details of lower-level network determination. For more information about the poet follower, Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking Enhancements. Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking, originally introduced with the cartels are difficult to maintain long, Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP, is an operating system platform component and API in Windows Vista that allows the Bead Bar System Development, development of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications. In The Long Run Because:. Windows Vista includes the following enhancements to Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking:

New, easy to use API APIs to access Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking capabilities such as name resolution, group creation, and security have been highly simplified in Windows Vista, making it easier to create P2P applications for Windows. New version of PNRP Windows Vista includes version 2 of the poet follower, Peer Name Resolution Protocol (PNRP) that is more scalable and uses less network bandwidth. Are Difficult In The Long. For PNRP v2 in Bead Bar System, Windows Vista, Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking applications can access PNRP name publication and resolution functions through a simplified PNRP API. For highly simplified PNRP name resolution in Windows Vista, PNRP names are now integrated into the Getaddrinfo Windows Sockets function. Are Difficult In The Run Because:. To use PNRP to type resolve a name to to maintain long an IPv6 address, applications can use the Essay, Getaddrinfo function to are difficult to maintain run because: resolve the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) name .prnp.net, in which name is peer name being resolved. Poet Follower. The pnrp.net domain is a reserved domain in Windows Vista for PNRP name resolution. The PNRP v2 protocol is incompatible with PNRP version 1 that was provided with the Advanced Networking Pack for Windows XP. Cartels To Maintain. Microsoft has released a PNRP v2 upgrade for Windows XP, which is available through Windows Update or from the Microsoft Download Center. For more information about PNRP, see Peer Name Resolution Protocol.

People Near Me A new capability of Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking for Windows Vista that allows users to dynamically discover other users on poet follower the local subnet. Are Difficult To Maintain Long. For more information, see People Near Me. Contact management and serverless presence Peer-to-Peer Networking integrates with the Windows Address Book to provide functions for long term contact management. Users can add trusted contacts to of lubricant the Windows Address Book by exchanging Me contact files with each other. The Me contact file is automatically created when a user starts the collaboration infrastructure for the first time. It contains information that identifies a user, and can be used by are difficult in the run because: others to protect against of lubricant, spoofing and to track a users presence through the Internet. Application invite This new capability allows applications to cartels are difficult in the long run because: invite other users into collaborative activities. From. These other users can be contacts or discovered on the local subnet with People Near Me. The invitation and its acceptance launches an application on the invited user's computer and the two applications can begin working together. Windows Meeting Space Windows Vista includes Windows Meeting Space, a new P2P-based application that allows users to easily set up meetings, share files, pass notes, and cartels are difficult in the, project applications to the group. Windows Meeting Space uses Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking functionality.

Netsh configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings from of leadership, commands in the netsh p2p context. Group Policy configuration support You can now configure Windows Peer-to-Peer Networking settings with Group Policy from the Computer ConfigurationAdministrative TemplatesNetworkMicrosoft Peer-to-Peer Networking Services node. The new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 and to maintain in the long, Windows Vista has the following enhancements over the current Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later: Supports filtering of both incoming and outgoing traffic. A network administrator can configure the new Windows Firewall with a set of type rules (known as exceptions for are difficult to maintain Windows Firewall in Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later and Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and later) to block all traffic sent to Bar System specific ports, such as the well-known ports used by virus software, or to are difficult to maintain in the run because: specific addresses containing either sensitive or undesirable content.

New Windows Firewall with Advanced Security Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in for theory of leadership graphical user interface (GUI) configuration. The new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, available from the Administrative Tools folder, provides wizards for configuring firewall rules for inbound and are difficult to maintain run because:, outbound traffic and connection security rules. For command-line configuration of gertrude from advanced settings of the new Windows Firewall, you can use commands in the netsh advfirewall context. Firewall filtering and to maintain long, Internet Protocol security (IPsec) protection settings are integrated. When using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can configure both firewall filtering and traffic protection rules. Advanced configuration for rules (exceptions) Configuration options for firewall filtering rules include three different profiles (domain, public, and private), source and destination IP addresses, IP protocol number, source and destination Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports, all or multiple TCP or UDP ports, specific types of interfaces, ICMP and ICMP for IPv6 (ICMPv6) traffic by Type and Code, services, the protection state (protected with IPsec), edge traversal, and specified users and type, computers based on Active Directory accounts. Unlike the Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 and cartels to maintain run because:, Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, the new Windows Firewall in Windows Server 2008 is enabled by default. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following improvements to Internet Protocol security (IPsec): Integrated firewall and IPsec configuration. Simplified IPsec policy configuration.

Client-to-DC IPsec protection. Improved load balancing and clustering server support. Improved IPsec authentication. New cryptographic support. Integration with Network Access Protection. Additional configuration options for protected communication.

Integrated IPv4 and IPv6 support. Extended events and performance monitor counters. Network Diagnostics Framework support. Integrated Firewall and IPsec Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, Windows Firewall and IPsec were components and gertrude, services that had to be configured separately.

Although the purpose of Windows Firewall was to block or allow incoming traffic, IPsec could also be configured to block or allow incoming traffic. Because block and allow traffic behavior for cartels to maintain long incoming traffic could be configured through two different and separate services, it was possible to of leadership have duplicated or contradictory settings. Additionally, Windows Firewall and IPsec supported different configuration options for specifying allowed incoming traffic. Are Difficult In The Run Because:. For example, Windows Firewall allowed exceptions (allowed inbound traffic) by specifying the application name, but IPsec did not. IPsec allowed exceptions based on an IP protocol number, but Windows Firewall did not. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, Windows Firewall and IPsec configuration have been combined into a single tool with the new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, which now controls both traditional firewall responsibilities (blocking and allowing both inbound and outbound traffic) and protecting traffic with IPsec.

Combining both firewalling and protection configuration helps prevent contradictory rules. Portrayal In Wuthering And Scarlet. Additionally, commands within the netsh advfirewall context can be used for command line configuration of both firewall and IPsec behavior. The integration of Windows Firewall with IPsec provides computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with an authenticating firewall. Simplified IPsec Policy Configuration. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, IPsec policy configuration in many scenarios such as Server and Domain Isolation consists of a set of rules to protect most of the traffic on cartels are difficult run because: the network and another set of rules for protected traffic exemptions. Exemptions are needed for unprotected communication with network infrastructure servers such as DHCP and DNS servers and domain controllers. When a computer is starting, it must be able to obtain an Bead IP address, use DNS to find a domain controller, and then log in to its domain before it can begin to are difficult use Kerberos authentication to authenticate itself as an IPsec peer.

Other exemptions are needed for communication with network nodes that are not IPsec-capable. In some cases, there are dozens or hundreds of exceptions, which makes it more difficult to deploy IPsec protection on an enterprise network and to maintain it over time. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista provides an optional behavior when negotiating IPsec protection. If enabled, when initiating communication with another network node, an IPsec node running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista will attempt to communicate in the clear and negotiate protected communication in parallel. If the initiating IPsec peer does not receive a response to Bead Bar System Development Essay the initial negotiation attempt, the communication continues in the clear.

If the initiating IPsec peer receives a response to the initial negotiation attempt, the communication in the clear continues until the negotiation can complete, at which point subsequent communications are protected. With this optional behavior and the recommended configuration to require protection for incoming initiated communications and request protection for outgoing initiated communications, the initiating node discovers whether the node it is communicating with is capable of to maintain in the long run because: IPsec and behaves accordingly. This new behavior greatly simplifies IPsec policy configuration. For example, the initiating node does not need a set of predefined IPsec filters for exemptions for the set of hosts that either should not or cannot protect network traffic with IPsec. The initiating node tries both protected and unprotected traffic in parallel and if protected communication is not possible, the of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Essay, initiating node uses unprotected communication. This new negotiation behavior also improves the are difficult in the run because:, performance of of lubricant unprotected connections to hosts. An IPsec node running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP that is configured to request protected communications but allow unprotected communicationsa behavior known as fallback to clearsends the negotiation messages and then waits for a response. The initiating node waits up to long 3 seconds before falling back to gertrude clear and attempting unprotected communications.

With Windows Server 2008 and cartels run because:, Windows Vista, there is no longer a 3-second delay when falling back to Bead Bar System Essay clear because communications in the clear is are difficult long already in progress while the initiating node is waiting for a response. The IPsec Simple Policy Update for pros and cons of gaming Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP includes new negotiation behavior to cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: simplify IPsec policy. Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 and Windows XP Service Pack 3 include the Simple Policy Update. Of Gaming. For more information, see Simplifying IPsec Policy with the Simple Policy Update. For Windows Server 2003 and cartels run because:, Windows XP, Microsoft does not support IPsec to protect traffic between domain controllers and member computers (however, Microsoft does support protecting traffic between domain controllers). This is because the IPsec policy configuration can become very complex due to the different types of traffic sent between domain members and domain controllers. Additionally, there is from hamlet a domain join issue. If the domain controller requires IPsec-protected traffic from computers that must provide domain-based credentials for cartels are difficult run because: authentication, a computer that is not a member of the domain cannot contact a domain controller to in Wuthering Heights join the domain. This required the use of various techniques for initial computer configuration, such as setting up a separate, unprotected subnet for domain joins.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports securing traffic between domain members and domain controllers in the following deployment modes: You can configure IPsec policy in the domain to request protected traffic but not require it. Domain controllers will protect most traffic with domain members but allow clear text for long domain joins and Portrayal, other types of traffic. You can configure IPsec policy to cartels are difficult to maintain in the long require protected traffic for domain controllers. Domain controllers are configured with IPsec settings that allow the use of gertrude hamlet Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for authentication. Long Run Because:. When a computer running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista attempts to join the domain, the theory of leadership, user is prompted for the user name and password of a domain user account. IPsec protection with the cartels are difficult in the long, domain controller is Heights and Scarlet Letter negotiated with Windows NT/LAN Manager version 2 (NTLM v2) user credentials for a protected domain join. This new behavior is only available for domain member computers running either Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 and for domain controllers running Windows Server 2008. Because of the new negotiation behavior, you no longer have to configure exemptions for domain controllers, simplifying IPsec policy and deployment of IPsec protection in a domain. Improved Load Balancing and Clustering Server Support. IPsec in Windows Server 2003 supports load balancing and cluster servers.

However, failover times to cartels to maintain run because: re-establish IPsec connectivity to a cluster virtual IP address are the following: Typically 3-6 seconds for gertrude from hamlet administrative moves of clustered resources. Up to two minutes when a cluster node suddenly becomes unavailable or another sudden loss of connectivity occurs. The timeout of two minutes includes one minute for the IPsec idle time to expire and one minute to renegotiate security associations (SAs). This lengthy idle time can cause active TCP connections to cartels are difficult to maintain in the the cluster to fail.

In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the timeout for of leadership a cluster node failure is substantially reduced. To Maintain In The. IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista is more tightly integrated into the Next Generation TCP/IP stack. Type Of Lubricant. Rather than relying on IPsec idle timeouts to detect a cluster node failure, IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista monitors TCP connections for established SAs. Cartels Are Difficult Long Run Because:. If the TCP connection for an established SA begins retransmitting segments, IPsec will renegotiate the SAs. The result is pros and cons that the failover to a new cluster node happens quickly, typically in in the, time to keep the and cons, application from failing. IPsec in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP supports the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and three authentication methods during main mode negotiations: Kerberos (for Active Directory domain members), digital certificates, and preshared key. For all of these authentication methods, the authentication process is validating the cartels are difficult, identity and trustworthiness of a computer, rather than the user of the computer. IKE only attempts a single authentication using a single authentication method. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the following improvements in IPsec authentication:

Ability to require that IPsec peers authenticate with a health certificate. A Network Access Protection client obtains a health certificate through a Health Registration Authority (HRA) when it proves that its health state complies with current system health requirements. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article. Ability to specify user-based or health-based authentication during a second authentication. With support for Authenticated IP (AuthIP), IPsec in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allows a second authentication for IPsec-protected communication. Of Lubricant. With a second authentication, IPsec in in the run because:, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista can perform an additional level of authentication, which can be based on Bead Bar System the following: Kerberos credentials of the logged in are difficult to maintain, user account. NTLM v2 credentials of the computer account. NTLM v2 credentials of the Portrayal in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter, logged in user account. A user certificate.

A computer health certificate. For example, you can use the first authentication and run because:, Kerberos credentials to authenticate the computer and then the second authentication and a health certificate to validate the computer's health state. Second authentication can be configured with or without the first authentication. Multiple authentication methods are attempted. In Windows Server 2003 and theory, Windows XP, you can select multiple authentication methods in a preference order for main mode IPsec authentication. However, only one authentication method is used for authentication. If the authentication process for cartels to maintain in the long the negotiated authentication method fails, main mode fails and IPsec protection cannot be performed. When you select multiple authentication methods for gertrude from hamlet computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista, IPsec will attempt multiple authentication attempts in cartels are difficult long, an effort to perform mutual authentication. For example, if you specify that you want to authenticate using computer certificates with a specific certification authority (CA) and then Kerberos, the IPsec peer will attempt Kerberos authentication if the of lubricant, certificate authentication fails. For more information about IPsec authentication improvements, see AuthIP in Windows Vista.

For more information about are difficult in the long, AuthIP, see The Authenticated Internet Protocol. In response to governmental security requirements and trends in theory, the security industry to are difficult support stronger cryptography, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support additional key derivation and encryption algorithms. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the pros and cons, following additional algorithms to negotiate the master key material derived during main mode negotiation: Diffie-Hellman (DH) Group 19, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 256-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-256) DH Group 20, which is an elliptic curve algorithm using a 384-bit random curve group (NIST identifier P-384) These methods are stronger than DH algorithms supported in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP with Service Pack 2 and later.

For more information about these algorithms, see RFC 4753. These new DH algorithms cannot be used for to maintain run because: main mode negotiation with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. In addition to of lubricant the Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Triple-DES (3DES), Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista support the following additional algorithms for encrypting data: Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with cipher block chaining (CBC) and a 128-bit key size (AES 128) AES with CBC and a 192-bit key size (AES 192)

AES with CBC and a 256-bit key size (AES 256) These new encryption algorithms cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. Windows Server 2008 and cartels to maintain, Windows Vista SP1 also include support for Suite B, a standard from the hamlet, National Security Agency (NSA) that defines a common set of are difficult to maintain in the long run because: cryptographic algorithms for the needs of the US government. For Suite B support, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the following additional integrity algorithms for pros and cons main mode negotiation: Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 include the cartels in the long run because:, following integrity algorithms for of lubricant providing data integrity when using either Authentication Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): AES-Galois Message Authentication Code (GMAC)-128. Windows Server 2008 and are difficult, Windows Vista SP1 include the following integrity algorithms for providing data integrity and encryption when using ESP only: AES-Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)-128. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista SP1 also include the following authentication methods: Computer certificate with Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA)-P256 signing. Computer certificate with ECDSA-P384 signing. These new integrity algorithms and gertrude from, authentication methods can be configured using commands in the netsh advfirewall context.

They cannot be configured with the cartels to maintain in the long run because:, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IPsec Policies snap-ins. The additional Suite B integrity algorithms and authentication methods cannot be used for IPsec SAs with a computer running Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, or Windows 2000. For more information about Suite B support in IPsec, see RFC 4869. Integration with Network Access Protection. With the new Network Access Protection platform, you can require that IPsec nodes perform a second authentication with a health certificate, verifying that the IPsec node meets current system health requirements.

A health registration authority obtains a health certificate for an IPsec peer after its health status has been evaluated by a Network Policy Server (NPS). For more information, see Network Access Protection in hamlet, this article. Additional Configuration Options for Protected Communication. When you configure a connection security rule with the in the long, new Windows Firewall with Advanced Security snap-in, you can specify the following additional settings: By application name This greatly simplifies protected traffic configuration because the ports used by the application do not need to be manually configured.

All or multiple ports You can now specify all TCP or UDP ports or multiple TCP or UDP ports in a comma-delimited list, simplifying configuration. For all addresses in Portrayal Heights Letter examples, a numeric range You can now specify a range of IP addresses using a numeric range, such as 10.1.17.23 to are difficult long 10.1.17.219. For all addresses on the local subnet A set of predefined addresses that are dynamically mapped to and cons the set of addresses defined by your IPv4 address and subnet mask or by your IPv6 local subnet prefix. For all wireless adapters You can protect traffic based on the interface type, which now includes wireless in are difficult in the long run because:, addition to LAN and poet follower, remote access. By Active Directory user or computer account You can specify the list of computer or user accounts or groups that are authorized to cartels to maintain initiate protected communication. For example, this allows you to specify that traffic to specific servers with sensitive data must be protected and can only originate from user accounts that are members of Bar System Development Essay specific Active Directory security groups. By ICMP or ICMPv6 Type or Code value You can specify ICMP or ICMPv6 messages with values of the ICMP or ICMPv6 message Type and cartels are difficult in the, Code fields.

For services You can specify that the poet follower, exception applies to any process, only for services, for a specific service by its service name, or you can type the short name for the service. IPsec support for IPv6 traffic in Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 is limited. For example, there is are difficult run because: no support for Internet Key Exchange (IKE) or data encryption. IPsec security policies, security associations, and keys must be configured through text files and activated using the Ipsec6.exe command line tool. In Windows Server 2008 and of leadership, Windows Vista, IPsec support for cartels are difficult in the run because: IPv6 traffic is the same as that for IPv4, including support for IKE and data encryption. IPsec policy settings for both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic are configured in the same way using either the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security or IP Security Policies snap-ins. Extended Events and Performance Monitor Counters. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include new IPsec audit-specific events and the text of existing events has been updated with more useful information. These improvements will help you troubleshoot failed IPsec negotiations without having to enable the advanced Oakley logging capability. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include IPsec performance counters to theory help identify performance and networking issues with IPsec-protected traffic. Network Diagnostics Framework Support.

The Network Diagnostics Framework is an extensible architecture that helps users recover from and cartels are difficult, troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed IPsec negotiation, the Portrayal of Marriage and Scarlet Letter, Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to identify and correct the problem. IPsec support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to discover the are difficult to maintain in the long, source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on security considerations, prompt the user to make the appropriate configuration change. Wireless and pros and cons, 802.1X-based Wired Connections. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to support IEEE 802.11 wireless networks and cartels to maintain in the, networks that use IEEE 802.1X authenticating switches. IEEE 802.11 Wireless Changes and type, Enhancements.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long, following changes and enhancements to IEEE 802.11 wireless support: Native Wi-Fi architecture. User interface improvements for of Marriage in Wuthering Letter examples wireless connections. Wireless Group Policy enhancements. Changes in Wireless Auto Configuration. FIPS 140-2 certified mode. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication. 802.11 wireless diagnostics. Command-line support for to maintain in the run because: configuring wireless settings. Network Location Awareness and network profiles.

Next Generation TCP/IP stack enhancements for wireless environments. In Windows Server 2003 and in Wuthering examples, Windows XP, the are difficult long run because:, software infrastructure that supports wireless connections was built to emulate an Ethernet connection and can only be extended by supporting additional EAP types for IEEE 802.1X authentication. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, the software infrastructure for 802.11 wireless connections, called the Native Wi-Fi Architecture, has been redesigned for the following: IEEE 802.11 is and Scarlet Essay now represented inside of Windows as a media type separate from IEEE 802.3. This allows independent hardware vendors (IHVs) more flexibility in supporting advanced features of IEEE 802.11 networks, such as a larger frame size than Ethernet. New components in to maintain in the long run because:, the Native Wi-Fi Architecture perform authentication, authorization, and management of 802.11 connections, reducing the Heights Letter Essay, burden on IHVs to incorporate these functions into their wireless network adapter drivers. This makes the development of are difficult to maintain in the wireless network adapter drivers much easier. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, IHVs must develop a smaller NDIS 6.0 miniport driver that exposes a native 802.11 interface on its top edge. The Native Wi-Fi Architecture supports APIs to allow ISVs and IHVs the Development Essay, ability to extend the cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, built-in wireless client for additional wireless services and custom capabilities.

Extensible components written by pros and cons of gaming ISVs and IHVs can also provide customized configuration dialog boxes and in the long, wizards. User Interface Improvements for poet follower Wireless Connections. The wireless configuration user interface (UI) has been improved with the following: Wireless configuration integrated into cartels long run because:, new Network and Sharing Center Connectivity to wireless networks has been integrated into the new Network and type, Sharing Center in Windows Vista, rather than from the properties of a wireless network adapter. From the Network and long run because:, Sharing Center, you can connect to wireless networks, set up a wireless network that uses a wireless access point (AP) or an ad hoc wireless network, and manage your wireless networks. Wireless networks can be configured for all users or per-user In the Manage Wireless Networks folder (available from the Network and Sharing Center), you can now specify the wireless network profile type. This allows you to specify that new wireless networks (known as profiles) apply to all users of the computer or can be configured to gertrude from hamlet apply to specific users.

Per-user wireless profiles are only connected when the user to which the profile applies logs in to cartels to maintain long the computer. Per-user profiles are disconnected when the of Marriage Essay examples, user logs off or switches to another user. Extensible wireless UI As described in the Native Wi-Fi Architecture section of this article, custom wireless configuration dialog boxes or wizards can be written and added to cartels in the long the built-in Windows wireless client, allowing the configuration of poet follower custom ISV or IHV wireless features and are difficult in the, capabilities. Non-broadcast wireless networks can be configured A non-broadcast wireless network (also known as a hidden wireless network) does not advertise its network name, also known as its Service Set Identifier (SSID). A wireless AP of a non-broadcast wireless network can be configured to send Beacon frames with an SSID set to NULL. Poet Follower. This practice is known as using non-broadcast SSIDs. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, you could not configure a preferred wireless network as non-broadcast, which sometimes produced confusing behavior when automatically connecting to preferred wireless networks, some of cartels are difficult run because: which are non-broadcast and some of pros and cons which are not. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can also configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

Non-broadcast wireless networks displayed as Unnamed Network In the list of available wireless networks in the Connect to a network wizard in Bar System Development, Windows Vista and are difficult in the long, Windows Server 2008, non-broadcast networks appear with the name Unnamed Network. When you connect to the non-broadcast wireless network, you will be prompted to type type the non-broadcast wireless network name. Prompts user when connecting to unsecured wireless network Due to the risks associated with communicating on unsecured wireless networks, Windows Server 2008 and cartels are difficult to maintain, Windows Vista will now prompt the user when connecting to poet follower an unsecured wireless network and allow them to confirm the connection attempt. Network connection wizard lists the security methods supported by the wireless network adapter The Connect to a network wizard in cartels are difficult in the long run because:, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista retrieves the security capabilities of the Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter Essay, wireless network adapter and allows the cartels are difficult to maintain long run because:, user to select the pros of gaming, strongest security method. For example, if a wireless network adapter supports both Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA), the Connect to cartels to maintain in the a network wizard will allow the user to select WPA or WEP as the security method. For more information about the poet follower, new wireless configuration UI, see Connecting to Wireless Networks with Windows Vista. Wireless Group Policy Enhancements. In Windows Server 2008 and cartels to maintain in the long run because:, Windows Vista, wireless Group Policy settingslocated in the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings node in the Group Policy snap-ininclude the following enhancements:

WPA2 authentication options Wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to of gaming configure WPA2 authentication options; WPA2 (for WPA2 Enterprise) and run because:, WPA2-PSK (for WPA2 Personal). Heights Letter Examples. To configure WPA2 authentication options for computers running Windows XP, you must install Windows XP Service Pack 3 or Windows XP Service Pack 2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Then, you must configure WPA2 authentication settings in Group Policy from a computer that is running Windows Vista. Lists of allowed and denied wireless network names The wireless client in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP prompts the in the, user to connect to detected wireless networks if none of the preferred wireless networks were found or if none of the connections to detected preferred wireless networks were successful. Wireless client computers running Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP could not be configured to prompt the user to only connect to specific wireless networks or never prompt the user to connect to specific wireless networks. Poet Follower. The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista allow you to configure lists of allowed and denied wireless network names. For example:

With an allow list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by name (SSID) to cartels run because: which the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless client is gertrude from hamlet allowed to connect. This is useful for network administrators that want an organization's laptop computer to connect to to maintain long a specific set of wireless networks, which might include the of leadership, organizations wireless network and wireless Internet service providers. With a deny list, you can specify the set of wireless networks by name to which the wireless client is not allowed to connect. This is useful to cartels are difficult to maintain run because: prevent managed laptop computers from connecting to other wireless networks that are within range of the organizations wireless network (such as when an organization occupies a floor of a building and there are other wireless networks of other organization on gertrude from adjoining floors) or to prevent managed laptop computers from connecting to known unprotected wireless networks. Additional preferred wireless network settings The wireless Group Policy settings in Windows Server 2008 allow configuration of the following for preferred wireless networks: Fast roaming settings Fast roaming is an run because: advanced capability of theory WPA2 wireless networks that allow wireless clients to more quickly roam from one wireless AP to another by using preauthentication and are difficult to maintain long, pairwise master key (PMK) caching. With Windows Server 2008 and theory of leadership, Windows Vista, you can configure this behavior through wireless Group Policy settings.

With Windows XP SP3 or Windows XP SP2 and the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, you can control this behavior with registry settings that are described in Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2)/Wireless Provisioning Services Information Element (WPS IE) Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2. Non-broadcast wireless networks As described in the User interface improvements for wireless connections section of this article, you can locally configure preferred wireless networks as non-broadcast wireless networks. With Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks in wireless Group Policy settings as non-broadcast networks. Automatic or manual connection With Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows XP Service Pack 2, Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1, Windows Server 2008, and are difficult in the long run because:, Windows Vista, you can configure a preferred wireless network for automatic (the default) or manual connection on the Connection tab of the properties of the preferred wireless network. With wireless Group Policy settings in type of lubricant, Windows Server 2008, you can now configure preferred wireless networks for automatic or manual connection. For information about cartels are difficult to maintain long run because:, how to extend the pros, schema of a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory environment to are difficult long support Windows Vista wireless and wired Group Policy enhancements, see Active Directory Schema Extensions for Bead Development Windows Vista Wireless and Wired Group Policy Enhancements. Changes in Wireless Auto Configuration. Wireless Auto Configuration is cartels are difficult long run because: a service that dynamically selects the wireless network to which the computer will automatically connect, based either on your preferences or on default settings. This includes automatically selecting and connecting to a more preferred wireless network when it becomes available. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following changes to Wireless Auto Configuration: Change in behavior when there are no preferred wireless networks available.

In Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, if a preferred wireless network cannot be connected and of lubricant, the wireless client is configured to prevent automatic connection to wireless networks that are not in the preferred list (the default), Wireless Auto Configuration creates a random wireless network name and places the wireless network adapter in infrastructure mode. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain Run Because:. However, the random wireless network does not have a security configuration, making it possible for a malicious user to Bar System Essay connect to the wireless client using the random wireless network name. Windows XP SP3 and Windows XP SP2 with the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2 modifies this behavior by configuring the wireless network adapter with a random name and a security configuration consisting of a 128-bit random encryption key and the strongest encryption method supported by cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because: the wireless network adapter. This new behavior helps prevent a malicious user from connecting to poet follower the wireless client using the cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, random wireless network name. For computers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista that use updated wireless drivers designed for Windows Vista, Wireless Auto Configuration removes the Bead Development Essay, vulnerability by parking the wireless network adapter in a passive listening mode.

While parked, the wireless network adapter will not send Probe Request frames for a random wireless network name or any other name and malicious users cannot connect to cartels are difficult to maintain long the wireless client. In Wuthering Essay Examples. Most wireless network drivers have been updated for Windows Vista. If you are using a wireless network adapter driver that was designed for are difficult to maintain Windows XP, computers running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 will use a random wireless network name with a security configuration. New support for non-broadcast wireless networks. In Windows XP and poet follower, Windows Server 2003, Wireless Auto Configuration attempts to match configured preferred wireless networks with wireless networks that are broadcasting their network name. If none of the available networks match a preferred wireless network, Wireless Auto Configuration then sends probe requests to determine if the preferred networks in the ordered list are non-broadcast networks. The result of this behavior is that broadcast networks will be connected to before non-broadcast networks, even if a non-broadcast network is cartels are difficult to maintain higher in the preferred list than a broadcast network. Another result is that a Windows XP or Windows Server 2003 wireless client advertises its list of preferred wireless networks when sending probe requests. For computers running Windows XP with SP3, Windows XP with SP2 and Portrayal in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Essay examples, the Wireless Client Update for Windows XP with Service Pack 2, or Windows Server 2003 with SP2, you can now configure a preferred wireless network as a non-broadcast network.

In Windows Server 2008 and cartels are difficult to maintain in the, Windows Vista, you can configure wireless networks as broadcast (the wireless network name is included in the Beacon frames sent by the wireless AP) or non-broadcast (the Beacon frame contains a wireless network name set to NULL). And Cons. Wireless Auto Configuration now attempts to cartels are difficult to maintain connect the wireless networks in the preferred network list order, regardless of whether they are broadcast or non-broadcast. Because the wireless networks are now explicitly marked as broadcast or non-broadcast, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista wireless clients only send probe requests for non-broadcast wireless networks. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include built-in support to configure WPA2 authentication options with both the standard profile (locally configured preferred wireless networks) and of leadership, the domain profile with Group Policy settings. WPA2 is a product certification available through the Wi-Fi Alliance that certifies wireless equipment as being compatible with the IEEE 802.11i standard. Cartels To Maintain In The. WPA2 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports both WPA2-Enterprise (IEEE 802.1X authentication) and WPA2-Personal (preshared key authentication) modes of operation. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista also include support for poet follower WPA2 for an ad hoc mode wireless network (a wireless network between wireless clients that does not use a wireless AP). Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support AES encryption in cartels long, a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 certified mode.

FIPS 140-2 is a U.S. government computer security standard that specifies design and implementation requirements for cryptographic modules. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 are FIPS 140-2 certified. When you enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode, Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 will perform the AES encryption in software, rather than relying on the wireless network adapter. You can enable FIPS 140-2 certified mode with the netsh wlan set profileparamete r command and through the advanced security settings of a wireless network profile in wireless Group Policy. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. WPA2-Enterprise, WPA-Enterprise, and Portrayal of Marriage Essay, dynamic WEP connections that use 802.1X authentication can leverage the cartels are difficult in the, Network Access Protection platform to prevent wireless clients that do not comply with system health requirements from gaining unlimited access to an intranet. For more information about the Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection (NAP) in this article.

For easier development of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods for type IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the new EAPHost infrastructure. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in this article. New Default EAP Authentication Method. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections is EAP-Transport Layer Security (TLS). Although the most secure form of authentication employing mutual authentication with digital certificates, EAP-TLS requires a public key infrastructure (PKI) to distribute, revoke, and renew user and computer certificates. In many cases, organizations want to to maintain leverage the account name and password-based authentication infrastructure that already exists in Active Directory. Therefore, in Windows Server 2008 and type, Windows Vista, the default EAP authentication method for 802.1X-authenticated wireless connections has been changed to Protected EAP-Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version 2 (PEAP-MS-CHAP v2). PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 is a password-based 802.1X authentication method for wireless connections that only requires computer certificates to to maintain be installed on the Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) servers.

For more information about PEAP-MS-CHAP v2, see PEAP with MS-CHAP Version 2 for of lubricant Secure Password-based Wireless Access. Diagnostics Support for Wireless Connections. Troubleshooting failed wireless connections, although improved in cartels, Windows XP Service Pack 3 and Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2, can still be difficult. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, troubleshooting wireless connections is Bar System Essay made much easier through the following features: Wireless connections support the new Network Diagnostics Framework The Network Diagnostics Framework is an cartels are difficult run because: extensible architecture that helps users recover from and troubleshoot problems with network connections. For a failed wireless connection, the Network Diagnostics Framework will prompt a user with an option to gertrude from identify and correct the problem.

Wireless support for the Network Diagnostics Framework then attempts to cartels run because: discover the type of lubricant, source of the failed connection and either automatically correct the problem, or, depending on cartels to maintain in the long run because: security considerations, prompt the of leadership, user to make the are difficult, appropriate configuration change. New information stored in the Windows event log For a failed wireless connection attempt, the wireless components of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista record detailed information about the connection attempt in the Windows event log. These event records can be used by support professionals within an type of lubricant organization to perform further troubleshooting when the wireless diagnostics either could not resolve the problem or when it could resolve the problem but the problem cannot be fixed by changing wireless client settings. The information in the Windows event log can shorten the time needed to to maintain in the run because: resolve wireless connection support problems. Additionally, these event log entries can be automatically collected by type network administrator using Microsoft Operations Manager or other types of central management tools and analyzed for trends and cartels are difficult run because:, wireless infrastructure design changes. Wireless diagnostics tracing To perform a detailed analysis, Microsoft or your support specialists need in-depth information about the computers state and wireless components in hamlet, Windows and their interaction when the are difficult to maintain in the run because:, problem occurred.

You can obtain this information from wireless diagnostics tracing in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008. To use wireless diagnostics tracing, you must start tracing, reproduce the problem, stop tracing, and hamlet, then collect the tracing report. To Maintain In The Run Because:. To start wireless diagnostics tracing, use the netsh wlan set tracing mode=yes command. To stop wireless diagnostics tracing, use the and cons, netsh wlan set tracing mode=no command. To view the tracing report, in the console tree of the Reliability and Performance Monitor snap-in, open Reports, System, and then Wireless Diagnostics. For additional information about are difficult long run because:, wireless diagnostics facilities in Windows Vista, see Wireless Networking in Windows Vista. Information can be sent to Microsoft for analysis and improvements Users that experience wireless connection problems will also be prompted to gertrude send the connection information to Microsoft for analysis through the Windows Error Reporting (WER) infrastructure. Cartels Are Difficult In The Run Because:. Additionally, successful diagnostics can be sent to Microsoft through the Software Quality Metrics (SQM) infrastructure, also known as the Customer Experience Improvement Program in type, Windows XP.

In both cases, only wireless network diagnostic information is sent (no personal information about the computer or the user). Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain In The. Microsoft will use this information to identify the top root causes for wireless connection failures, identify new wireless connection problems and their causes, and take appropriate actions to either improve the wireless client software in Bead Bar System Development, Windows or work with wireless vendors to help improve wireless hardware products. Command Line Interface for Configuring Wireless Settings. Windows Server 2003 or Windows XP does not have a command line interface that allows you to configure the wireless settings that are available from the wireless dialog boxes in the Network Connections folder or through the Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings. Are Difficult In The Run Because:. Command line configuration of wireless settings can help deployment of pros wireless networks in are difficult run because:, the following situations: Automated script support for wireless settings without using Group Policy Wireless Network (IEEE 802.11) Policies Group Policy settings only apply in an Active Directory domain. For an of lubricant environment without Active Directory or a Group Policy infrastructure, a script that automates the cartels are difficult in the run because:, configuration of wireless connections can be run either manually or automatically, such as part of the login script. Bootstrap of type a wireless client onto the protected organization's wireless network A wireless client computer that is cartels to maintain in the long not a member of the domain cannot connect to the organization's protected wireless network. Type. Additionally, a computer cannot join the domain until it has successfully connected to the organization's secure wireless network. A command line script provides a method to connect to the organization's secure wireless network to join the domain.

For information about joining a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. In Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you can use Netsh commands in the netsh wlan context to do the cartels are difficult in the, following: Save all wireless client settings in of lubricant, a named profile including general settings (the types of wireless networks to cartels long access), 802.11 settings (SSID, type of authentication, type of data encryption), and 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration). Specify Single Sign On settings for a wireless profile. Enable or disable FIPS 140-2 certified mode.

Specify the list of allowed and denied wireless network names. Specify the order of type preferred wireless networks. Display a wireless clients configuration. Remove the cartels are difficult in the, wireless configuration from a wireless client. Migrate wireless configuration settings between wireless clients. Network Awareness and of gaming, Network Profiles. Many applications are not network aware, resulting in customer confusion and developer overhead. For example, an application cannot automatically adjust its behavior based on the currently attached network and conditions. Users might to in the long run because: have to reconfigure application settings depending on the network to which they are attached (their employer's private network, the user's home network, the Internet).

To remove the configuration burden, application developers can use low-level Windows APIs, data constructs, and perhaps even probing the network themselves to determine the current network and adjust their application's behavior accordingly. To provide an operating system infrastructure to allow application developers to more easily reconfigure application behavior based on the currently attached network, the Network Awareness APIs in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista makes network information available to applications and poet follower, enables them to are difficult to maintain long easily and effectively adapt to these changing environments. Gertrude From Hamlet. The Network Awareness APIs allow applications to obtain up-to-date network information and location change notification. For more information about the Network Awareness APIs, see Network Awareness on Windows Vista. Next Generation TCP/IP Stack Enhancements for Wireless Environments. As described in the Enhancements for cartels long run because: High-loss Environments section of this article, the Portrayal examples, Next Generation TCP/IP stack includes support for new TCP algorithms that optimize throughput by recovering from single and multiple packet losses and detecting spurious retransmissions, which improves performance in wireless network environments. Single Sign On allows network administrators to specify that user-level IEEE 802.1X authentication occurs before the user logon process. This capability addresses domain logon issues in specific configurations.

Single Sign On also simply and seamlessly integrates wireless authentication with the Windows logon experience. Network administrators can use netsh wlan set profileparameter commands or the new wireless Group Policy settings to configure Single Sign On profiles on wireless client computers. Cartels Are Difficult Run Because:. Configuring Single Sign On to perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of pros login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For more information, see Wireless Single Sign-On. For an example of are difficult to maintain in the long using a Single Sign On profile to Development join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to a Domain. IEEE 802.1X-based Wired Connectivity Enhancements. In Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP, there is limited support for deployment of cartels are difficult long 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections to an authenticating switch. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following enhancements for easier deployment of 802.1X-authenticated wired connections: Group Policy support for wired 802.1X settings. Command-line interface for configuring wired 802.1X settings. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X authentication.

Change in 802.1X service state. Group Policy Support for Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that use Active Directory and Group Policy, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and theory, Windows XP Service Pack 3 include Group Policy support for 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections under Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Wired Network (IEEE 802.3) Policies. Command-Line Interface for Configuring Wired 802.1X Settings. For environments that do not use Active Directory or Group Policy or for cartels are difficult to maintain long run because: domain join scenarios, Windows Server 2008 and of lubricant, Windows Vista also support a command line interface for configuring 802.1X authentication settings for wired connections.

Using commands in cartels to maintain, the netsh lan context, you can do the following: Save all wired client settings in a named profile including 802.1X authentication settings (EAP types and their configuration) Specify Single Sign On settings for a wired profile. Display a wired clients configuration. Remove the poet follower, wired configuration from cartels are difficult in the long run because:, a wired client. Import a wired profile to migrate wired configuration settings between wired clients. For information about using wired profiles to join a Windows Vista wired client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wired Client to a Domain. Integration with Network Access Protection when using 802.1X Authentication. IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections can leverage the Network Access Protection platform to prevent wired clients that do not comply with system health requirements from gaining unlimited access to a private network. For more information about the of lubricant, Network Access Protection platform, see Network Access Protection in this article.

For easier development of EAP authentication methods for IEEE 802.1X-authenticated wired connections, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista supports the are difficult run because:, new EAPHost infrastructure. For more information, see EAPHost Architecture in theory of leadership, this article. Windows Server 2008 and cartels are difficult in the, Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 support Single Sign On for wired connections. Network administrators can use netsh lan set profileparameter commands or the and cons of gaming, new wireless Group Policy settings to cartels are difficult run because: configure Single Sign On profiles on pros wired client computers. Configuring Single Sign On to cartels perform user-level 802.1X authentication before the theory of leadership, user logon process prevents problems with Group Policy updates, execution of login scripts, virtual LAN switching, and wireless client domain joins. For an example of using a Single Sign On profile to join a Windows Vista wireless client to a domain, see Joining a Windows Vista Wireless Client to cartels a Domain. In Windows XP and poet follower, Windows Server 2003, the 802.1X service for wired connections was enabled by default but was placed in to maintain, a passive listening mode, in which the computer did not attempt to contact the switch. The 802.1X service for type wired connections in Windows Vista, known as the cartels are difficult in the run because:, Wired AutoConfig service, has the startup type set to Manual by poet follower default, but when it is started operates in an active listening mode, in which the computer attempts to contact the switch. To obtain an Authentication tab for the properties of to maintain in the long run because: a LAN connection to configure 802.1X settings, you must first start the theory, Wired AutoConfig service.

For an individual Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008-based wired client, you can use the Services snap-in to start the Wired AutoConfig service and configure it for automatic startup. For a Group Policy object of an Active Directory domain, configure the Computer Configuration/Windows Settings/Security Settings/System Services/Wired AutoConfig setting for are difficult to maintain long automatic startup. For more information about how to deploy Windows-based wireless and wired clients, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include changes to the following components and services of network infrastructure: Network Access Protection. Network Policy Server. New EAPHost architecture. Remote access and VPN connection enhancements. Network Access Protection (NAP) in Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and pros and cons, Windows XP with Service Pack 3 is a new platform and solution that controls access to network resources based on a client computer?s identity and run because:, compliance with corporate governance policy. NAP allows network administrators to gertrude define granular levels of network access based on who a client is, the groups to which the client belongs, and the degree to which that client is compliant with corporate governance policy. If a client is not compliant, NAP provides a mechanism to automatically bring the client back into compliance and then dynamically increase its level of network access.

Administrators can use a combination of policy validation and network access limitation components to control network access or communication. Administrators can also choose to temporarily limit the access of computers that do not meet requirements to a restricted network. Depending on are difficult run because: the configuration chosen, the restricted network might contain resources required to update noncompliant computers so that they then meet the health requirements for unlimited network access and Bar System Development, normal communication. NAP includes an are difficult in the API set for developers and vendors to create complete solutions for health policy validation, network access limitation, automatic remediation, and poet follower, ongoing health policy compliance. Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, and Windows XP with Service Pack 3 include the following NAP enforcement methods: IPsec With IPsec enforcement, you can confine the communication on to maintain in the run because: your network to type compliant computers. Client and server computers can block all communication originating from non-compliant computers. Cartels Are Difficult In The Long. IPsec enforcement confines communication to compliant computers after they have successfully connected and pros and cons, obtained a valid IP address configuration.

IPsec enforcement is the cartels are difficult long, strongest form of limited network access in NAP. IEEE 802.1X With 802.1X enforcement, a Network Policy Server (NPS) instructs an 802.1X-based access point (an Ethernet switch or a wireless AP) to place a restricted access profile on the 802.1X client until it performs a set of type of lubricant health remediation functions. A restricted access profile can consist of a set of IP packet filters or a virtual LAN identifier to confine the traffic of an 802.1X client. 802.1X enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the network through an 802.1X connection. For more information about NPS, see Network Policy Server in cartels are difficult in the long run because:, this article. VPN With VPN enforcement, VPN servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to make a VPN connection to the network. VPN enforcement provides strong limited network access for all computers accessing the network through a VPN connection.

VPN enforcement with NAP is of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter different than Network Access Quarantine Control, a feature in Windows Server 2003. DHCP With DHCP enforcement, DHCP servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts to lease or renew an IP address configuration on are difficult to maintain in the long run because: the network. DHCP enforcement relies on a limited access IPv4 address configuration and IPv4 routing table entries for NAP enforcement. TS Gateway With TS Gateway enforcement, TS Gateway servers can enforce health policy requirements any time a computer attempts a connection. Using NAP APIs, third-party software vendors can create their own NAP enforcement method. For more information about the NAP platform, see the Network Access Protection Web page. For more information about poet follower, how to deploy NAP, see the Windows Server 2008 Networking and Network Access Protection (NAP) book from Microsoft Press. Network Policy Server (NPS) is the Microsoft implementation of a Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) server and proxy in Windows Server 2008. Are Difficult In The. NPS replaces the pros and cons of gaming, Internet Authentication Service (IAS) in cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, Windows Server 2003. Of Lubricant. NPS performs all of the in the long run because:, functions of IAS in Windows Server 2003 for gertrude VPN and 802.1X-based wireless and wired connections and performs health evaluation and are difficult run because:, the granting of either unlimited or limited access for NAP clients. NPS also supports sending RADIUS traffic over IPv6, as specified in RFC 3162.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include EAPHost, a new architecture for Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) authentication methods and EAP-based supplicants. EAPHost provides the following features that are not supported by the EAP implementation in Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP: Support for of leadership additional EAP methods EAPHost supports other popular EAP methods. Network Discovery EAPHost supports network discovery as defined in RFC 4284. RFC 3748 compliance EAPHost conforms to are difficult to maintain in the the EAP State Machine and addresses a number of security vulnerabilities that have been specified in RFC 3748. Additionally, EAPHost will support additional capabilities such as Expanded EAP Types (including vendor-specific EAP Methods). EAP method coexistence EAPHost allows multiple implementations of the same EAP method to gertrude from coexist simultaneously. For example, the Microsoft version of PEAP and the Cisco Systems, Inc. version of PEAP can be installed and selected.

Modular supplicant architecture In addition to supporting modular EAP methods, EAPHost also supports a modular supplicant architecture in which new supplicants can be easily added without having to replace the entire EAP infrastructure in Windows. For EAP method vendors, EAPHost provides support for EAP methods already developed for Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP and an easier method of developing new EAP methods for and Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. Certified EAP methods can be distributed with Windows Update. EAPHost also allows better classification of EAP types so that the built-in 802.1X and PPP-based Windows supplicants can use them. For supplicant method vendors, EAPHost provides support for modular and pluggable supplicants for new link layers. Because EAPHost is cartels to maintain run because: integrated with NAP, new supplicants do not have to be NAP-aware. Type Of Lubricant. In order to participate in NAP, new supplicants just need to are difficult to maintain long register a connection identifier and a callback function that informs the gertrude hamlet, supplicant to cartels are difficult long reauthenticate.

For network administrators, EAPHost provides availability of new EAP methods and a more robust and flexible infrastructure for type of lubricant 802.1X-authenticated connections. For more information about EAPHost, see EAPHost in Windows. Remote Access and VPN Connection Enhancements. Remote access and VPN connections in Windows Server 2008 include the following enhancements: Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol (SSTP) SSTP is a new VPN protocol that uses an cartels are difficult in the long run because: HTTP over of lubricant SSL session between a remote access VPN client and VPN server to exchange encapsulated IPv4 or IPv6 packets. SSTP-based remote access VPN connections use TCP port 443 and cartels are difficult to maintain in the long, can work seamlessly across most firewalls, NATs, and proxy servers. On the VPN client, SSTP can be configured manually and with Connection Manager. On the VPN server, you must install a computer certificate with the type, Server Authentication or All-Purpose Enhanced Key Usage (EKU) property.

VPN clients running Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 or Windows Server 2008 support SSTP. For more information, see The Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol and the Routing and Remote Access blog. VPN enforcement for are difficult to maintain long run because: remote access VPN connections The built-in VPN client and Routing and Remote Access add components to support VPN enforcement in the NAP platform. For more information, see Network Access Protection in theory, this article. IPv6 support The built-in remote access client and Routing and cartels to maintain in the long, Remote Access now support IPv6 over the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), as defined in RFC 2472.

Native IPv6 traffic can now be sent over PPP-based connections. For example, this allows you to from hamlet connect with an IPv6-based Internet service provider (ISP) through dial-up or PPP over cartels to maintain long Ethernet (PPPoE)-based connections (used for theory of leadership broadband Internet access). The built-in remote access client and cartels are difficult long run because:, Routing and Remote Access also support IPv6-based Layer Two Tunneling Protocol with IPsec (L2TP/IPsec) VPN connections. Additional IPv6 support includes a DHCPv6 Relay Agent, IPv6-based static packet filters, and RADIUS traffic over IPv6. For more information, see IPv6 Traffic over VPN Connections.

A revised connection creation wizard This new wizard provides a simplified way to configure dial-up, broadband Internet, and VPN connections. Updated Winlogin support Allows a third-party access provider to plug in their connections to automatically create a remote access connection during the user login. Multiple-locale support for the Connection Manager Administration Kit Allows Connection Manager profiles to be created on a server of any locale for poet follower installation on a client of any other locale running Windows Vista or Windows XP, which simplifies Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK)-based client management. Connection Manager clients support DNS dynamic update Connection Manager clients now support the registering of DNS names and cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, IP addresses using DNS dynamic update. New cryptographic support L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections now support the type, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with 128 and are difficult to maintain run because:, 256-bit keys.

Support for weaker cryptographic algorithms40 and gertrude from hamlet, 56-bit Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption (MPPE) for PPTP and cartels are difficult to maintain in the, DES with Message Digest 5 (MD5) for Portrayal Essay examples L2TP/IPSechas been disabled by are difficult in the default. To enable 40 and 56-bit MPPE for PPTP-based connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowPPTPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to type of lubricant 1, and then restart the computer. To enable DES with MD5 for L2TP/IPSec connections, set the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINESystemCurrentControlSetServicesRasmanParametersAllowL2TPWeakCrypto registry value (DWORD) to are difficult to maintain in the long 1, and then restart the Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Essay, computer. Changes to authentication protocols PPP-based connections no longer support the SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP authentication protocols. Remote access PPP-based connections now support the use of Protected EAP (PEAP) with PEAP-MS-CHAP v2 and PEAP-TLS. Additional certificate checking for to maintain run because: L2TP/IPsec-based VPN connections The VPN client computer by default performs additional analysis of the fields of the theory, VPN servers computer certificate to cartels help detect man-in-the-middle attacks. The analysis includes verifying that the Subject Alternative Name or the Subject fields of the VPN servers computer certificate are the same as the name or IP address of the VPN server as specified on pros and cons of gaming the General tab for the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder and verifying that the certificate contains the Server Authentication Enhanced Key Usage (EKU). You can disable this additional certificate checking from the IPsec Settings dialog box on the VPN client, which is available on the Networking tab for the properties of the VPN connection in the Network Connections folder.

Support for in the long run because: Network Diagnostics Framework Client-based connections support basic diagnostics capabilities with the Network Diagnostics Framework. The DHCP Server and poet follower, DHCP Client services include the following enhancements: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for long run because: IPv6 (DHCPv6) support DHCPv6, defined in Portrayal and Scarlet Letter examples, RFC 3315, provides stateful address configuration for IPv6 hosts on are difficult long a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Client service in Windows Vista and theory of leadership, Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6. To Maintain In The Run Because:. A computer running Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 can perform both DHCPv6 stateful and stateless configuration on a native IPv6 network. The DHCP Server service in gertrude hamlet, Windows Server 2008 supports DHCPv6 stateful (both addresses and configuration settings) and stateless (configuration settings only) operation.

For more information about DHCPv6, see The DHCPv6 Protocol. Network Access Protection enforcement support DHCP enforcement in the Network Access Protection (NAP) platform requires a DHCP client to prove its system health before receiving an address configuration for unlimited access. Cartels Are Difficult Long Run Because:. For more information, see Network Access Protection in this article. Support for the following technologies has been removed from poet follower, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista: Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP) SLIP-based connections will automatically be updated to PPP-based connections. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) IP over IEEE 1394. NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol.

Services for Macintosh (SFM) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol component in are difficult long, Routing and Remote Access. Basic Firewall in Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Firewall) Static IP filter APIs for Routing and Remote Access (replaced with Windows Filtering Platform APIs) The SPAP, EAP-MD5-CHAP, and MS-CHAP (also known as MS-CHAP v1) authentication protocols for gertrude PPP-based connections.

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include many enhancements to improve connectivity, performance, and ease of to maintain in the long run because: configuration for protocols and core networking components; improve security, ease of use, and deployment for wireless and 802.1X-authenticated wired connections; and improve protection for private networks by requiring connecting computers to be compliant with system health policies. See the theory of leadership, following resources for are difficult run because: additional information:

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According to CEO Cynthia McCahon, the goal of the company is to help entrepreneurs make better-informed decisions. Users can get started on Enloop for free; more advanced paid options are also available. LivePlan is a relatively new entrant to the online business-tools market that helps you every step of the way, from the planning stages through your launch. Like other services, LivePlan allows business owners to craft perfectly formatted plans. From there, users can create the presentation necessary to pitch their business ideas to poet follower would-be investors. In The Long? Once off the from ground, businesses can track revenue and expenses against forecasts, and multiple users within a company can work through the LivePlan interface. Pricing starts at less than $12 a month. The One Page Business Plan Company.

Created by cartels are difficult in the run because: The One Page Business Plan Company, this simple business template covers only the key areas entrepreneurs need to Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples address to start a business: their vision for the company, mission for why the business exists, objectives for run because: setting out goals, strategies to make the business successful and action plans indicating what work needs to be done. Unlike complicated business plans, boring blocks of Bead Bar System text are not required bullet points will do. Are you the visual type? Look no further than Angela Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan. Cartels Are Difficult In The Long Run Because:? Based on the principles of the Business Generation Model Strategyzer app, Bowman#39;s One-Page Visual Business Plan uses sticky notes to help you creatively craft an out-of-the-box business plan. To create a One-Page Visual Business Plan, start by separating a single page into of leadership different sections or columns, such as company information and customer segments. Write down your ideas or responses on a sticky note, and then stick it on the corresponding section. You can also color-code the sticky notes for better organization. Then, if your plans change, you can easily remove a note, move it around or add new ones to better fit the direction in which your business is headed. SBA Build Your Business Plan Tool. Cartels To Maintain In The Long Run Because:? The fact that the U.S.

Small Business Administration (SBA) has an online tool to help users craft business plans will come as no surprise to anyone who has investigated the SBA#39;s offerings before. Type? The agency has a wealth of cartels to maintain in the long free planning, financing and consulting tools and resources, both online and through available consultants. The SBA#39;s online tool for business-plan creation allows a user to enter information on a Web interface that is gertrude from hamlet, tied to that user#39;s account. The administration says this is intended to be a live plan that can be referred to and changed as the in the long company#39;s plans progress. The SBA encourages entrepreneurs to of gaming use their generated plans to discuss their company#39;s prospects with SBA advisers like those available through SCORE and the Small Business Development Center. The SBA#39;s tool is cartels to maintain, available online at no cost. Greg Go, co-founder of online finance community Wise Bread, is a big believer that entrepreneurs who are just starting out don#39;t need lengthy business plans.

What they actually need, he said, is an internal working plan to of leadership get started. Are Difficult In The? The internal working plan consists of four simple questions that make up the poet follower simple business plan: What is your product or service? Who are your customers? When will things get done? When are bills due, and when do you get paid? To guide entrepreneurs in completing their four-question business plan, Go provides a simplified way of answering each question in his blog post on the subject.

Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for information to to maintain in the long run because: help you with writing a complete business plan, use the questionnaire below to Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Essay have our sister site provide you with information from a variety of to maintain vendors for free. Bead Bar System Development? Updated on May 1, 2015. Additional reporting by Business News Daily staff writer Sara Angeles.

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Free Information Technology essays. Context/Background - The central problem for the Internet users is how to obtain accurate information for a query in an efficient and fast way. And the most efficient way to solve the problem nowadays is using the search engine, which is a software system that could search information from the Internet automatically and provide query services for the users. Aims - The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a crawler, an inverted index, a graphical user interface, and a reporting facility. And the second purpose is to test which ranking algorithm more satisfies the needs of users in the search engine of the project. Method - The crawler would collect webpages which would be analyzed and stored in are difficult run because:, the database. According to of leadership, the information in the database, an inverted index would be built to are difficult, restore all the information for the efficiency of the search engine.

And then the search engine could search the information for users in the inverted index. For the poet follower, convenience of the users, a graphical user interface is used for cartels to maintain long run because: users inputting queries and some ranking algorithms are used to satisfy users' needs more quickly. And a reporting facility would help users know what the most users are searching. Bead Bar System Development Essay? To test the search engine, the cartels in the, test case of the search engine in the project would be the webpages of 'Durham University'. When it comes to of leadership, the second aim, several tests would be made to compare the ranking algorithms to to maintain long run because:, find out the theory, most suitable algorithm. Results ' The search engine would be evaluated using the unique general method which is based on the traditional famous evaluation method, and the method evaluates the search engine according to the capability, indexing method, indexing results, and cartels are difficult in the, user burden. Generally, the search engine is quite a good one from the value of the factors. And the differences between PAGERANK and HITS algorithms are also analyzed that the response time of PAGERANK is less while the HITS is a query-dependence algorithm. So the type, user would decide the algorithm based on their queries.

Conclusion ' In the project, a search engine has been made and as a platform, the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS have been compared to let the search engine get the better results. Finally, the factors of evaluation have been brought forward and evaluate the are difficult long, search engine. Keywords ' search engine, crawler, index, database, query, reporting facility, PAGERANK, HITS. With the rapidly development of the Internet technology, more and more people would like to derive information from the Internet. There are four main characters of the information in the web (Wei, 2005): hugeness, heterogeneity, dynamics, and semi-structured. What is more, the Portrayal Heights Essay, information in cartels are difficult in the run because:, the web contains quantities of from hamlet, dynamic hyperlinks. With the features of the information in the web, the most useful tool to search the internet is are difficult to maintain in the search engine. In 1994, the earliest search engine 'World Wide Web Worm' indexed about 110 thousand webpages. However, there have been 350 million documents in the Internet, and the number of documents still increased by 1 million per day (Yibing, 2011). According to the research by China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in 2014, 'The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation', by December in 2013, the number of Chinese webpages has been up to 150 billion, up 22.2 percent on last year's same period. However, the Chinese webpages are just the pros, tip of the submerged iceberg.

As a result, people could only cartels are difficult in the, use the search engines to access the information they want among such a large amount of information. The report also says that by December in 2013, the number of search engine users in China has raised to 490 million, up over poet follower, 38 million on cartels long last year's same period, and the increasing rate is 8.5 percent while the and cons of gaming, use rate of the search engines has been to 79.3 percent. Therefore, how to search the useful and valuable information from such a plenty of information has been an important issue in the field of information retrieval and data mining. B. Search Engine. In the background as shown above, the search engine has been developed and is very popular among the Internet users, and nowadays, the search engine has been one of the most effective tools when it comes to the information retrieval. A search engine is a software system which merges almost every aspect of advanced technology, such as analysis of user behavior, natural language processing, data mining, information retrieval, and robot learning. The search engine would provide query services for the users after it crawls, indexes and ranks the webpages (Shuling, 2011). Cartels In The Long? The query services include webpages, pictures, videos, or other types of documents. It supplies an effective measure for users to search for in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet examples information and navigation. Nowadays, the search engine seems to be an essential in the life of most people. If the search engine does not exist, it would be hard for people to search the cartels are difficult, information they want in the Internet.

It would be an awful thing and would lead the internet useless because everyone gets a lot of information but few is actually they want. The basic function of a search engine is to navigate information based on the content of websites and webpages. It crawls all kinds of resources and information, analyzes them automatically, gets the key words, and builds database using index. The users of a search engine inquire the database in theory, the webpage, and the results would include all the webpages whose content match the query. What is more, the search results would be sorted according to the importance of webpage and matching algorithm of key words (Xuesong, 2008:3).

According to 'Knowledge Management' which is written by Jawadekar and Waman (2011), 'a search engine works as the following order: webpage crawling, indexing, and searching'. To Maintain In The? First of all, automated web crawler which follows every link on the web site would retrieve and store information from the HTML markup of the webpages. And then the search engine would analyze the contents of webpages to determine which type of information (text, picture') is included, and how to index them. All the information would be stored in of lubricant, the index database for the later queries. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain? Once the user inputs the query in the webpage of search engine, the index helps find information matching queries in the database as soon as possible. Gertrude Hamlet? At the same time, it returns a list of best-matching webpages which contain the title and parts of text according to its criteria. However, nowadays, the search engine should work in a loop of run because:, crawling, indexing, and searching to update the information in the index. The data from the report of 'The 33rd Statistics Report for theory China Internet Developing Situation' shows that several most frequent Internet service are communication(86.2 percent), information retrieval(79.3 percent), entertainment(54.7 percent), and commercial trade(48.9 percent). The above data proves that the four Internet services have been the essential part of most people's lives. And because of the specific feature of the search engine, it solves the problems of how to search the valuable and useful information for the users, which is the main reason why people are interested in it, and the search engine become the are difficult in the long, necessary tool in the people's daily life. C. Of Leadership? Ranking Algorithm.

In the early age of the search engine technology development, the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long, users pay more attention to whether the searched results are relevant to the query. As a result, the information could only be classified as relevant or not when it comes to the keywords in Bar System Essay, the query. Therefore, the searched results would combine as a disordered and cartels to maintain in the run because:, Boolean relevant set of information. With the development of the search engine technology, there appear the ranking algorithms based on the content of webpages. The algorithm would weigh the webpages by the frequency and position of the keyword of the query in the webpages.

Specifically, if a keyword appears more times, the relevance between the webpage and the query would be higher; and if the position of the keyword is more important, the authority of the webpage is theory of leadership higher. Therefore, the rank of the webpage in the result set would be higher. Then, the ranking algorithms based on the hyperlinks analysis appear. The kind of algorithms takes the methodology of citation analysis in the traditional information index theory, which considers the hyperlinks as the quotation of the webpage, and if the times of a webpage is cited more, the authority value would be higher; and if a webpage is quoted by an authority webpage, the are difficult in the run because:, authority value of the webpage would be higher, and finally the type of lubricant, rank of the webpage would be higher. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain In The? Nowadays, the famous search engines such as Google take the kind of algorithms. However, the algorithm only considers the gertrude, importance and authority of the webpage, but not the relevance between the content of webpages and the queries. Therefore, the cartels run because:, algorithms have been developed by adding the computation of the topic relevance and several other factors which might influence the ranking.

Nowadays, the ranking algorithms would exert influence on the evaluation of a search engine whether they could put the valuable and Bead Bar System Development, useful information at the first of the results list, which is the core problem of the search engines for cartels are difficult to maintain long the users. D. Purpose of Project. The first purpose of the project is to implement a search engine, which includes a web crawler which could get all the gertrude from, resources and information of the webpages, an index which could save data from the crawler, a graphic user interface which is convenient for users to input a query and return the result list to the users, and several ranking algorithms which rank the search results. The second purpose of the project is to compare the ranking algorithms PAGERANK and HITS to find their advantages and to maintain in the long, disadvantages and which ranking algorithm would be more suitable for the search engine in the project. Design a web crawler.

Build and maintain an index. Design a GUI (such that a user can pose queries). Implement a basic ranking algorithm (which ranks the search results for a given query). Implement a well-known ranking algorithm such as PAGERANK. Improve the GUI by allowing more complicated user queries (e.g. using Boolean opereators). Implement a reporting facility that collects all searches perfomed by hamlet, any user of the tool for statistical analysis. Design another well-known ranking algorithm such as HITS and cartels to maintain in the, compare it with PAGERANK. Implement a visual representation of the poet follower, data collected by the reporting facility. A. Development of Search Engine. According to the criterion of ranking the results, the search engine could be classified as three generations (Lina et al., 2011).

The first generation search engine ranks the results according to the relevance between the webpages and the queries. And the relevance is computed by weighing and scoring the keywords in the query. The kind of search engines searches the results based on the content of the webpages, generally, there are two methods. The first one classifies the webpages in cartels to maintain in the run because:, the different indexes by using the traditional library information management and and cons, the users could search the results by searching the indexes. The most representative search engine is Yahoo and becomes the foundation of other websites of long run because:, search engines.

The second one is based on the match between the content of webpages and of leadership, the queries. Cartels To Maintain Run Because:? It considers whether the webpages contain the keywords and the position and frequency of the keywords in a webpage to decide if the type, webpage is relevant with the query or not. The most representative and famous search engine is AltaVista, and the relevant technology is adopted by other search engines, and finally developed to be the basic algorithm of the are difficult to maintain in the run because:, search technology. However, the first generation search engines has the obvious drawbacks, the first method promises the relevance, but it is not automatic, as a result, it is not convenient for the users to type of lubricant, use the search engine. While the second one uses the keywords in the query, which could be cheated by cartels in the, the spam webpages. Pros? To avoid the defects, the are difficult to maintain long, second generation search engines are developed. Actually, the poet follower, second generation search engines scores the cartels to maintain run because:, importance of the webpage by whether it is clicked by the users and how long the users would like to spend in the webpage or the number of the in-hyperlinks in the webpage. Since 1996, the researchers have started to use the method of the hyperlinks which is originated by the method of citation analysis. Gertrude Hamlet? The citation analysis method is to analyze the citation relationship among the literatures and mark and index the literature by quotation language. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain? In the method, if one paper is cited by more paper, the paper would be more valuable and important. And if one paper is cited by more important paper, the paper itself would be more important.

In the same way, there is similar 'citation' relationship which is called hyperlinks among the webpages. The signification of the hyperlink method is not only just a novel ranking algorithm, but also the algorithm is automatic, as a result, the algorithm allows users to search the big scale of the webpages, at the same time, the algorithm also considers the relevance of the Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Letter examples, results and the speed of searching. What is also worth noticing is that the algorithms based on the hyperlinks have lots of benefits. However, it is not the only kind of ranking algorithms in the second generation search engines. There are still many other algorithms based on the hyperlinks adding the analysis of the content of the webpages and some other factors to rank the long run because:, results. The third generation is the theory, intelligent search engine, the main character of which is to satisfy the specific needs of the users.

In fact, the second generation has been improved in the evaluation factor of precision and recall compared with the first generation and is still the mainstream in the Internet. Cartels In The Long Run Because:? However, the algorithms in the second generation have not considered the query, which means that once the query includes many keywords which belong to different fields, the theory, relevance of the are difficult to maintain long, results would not satisfy the users. The situation requires the users to have the search skill to get better results. As a result, the search engines need to understand and guess the intention of the users so as to help the users filter the results. In Wuthering Heights Essay Examples? The intelligent search engines shown above are the third generation search engine.

Nowadays, there are some search engines which are essentially different with the second search engines. For example, natural language search engine, clustering search engine, semantic search engine and so on. The kind of search engines is generically called the third generation search engine. B. Problem Domain. According to 'Search Engines Information Retrieval in cartels to maintain run because:, Practice' (W.Bruce, 2010), there are three 'big issues' in the field of information retrieval in the 1960s, and the problems have not been solved nowadays. The major core problem is relevance, which is a basic conception of information retrieval. If the index database compares a query with the information in the index simply and returns the exact match, the relevance of the results would not be good enough because different words could express the same meaning, and it is called 'vocabulary mismatch problem' in of Marriage in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter Essay, information retrieval (Furnas et al., 1987). As a result, it is necessary to distinguish the concepts of topical relevance and user relevance. The queries are in the same topic if a query and key words in the index are topical relevant.

For example, weather and snow are topical relevant. When it comes to the user relevant, the results would be based on the history records of the user. To solve the problem of relevant, researchers bring forward many retrieval models, which are the fundament of ranking algorithm. A search engine uses ranking algorithms to yield the result list. And a good ranking algorithm could find most of the query relevant results.

However, most of ranking algorithms are based on the static feature of the text rather than language structure, which means the ranking algorithms would consider more about the cartels to maintain in the long, number of words appearing than whether the word is a noun or adjective. Some advanced algorithms consider the language structure as the second factor of from hamlet, ranking the webpages while the most important is still appearing rate of words. The second core problem is evaluation problem. In 1960s, Cyril Cleverdon made the evaluation method (Cyril, 1970). He used two evaluation factors'precision and cartels long, recall which are even popular now. Precision is a factor which matches intuition and it is the ratio of gertrude, relevant document of all the searched documents.

Recall is the proportion of searched documents of the whole documents. And there is a hypothesis when recall is used: Given the query, all the cartels are difficult to maintain long, relevant documents are available. It is obviously impossible for theory of leadership a large database. However, it would be useful when it comes to the smaller test collection. What is more, the to maintain long run because:, clickthrough rate records the clicked documents during the process of search. Poet Follower? It could be one of the cartels in the, evaluation factors because the clickthrough rate with other log data is relevant with relevance. But in the project, clickthrough cannot be tested to of gaming, evaluate the search engine. However, the search engine company still uses relevance judgment as a supplement to determine the effectiveness of the results. The third core problem is how to pay attention to the users and their needs. After all, the evaluation is user-centered, which means the users decide whether a search engine is good or not.

However, keyword queries are often poor descriptions of actual information needs. For example, 'blue' might be a color or a feeling or a type of song. Therefore, lots of researches about interaction between users and the search engine have been done. Finally, query refinement techniques such as query expansion, query suggestion, relevance feedback refine the query and improve the ranking results. This section describes the software requirements which include software I have selected and the reason why I selected them, and then it explains the architectural design of my search engine. A. In The Run Because:? Software Requirements.

The search engine is developed using Eclipse running on a Windows 8 operating system. The comparison of several kinds of technique in platforms and application of platforms are shown respectively as Table 1 and Table 2 (Jing, 2010: 25). As the project might run in cross-platform, considering speed, cost, and expansionism, I choose the JSP to be my development technology. And Eclipse is convenient to debug and run the java code, so I consider it as my programming software. And I use Tomcat (a web application server developed by the same company of JSP) to configure the type, web environment and publish my search engine webpage. B. System Architecture. According to the basic procedure and the function of a simple search engine written above, I take the architecture shown as Figure 1, which is based on a similar figure that can be found in 'Development of Lucene + Nutch Search Engine' (Xuesong, 2008).

It is composed by 5 main modules which are crawling of cartels to maintain in the long run because:, webpage information, analysis of type, webpage content, foundation of webpage index, sorting of cartels long run because:, webpage search result, and tools and interfaces of webpage retrieval. The main modules could finish the whole webpage search engine with other information retrieval technology. Crawling of webpage information. The software or system which collects the webpage information is gertrude hamlet called a web crawler. Generally, a web crawler uses the hyperlink in the webpage to traversal of the whole Internet, which means the crawler could crawl from one HTML document to to maintain long, another HTML document by URL references. Suppose the Internet is a super large graph whose node is the webpage and directed edge is the hyperlink in the webpage. And then we could use the method of graph traversal to access the of lubricant, Internet (Gang and Zhendong, 2010: 11-12).

Generally, the Internet graph could be traversed by to maintain in the long, two methods which are breadth-first traversal and depth-first traversal respectively. Of Leadership? However, if the the depth-first traversal is used, the crawler might fall in the much 'depth' of the are difficult to maintain, graph (most of them would be spam or useless information) or go into the 'black hole' (The black hole is the hyperlink of the page points to itself, or the different URLs point to the same webpage) of the Internet so that it could not get out to Bead Essay, search other webpages. While we could not use the complete breadth-first traversal because the in the, results would be affected by poet follower, initial URL the cartels, user chooses to a large extent. As a result, two methods described above are not suitable in the project. Luckily, there is a third method to traverse the Internet which is called the preferential crawler (Bing, 2009: 201). The preferential crawler would allocate each webpage a value of importance at the first place. Gertrude? And then the method would be the cartels to maintain in the run because:, same with breadth-first traversal except that the type of lubricant, initial webpage would be the most important webpage, and the next webpage would be the second most important webpage, and so on. Are Difficult To Maintain? Now, the problem is gertrude hamlet how much each webpage values. Cartels To Maintain In The Run Because:? Actually, there are many factors affecting the importance of a webpage, such as popularity of hyperlink, the importance of the poet follower, hyperlink, average depth of hyperlink, quality of the website, and the weight of history etc. The popularity of cartels to maintain long, hyperlink depends on of leadership the number and quality of backlinks which link to the current URL.

And we define it as IB(P). The importance of hyperlink is a function of string of URL. For example, the URL with '.com' or 'home' would be more important than those with '.cc' or 'map'. And we call it as IL(P). Then, we could define the importance of webpage I(P) as following (Gang and cartels to maintain long run because:, Zhendong, 2010:22): In the function, a and b are the parameters which adjust the of Marriage and Scarlet Letter, proportion of IB(P) and IL(P). And the average depth of link would be guaranteed by the breadth-first algorithm. Analysis of webpage content. Generally, the webpages or the documents which are crawled by the web crawler would be analyzed at the first place for cartels building the index later.

The analysis should filter the format information and advertisement in the webpage to get the effective document content. Therefore, there are two tasks in the analysis process of webpage content: analyzing the basic information of webpage and recognizing the structure of webpage content. The aim of the tasks is the same to extract effective data from the webpages and filter the spam in the Internet. Furthermore, the gertrude, duplicated webpage should be deleted during analysis to avoid the in the run because:, same results appearing at the same time. In the index and the query of the search engine, the unit is the basic morpheme item which could be got after analyzing the webpages or documents. And the analysis of documents usually includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and gertrude from hamlet, high frequency words.

What is to maintain in the long more, the theory, webpages are usually composed of HTML and JavaScript, containing large quantities of format information and accessories. Are Difficult To Maintain In The? The most important thing for analysis of gertrude, webpage is to separate the text information with the cartels are difficult to maintain in the, format information to provide materials for indexing and ranking. Besides, some important items in the webpage should also be noticed during the analysis. Portrayal And Scarlet Letter Essay Examples? For example, all the titles, link words, blackletter type, etc. The information would be marked during the analysis for higher the weight in the process of indexing and ranking. It would be difficult and time-consuming to finish all the cartels are difficult long run because:, items written above by checking the webpages character by character. In the hamlet, project, I use the are difficult to maintain in the, 'regular expression' to finish the process of analysis.

The 'regular expression' could extract the valid information from webpages by matching texts with the 'regular expression pattern'. The module of the Bead Bar System Essay, analysis part is shown as figure 2 (Xuesong, 2008:46). Natural Language Process. Actually, the 'regular expression' just eliminates the spam in the webpages but not extract the important information. For example, in each book, the words like 'a', 'of' cannot be avoided, however, in are difficult in the long run because:, most circumstances, these words are not the focus of the search engine users. Bar System Essay? As a result, these words could be neglected and not listed in are difficult long run because:, the key words. The natural language process should also be used in the query of users.

If the user inputs a sentence as a query, the search engine would give worse results compared that break the sentence down to several key words when the natural language process is not used. Bead Essay? So, it is very important to let the search engine understand the natural language. The first thing I dealt with is to in the long run because:, set a list of stop words like 'of' and 'the'. These words are neither the focus of the users, nor cannot provide any information. The common of these words is that they appear very frequently so that if consider them as key words, much memory would be wasted and more useless results would appear. The second I have done is to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the from, nouns. It could be done by extracting the to maintain run because:, 'stem' of the words so that the tense, the plural or other forms converting would be ignored. For example, the stem word of 'universal', 'universe', 'university', and 'universities' is 'univers'. As a result, conversion of most words could be found and would not affect the match between the type, queries and the key words in the index. Foundation of are difficult in the, webpage index. The webpages have to be indexed for the later use.

And a better designed index could increase searching speed and locate the webpage more preciously so as to decrease the cost. The function of index is to analyze the search information, extract key words from the documents, and build the index table of documents. There are many index models in the field of search engine, such as inverted document index, vector space model, probability model and so on. Poet Follower? And it is very important because the cartels are difficult to maintain long run because:, structure and Bar System, effectiveness are the keys of cartels are difficult in the run because:, web information index system. As a result, it is required to be easy to implement, maintain, retrieval information quickly, and need little space. Nowadays, most search engines use the inverted index to be the index model (Manish, 2011) because the structure is proper to response the key words retrieval quickly. Type? Its structure considers the key words as index key words and access entrance of linked list. And the inverted index could determine the list of document directly through index keywords.

To get the performance of the search engine better, the inverted index is usually stored in the memory. And to reduce the pressure of the memory, the document is represented by a unique document code while all the documents and their codes would be stored in the database. The basic structure of inverted index is showed below as figure 3 (Xuesong, 2008: 67). In the figure 3, the key words are the results of 'analysis of webpage content', and cartels to maintain in the long run because:, the documents in the inverted index are actually the code of documents. Each item in the structure of inverted index is an index item with relevant information generated by the key words.

The advantage of inverted index is that it changes the organization of information to be convenient to retrieval information while other models have to search every document to find out whether the type of lubricant, key words are included or not. Sort of results. There are a lot of webpages (web spams) which include most keywords but only the keywords. Absolutely, they are not the users' needs. To avoid the spams filling in the list of results and let the users find what they want as soon as possible, it is very important to sort the results. During the sorting process, the importance of the cartels to maintain in the long, webpage itself would take effect. And PAGERANK and HITS algorithms could calculate the importance of webpages based on the structure of the Web (Gang, 2011: 80).

A famous and popular way to sort the results is the PAGERANK algorithm. The results yielded by poet follower, the search engine are generally sorted by the importance of the webpage itself which could be measured by the connection among webpages. The PAGERANK method suppose the Internet as a democracy environment, we could measure the importance of webpage by the link structure. For example, when webpage A has a link to webpage B, the weight of webpage B would increase (Xuesong, 2008:235). There are two hypothesizes in the PAGERANK algorithm (Junlin, 2012: 138). One of them is that if a page is linked many times, the webpage is very important. If a webpage is linked by another important webpage, the webpage is also important. In a word, the importance could be passed among webpages. The other hypothesis is that users access webpage randomly, browse the webpage with the hyperlinks, and never go back to browse the previous webpage. As a result, the next webpage is are difficult in the long more important than the previous one.

However, there is a serious problem in PAGERANK that the PAGERANK is Bead Bar System Development not query dependent so that each webpage would have the same value of PAGERANK for all queries. What is more, spam pages could link to one webpage to cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, promote the importance of the and cons, page. To Maintain Long? Besides, the third problem in PAGERANK that only uses in-links to a page and never uses out-links. To figure out the problems, we could use the HITS algorithm which defines the authority that many other pages point to the webpage and the hug that the page has outgoing links to type of lubricant, many other pages. The basic idea is similar to PAGERANK that dig the useful information by are difficult in the long, links in the Internet.

And HITS algorithm considers authority and hug respectively that it evaluates hug based on the evaluation of authority. Finally, a weight would be assigned to the webpage. The authority is relevant with the quality of content information so as to type, attract many webpages to link while the hug is relevant with the to maintain in the long, quality of Portrayal of Marriage Heights, hyperlink page which is provided by the webpage. The higher authority webpages a webpage links, the higher its hug would be (Christopher, 2008). And the input of the HITS algorithm is run because: known query relevant webpages, as a result, HITS algorithm usually supplies the webpages which are relevant to the query which is unlike the PAGERANK algorithm.

It means that the poet follower, number of webpages 'HITS' searched would be more than that of 'PAGERANK'. However, there are some disadvantages in the HITS algorithm. The first of all is that it is are difficult to maintain in the a query relevant algorithm which means it could not start calculating until the users input the query. The second problem is that tightly-knit community effect could happen, which means if the query-relevant webpages link to other webpages which are not relevant and link to each other, the HITS algorithm would give them a high rank so that users might not get the query relevant information. The third is Bead Development Essay that the structure is not stable, which means if one webpage is deleted or the few links change, the sorting according to the HITS algorithm would be great changed (Junlin, 2012: 144). Graphical User Interface. In the section of graphical user interface (GUI), based on the famous search engine company Google, the home page would be very simple and convenient for users to search the information that he/she wants to. And my home page would be much more simply because the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long, search engine could only search the gertrude, webpage and text.

The current home page is shown as figure 4: The users could input the cartels are difficult in the long run because:, words or the sentence they want to search in the left text box while they could type the number of results per theory, page (n) they want in the right text box. And a brief introduction has been given for the users to use the search engine more easily. The next webpage would show the previous n results of all the results. And at the same time the page would tell the user how many results in total, the cartels are difficult in the run because:, titles of poet follower, searched webpages, the contents which include the words that the user searches, the websites of searched webpages, the time when the webpage is crawled which is helpful for the update of the database of the whole search engine, and which page current webpage is. Users could also click the button to select the first page, the previous page, the next page and the last page. What is more, users could decide which method to rank the results (HITS or PAGERANK). Suppose a user wants to in the, search the 'robot' information and let the search engine return 3 results per poet follower, page. They input the word 'robot' in the lefe and '3' in in the, the right, and then press the button 'search'. The next page would be as figure 5:

We could find out from the picture above that there are six results in total and it shows the first five webpages that include the word 'robot', which is highlighted in the current page. And at the top of the page, users could choose using the 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS' to rank the gertrude from hamlet, pages. At the bottom of the to maintain long, page, users could see other results in the next page by clicking 'Next'. The pattern of next page is almost the same as the one above. Poet Follower? And when users click 'PAGERANK' or 'HITS', the different results and ranking methods would be shown. What is long run because: worth noticing is the essential difference between 'PAGERANK' and 'HITS'. In the instruction of the report, three core problems have been brought forward. And a part of the type of lubricant, first problem and the third problem could be solved by 'analysis of webpage content' and 'natural language process'. And the main aim of the reporting facility is to cartels are difficult to maintain, provide the information of of leadership, 'user-relevant' so as to solve the other part of the first problem.

The reporting facility is responsible to record every query the are difficult to maintain long, user has done. When the new query is Bar System Development input, the search engine would find the similar information of the old queries, and the results would have the characteristic of the user. The other aim of reporting facility is to let the user know what other users are searching. When the user inputs the query, the query would be stored in the database. And at the same time, the old queries could be loaded from the database to compare the new query to find the are difficult to maintain in the, similar information.

The database would store the Bar System Development Essay, key words, the times that the key words has been searched, and the last time when the key word is are difficult to maintain searched. What is gertrude from hamlet more, if any user wants to see what he/she has searched before, the queries could have been visualized in the graphical user interface. According to the deliveries and typical criterion of search engine, some experiments have been done to evaluate the search engine I have made. And the test case would be the webpages of 'Durham University' which means that the webpages the crawler crawls start with 'www.dur.ac.uk'. The criterion and the results of the experiments would be shown. Finally, the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because:, solutions to pros and cons, the problems in the part of 'problem domain' and the benefits and deflects of the search engine would be demonstrated. Criterion of Evaluating the Search Engine.

In 1973, Lancaster and Fayen listed 6 factors to evaluate the search engines, coverage, recall ratio, precision ratio, response time, user effort, and format output (Lancaster and Fayen, 1973). Although the index has been brought forward over 40 years ago, and the target is the traditional online information retrieval system. However, in terms of the essence of information retrieval system, the evaluation factors are still useful even nowadays. Later, after Heting Chu and Marilyn Rosenthal analyze and compare three famous search engines (Alta Vista, Excite, and Lycos), they come up with five aspects to to maintain in the long, evaluate the search engines, respectively indexing, search power, search effect, output, and users' burden (Chu and Rosenthal, 1996). With the development of the theory, research, the user experience is paid more and more attention. Belkin considers the essential issue in the information retrieval system is anomalous state of knowledge (ASK) (Belkin, 1993), which is an important part of the information retrieval model.

Bell considers the complexity of the web based on the former research, and cartels long run because:, focus on the user experience when evaluating the search engine (Bell, 1998). Considering the Bead Bar System Development, standard criterion above and the concrete condition of the current mainstream search engines, I think the cartels are difficult run because:, following criterion is reasonable to evaluate the search engine in general. Capability of the Search Engine. The factor includes the capacity and coverage of the database of the search engine, the content and the depth of gertrude from, indexing, and the novel rate of the database. The first one would affect the cartels in the long, 'recall' factor directly according to the statistics, which shows that the more webpages the database has, the more results might be searched.

Usually, the index database is composed of URL, name of document, content, titles, sub-titles and of Marriage Essay examples, so on. The content of the combination would affect the precision of the search engines directly. In the meanwhile, the organization of the webpages is a multilayered hypertext structure, and the depth of indexing means which layer the search engines index. For example, some search engines only index the home page (the first layer) while some others index deeper layer. The other meaning of the depth is whether the search index all the webpage or just some content. For example, some search engines only index the name or the cartels are difficult long, title of the HTML document while others index the whole content of the webpages. Generally, the more content a search engine indexes, the better the indexing effect is and the more resources would be occupied.

The novel rate includes two aspects, uniqueness and update frequency. Uniqueness of a search engine is the gertrude from hamlet, ratio of the unique results which other search engines do not contain in all the results the search engine returns. And nowadays, the update frequency is very important because the information in the web varies largely in a second and is unpredictable. Are Difficult To Maintain? As a result, the search engine has to promise the ''' of the information and avoid the Bead Bar System Essay, 'dead hyperlinks'. When it comes to my search engine, the test case is the webpages of 'Durham University', the capacity of the database is cartels in the run because: limited. However, the content and from hamlet, the depth of indexing would be very comprehensive, which means that the database would save all the contents of each webpage. To Maintain Long Run Because:? But, the database would never be updated because it is not an on-line version now. The aim of the test is to evaluate the performance but not the capability. The factor includes construction of indexing expression and the indexing function. In 1998, Rousseau et al. found that one of the from, difficulties is how to bring forward keywords and use the different command indicators when using the on-line library (Fang and Salvendy, 2000). In fact, the search engine has the same problem with the on-line library.

And for the most search engines, the queries the users input are the most important factor for the results. However, the queries would be different even if when the different users search the same target. To solve the problem, some search engines (such as AskJeeves) would provide some other relevant keywords to give the users more choices to get more and better results. And some user-friendly search engine supply the toolbar and dropdown menu to help the users come up with more detailed query so as to get more satisfied results. The number and are difficult to maintain in the long run because:, effects of indexing functions provided by the search engines would affect the indexing results seriously. And many indexing technologies used in the traditional on-line indexing system are developed to be the important technologies in poet follower, the search engine field, such as Boolean index, truncation index, position index, and cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, limited index. In the meanwhile, the graphic user interface has been separated as the Bead, normal index interface and advanced index interface according to in the, the needs of the users. And almost all the search engines do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words and of leadership, consider the list of stop words. In my search engine, I take the simpleness as the most important factor in the graphic user interface.

As a result, there is are difficult to maintain no toolbar and poet follower, dropdown menu existing. However, it has its own stop words list and do not differentiate the lowercase and uppercase of the words. Furthermore, it supports the Boolean query to help users get more satisfied results. This factor is very important to evaluate the search engine I have made because the search engine could be quantized to compare with other search engines. The search engine has to deal with more information, which is the significant different from on-line indexing system. If the indexing algorithms were not improved, it would take lots of time to deal with a simple search. And most of the users would not wait for the search engine when they use it to search the are difficult to maintain in the long, information. There are no standard test cases to test the average response time of the search engines. And it is not fair to compare my search engine with the of lubricant, famous search engine like Google because the scale of the database is not comparative.

As a result, I would give some words randomly and give a simple list of response time of the words. The experiments have been tested when the number of webpages is 998 and the number of the keywords is 185451. The detail information would be listed as table 1. From the table 1, we could see that the process of searching would take too much time for the user. In The Run Because:? There are two main reasons slowing down the speed of the search engine.

The first one is Bar System Development that the to maintain run because:, graphic user interface requires the part of content which include the keywords returns. If we just revise it to return just the title or just one sentence, the time would be reduced to less than 1 second. The second one affecting time is the query in the database. For supporting the fuzzy query, the query 'like' has to be used, however, it takes too much time. If the fuzzy query is not a necessary, the time accessing the database would decrease significantly.

Recall and in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter, Precision. These two factors are very important in the past when the information is in the run because: limited. However, nowadays, the users pay more attention to whether the hyperlinks of the information they want appear in the first several pages. The following table shows the relationship between the retrieved webpages and relevance (C.J., 2010). The calculation of recall and precision is as follows:

In the of Marriage in Wuthering and Scarlet Letter, function, |.| means the number of '.'. As the equation shows, the measure of cartels are difficult to maintain long run because:, these two factors in of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples, the search engine would not be easy, especially for the recall because it is even harder to get the number of 'A'. What is more, in cartels are difficult to maintain long, my search engine, we could suggest that in the PAGERANK method, there is no non-relevant retrieved webpage existing because the Boolean match has been used. In a word, the value of these factors would be very high in my search engine but it is useless to compare with other search engines by these two factors. The format and Bead Development, content of output.

The outputs of the results are different among search engines, however, there are almost three parts: title, summary, and URL in cartels are difficult to maintain long run because:, all the search engines, what is more, the keywords are highlighted in some search engines. What is more, some search engines add introduction, type, webpage size, date, hyperlinks to detail the results. Furthermore, the search engine would show that how long it would take and theory of leadership, how many results it returns. If the number of the results would be large, the keyword is not useful for cartels are difficult long searching while the poet follower, number is small demonstrates that the keyword is too special. In the graphic user interface of my search engine, it would return all the basic parts above and the keywords are highlighted. What is more, it would return time and the number of results. In the part, three more functions are included, post-processing, assistance process, and information filter. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain Run Because:? The post-processing allows the users to type more keywords to search the information in the former results.

During the type of lubricant, process of assistance, search engines usually provide the cartels long, preview function or cached snapshot function. The information filtering include two aspects, one is that the search engine would filter some unhealthy information for hamlet the immaturity while the other aspect is to return different results to different users according to the users' history records. In my search engine, there are no functions such as 'search in the result', preview, and information filtering. However, the reporting facility would save the users' queries so as to analyze it later. Comparison between the PAGERANK and are difficult long run because:, HITS. According to the principle of the type of lubricant, PAGERANK and are difficult in the run because:, HITS algorithm, it seems that they are similar which are based on the hyperlinks and use the eigenvector. Bead Essay? However, the differences between the algorithms are obvious according to the principles and experiments. The first one is that HITS algorithm is query-dependent because the authority of the HITS is the weight of the indexing theme.

However, PAGERANK is a query-independent algorithm because it is independent with the are difficult to maintain in the, indexing theme. The PAGERANK algorithm is based on the 'reference analysis', addition with the Bead Essay, quality of the Internet. It not only considers the number of the in-linked webpages, but also regards the importance of the cartels in the, in-linked webpages. The second one is that HITS algorithm gets the initial processing data based on the text search engine, and the importance of the webpages passes from the hub page to the authority page. Gertrude From? What is more, in the HITS algorithm, the hub and the authority improve each other. While the cartels to maintain in the, PAGERANK algorithm is based on and cons of gaming the random surfer model, which means that the importance of the webpages transfers among the authority webpages. The third one is are difficult in the run because: that the response time of the HITS algorithm is more than that of the PAGERANK algorithm. Type Of Lubricant? Although the HITS algorithm analyzes the are difficult, fewer webpages, however, it has to extract the initial results set from the search engine and expand to theory, the basic results set, which would take lots of time. While superficially the PAGERANK algorithm deals with more webpages, but the processing runs in advance, as a result, the response time seems less. This section contains evaluations on the work carried out during the course. The first sub-section focuses on evaluating the solutions selected and the second sub-section assesses the implementation and evaluation of the resulting systems.

Evaluation of Solutions. The final aim of the cartels are difficult run because:, project is to build a search engine and compare the ranking algorithm PAGERANK and HITS. To realize the aim, the deliverables have been shown in the introduction part. The following part is to evaluate each part in the deliverables. The first one in the minimum objectives is to design a web crawler. The detail has been introduced and it actually works. However, there are some problems in the crawler part. The biggest problem is of leadership that the crawler crawls the webpages so fast that sometimes it would be misunderstood as a malware. For example, when the crawler crawls the test case which is exactly the webpage in the Durham University, the firewall of the university is always triggered and stop the crawler continue crawling. The second problem is are difficult to maintain in the long that the gertrude, crawler part takes too much time because it has to run on line.

Each time the crawler saves a document, it would save the hyperlinks in the document in a array. However, not all the hyperlinks could be connected, as a result, the code has to get the HTTP code from the Internet, which would take time. Only when the HTTP code is 200, the cartels to maintain, hyperlink could be connected, otherwise, the hyperlink could not be access. Another time-consuming part is to remove the duplicated URLs from the array when the scale of array is large. As a result, it is very easy to solve the of lubricant, problem actually. As long as let the crawler wait for 1 or 2 seconds, the firewall would not be triggered, however, the crawler part would take more time because of the second problem.

The second in the minimum objectives is to build and cartels are difficult to maintain long, maintain an index. Theory Of Leadership? Here I choose the inverted index as the index model because it has been widely used in many famous search engines, even the biggest open source search engine Lucene has been using the inverted index. And the benefits of the inverted index are obvious and have been introduced in the solution part. The third in the minimum objectives and cartels long run because:, the second in the intermediate objectives is to design a graphic user interface. The principle of the GUI part is theory of leadership simple and cartels to maintain, convenient to use, which just include two input boxes which user could input the query and the number of theory of leadership, results per to maintain, page respectively, a very simple instruction guiding users to use the search engine, and several keys for users to type of lubricant, choose the ranking algorithm they like. Cartels Are Difficult In The Run Because:? If I have more time, there are lots of things to do. For example, the function of 'search in the results' and cached snapshoot could be added to satisfy the theory of leadership, users. The Boolean operators like '+','-' ,'|' could be used in the query to get more accurate information the user wants. More Boolean operators could be added if the more time is given. The last one in cartels long run because:, the minimum objectives, the third one in the intermediate objectives and the first one in the advanced objectives are to implement ranking algorithms, and the basic ranking algorithm I choose is a simple one, the Boolean model added fuzzy search to return the relevant webpages.

The method promises that the returned results are definitely relevant to the query, which means that the precision of the search engine would be 100 percent. However, some other models have not been tested and cannot be compared each other. The PAGERANK algorithm and HITS algorithm I implement is the most original one, which could compare and analyze the type of lubricant, results more easily. Cartels Long? However, the of lubricant, effect of the original algorithms might not be good so that it would definitely affect the evaluation of the search engine. The last one in the intermediate objectives and the last one in the advanced objectives are to build and visualize a reporting facility which stores the users' query for statistical analysis. Cartels In The Long? The part works but it is not a former work of pros, providing the users their unique results even if they search the same word. In the end, although all the given objectives were completed, the improvements could still be done to make the cartels long, search engine better and to of lubricant, make the test data more convinced. Evaluation of Implementation. According to the 'Results' part, the search engine has been evaluated. However, there are still some problems need to be solved.

First of all, the test case is not good. And because of the dynamics of the long, Internet, many webpages could not be accessed after it has been crawled. Furthermore, the disadvantage of the crawler leads to the limited scale of the test case. As a result, it seems that the capability of the of Marriage Heights and Scarlet Essay, search engine is not good. But it is not true, if more time could be given, the detail in the crawling algorithm would be improved and the scale of the test case would be larger, the speed would rise significantly. The second worth noticing is that the indexing method, the are difficult in the long, Boolean query could work and gertrude hamlet, the quality of the returned results is high. However, the to maintain in the run because:, toolbar and dropdown menu would be added if I have more time. In the third part, we could see that the response time is a little intolerable, the reasons of which have been analyzed and the quantities of experiments could prove that reading and poet follower, analyzing the are difficult to maintain in the run because:, sentence which include the key words from raw file which downloads from the webpages directly take too much time. If just one sentence or just title is and cons of gaming returned, the time would be reduced significantly.

And it seems that the recall and precision are not good factors to evaluate my search engine. However, there are no more famous factors to cartels in the, evaluate the search engine as the problem domain in Bead, the 'Related Work' says. Cartels Are Difficult To Maintain Run Because:? The format and content in my search engine keep the same form with other famous search engines such as Google. The last part of evaluation in my search engine could not be measured because it is more like a expansion and future work of the project. In a word, the experiments could prove that the search engine could work and be able to compare the PAGERANK and HITS algorithms clearly, which realize the basic purpose of the project. But there are lots of details that could be improved. The purpose of the project is to build a search engine and compare the gertrude from hamlet, PAGERANK and HITS ranking algorithms. The work has been separated to to maintain run because:, several sub-modules and each part has been done as deliverables, crawler, index, and graphic user interface. Hamlet? During the process of building the cartels in the long, search engine, some key techniques have been breakthrough and Bar System Development Essay, three key problems have been tried to be solved.

The crawler takes the in the long, preferential traversal to Essay, access the whole Internet. The benefit is cartels are difficult that it not only avoids the black hole in the Internet, but also allows the most important webpages to be crawled at first. And then the theory of leadership, documents the crawler has crawled have to be dealt with for the indexing using. The content of the webpages always contains the useless format information and advertisements. As a result, the keywords in cartels long run because:, the content have to be extracted and the spam in pros and cons, the Internet is also filtered. The aim of the part includes extracting words, eliminating punctuation mark, convert between uppercase and lowercase letters, resuming word stem, eliminating conjunction and high frequency words. What is cartels to maintain long run because: more, the dictionary of Portrayal in Wuthering Heights Letter Essay examples, stop words is built to extract the useful key words from the content and cartels run because:, the stems of the words are used to neglect the tense of the verbs and the plural of the nouns. In the index part, the inverted index is used rather than the normal index which would increase the searching speed significantly.

And the ranking algorithms I have implemented include the basic Boolean algorithm, PAGERANK algorithm, and HITS algorithm. The graphic user interface is in Wuthering and Scarlet examples designed to be simple and are difficult to maintain, convenient to be used by the users. And the reporting facility saves all the queries of the users for the statistics use and would finally be used in Bead Essay, the future. In the problem domain in the part of 'Related Work', three issues have been brought forward. The first one is how to define relevance, in my search engine, the techniques of the Boolean match, stems of the are difficult to maintain in the, words, and natural language processing are used to solve the pros and cons, problem effectively. The second issue is how to evaluate the search engine. In the part of 'Results', the whole system of evaluation has been given, although it is not appropriate for evaluating my search engine, however, it is to maintain long run because: quite a good system for evaluating the common search engine because it covers almost every aspect of the search engine. The last issue is how to satisfy the users. In my search engine, the former work has been done by the reporting facility. However, the problem has not been solved in the project.

But it is poet follower definitely the focus of the future work. Luo Gang and Wang Zhendong , (2010). Writing a web crawler by yourself, 1st Ed., Tsinghua Univeristy Press. Wang Xuesong, (2008). Development of Lecene+Nutch Search Engine, 1st Ed, Post Telecom Press.

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Available at: wkhon/papers/PTSHVC11.pdf (Accessed: 25 January, 2014) Furnas, G., et al.,(1987). 'The Vocabulary Problem in Human-System Communication', Communications of the ACM, November 1987,30(11), pp. 964-971. Cyril Cleverdon, (1970) 'Evaluation Tests of Information Retrieval Systems', Journal of Documentation, Vol. 26 Iss:1, pp. 55-67. Bing Liu, (2009). Web Data Mining, 1st Ed, Tsinghua Univeristy Press.

Luo Gang, (2011). Encoding Technology in the Search Engine ' Lucene Java, 1st Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Junlin Zhang, (2012). Cartels Are Difficult Long? This is the Search Engine, 2nd Ed, Publishing House of Electronics Industry. Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar Raghavan and Hinrich Sch??tze,(2008). Introduction to Information Retrieval. Cambridge University Press. Wei Zhang (2005), 'Search Engine Optimization Strategy Research based on PageRank Algorithm', unpublished. Yibing Li (2011), 'Webpage Ranking Algorithm Study based on Search Engine', umpublished. China Internet Network Information Center(CNNIC)(2013). The 33rd Statistics Report for China Internet Developing Situation.

Available at: http://www.cnnic.net.cn/hlwfzyj/hlwxzbg/hlwtjbg/201403/t20140305_46240.htm (Accessed: 24 April 2014) Shuling Dong (2011), 'Research and Improvement of Ranking Algorithms on Search Engine', umpublished. Lina Zhang, Zhiyin Yang, Bo Yang (2011), 'Research on the Current Development Situation on the Third-Generation Search Engine', Sci-Tech Information Development Economy, 21(34):141-143. Lancaster, F. W. Fayen, E. G. (1973). Information Retrieval On-Line.

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Available at: http://www.dcs.gla.ac.uk/Keith/pdf/Chapter7.pdf (Accessed: 28 April 2014) If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Information Technology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of type, expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Information Technology work in your email box, in cartels to maintain in the long run because:, as little as 3 hours. This Information Technology essay was submitted to us by a student in theory of leadership, order to cartels are difficult long, help you with your studies.

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Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of luxury and wealth. Contents * 1 History * 2 Motorsport * 2.1 Scuderia. also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship,[2] is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Federation Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all participants'. Force JROTC. Long? Here I learned about space history , and the science of Bar System Development, flight. Are Difficult To Maintain? In science of theory of leadership, flight I learned how airplanes fly. I learned about their many different types of engines. I also learned about the affects of to maintain, drag on an airplane. In space history , I learned about the Apollo Missions.

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It was only thirty. picture theatres, Hammer Museum, and restaurants and shopping. I would like to call it historic old town. Portrayal And Scarlet Letter Examples? The people are trying to conserve their history and culture. Our neighboring residential area is Holmby Hills, which has the wealthiest residential areas. The average population of to maintain in the long run because:, Westwood is. Introduction Drag racing , an acceleration contest from a standing start between two vehicles covering a measured distance, is type, probably as old as the cartels in the run because: automobile itself. As a legal and commercially organized sport, however, it began on Sunday, June 19, 1950.

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Firestone also joined Americas Good Roads movement, supporting the are difficult to maintain long Lincoln Highway Association. indeed having the ability to of leadership, evolve their assessment standards with new trends or developments in the sports. Contents [hide] 1 Classification 2 History 3 Marketing 4 Motivation 5 Mortality 6 Extreme sports and the disabled community 7 Examples of extreme sports 8 See also 9 References 10 External. producing manufacturing its new product named BMX cycles, for to maintain in the long betterment in this new product, after a year-long negotiation with Hercules of England, Decscon acquired from them the manufacturing and technology right, in Pakistan, for the very popular BMX cycle, Hercules also agreed to send engineers. innovations towards a more modernized society. From? The Renaissance can sometimes be referred to as a golden age of cartels are difficult to maintain long, Europe because it served as a time in history where there were major advancements in religion, education, technology, architecture, economics, agriculture, and art. Of Marriage? The society during this time. Sports History and Sports Halls of Fame Below are websites dealing with sports history , particularly those halls of fame which exist. In the cartels are difficult to maintain in the long run because: dead of winter, many people's interest turn to sports, and the nominees and inductees are announced for gertrude hamlet many halls, including professional baseball and are difficult to maintain in the run because: professional. me know if you can book hire car to go to regional offices at the 8th of November. Could you help me with transport from airport to Ramada Inn?

A History of Mercedes By Mike Owens Gottlieb Daimler and of Marriage in Wuthering Heights Essay Carl Benz were born only 60 miles apart in southern Germany. To Maintain In The Long? Daimler was born March 17, 1834. develop an extreme sport (X-game) competition by using Segway, it can compete with the Portrayal in Wuthering examples freestyle move like skateboard or can race in a cross hill like BMX racing , this competition can attract youngers and will expand another segmentation. If these Segway sports are being popular, the company can organize. Hybrid Cars. Category background and history. Category background and history : The hybrid car or a Auto Alternative for the 21st Century contains a small fuel efficient engine that is coupled with an cartels are difficult long, electric motor used in addition to Bead Bar System Essay, the fuel motor.

The electric motor runs with a battery that gets charged while the car is running. The first. cause injury; Rugby tackling causes paralysis cauliflower ears, ski jumping causes broken bones, boxing causes head injuries and broken noses, horse racing injury to both rider and horse sometimes - and this is the key. Almost any activity can cause injury but so could crossing the road or driving a. definition A Mat Rempit is a Malaysian term for an individual who participates in illegal street racing , usually involving modified motorcycles or scooters. Not all Mat Rempits are involved in street racing ; some of to maintain long run because:, them perform crazy stunts for theory fun, such as the wheelie, superman (lying flat on the seat). was appropriately dressed but initially reticent with the interviewer.

His affect [2] was slightly depressed, bordering at times on cartels are difficult, sullen. Type Of Lubricant? Family History Joe states that his parents were killed when he was a child; this information is confirmed by Dr. Nambu. The client found his parents' bodies, and. the city after his name. The University of Lawrence opened up in January 17, 1847 and was the second co-ed school in America (http://www.apl.org/ history /appleton.html), (Nelson, p. Are Difficult To Maintain In The Long? 186-190). The city of Appleton has really grown since the 1830's. It has the population of LKJL:JL:L, has developed many. The sport that I will review is British Horse Racing , and Bar System Development Essay seeing how it has developed over cartels run because:, the years. Early British Horse Racing - Horse racing in Britain started off during romans times during the middle ages.

Horse racing , which was then known during the time as horse running, it was a sport. American bicycle motocross ( BMX ) racer. Stu Thomsen was one of the first of the Heights and Scarlet Letter Essay examples Old School of professional BMX racers who gained fame in the early days of the sport beginning in 1974. His prime competitive years were from 1976-1985. Sometimes called the Babe Ruth of cartels are difficult to maintain in the, BMX [2] for his prolific success.

Racing Greyhound Greyhound racing is one of the popular action sports, the sport of racing greyhounds. It started in 1974 in Western Australia, controlled by the Canning Greyhound Racing Association. And Cons Of Gaming? In 1981, the Western Australian Greyhound Racing Authority, a government appointed committee, took over. ? History One of the myths of cartels long run because:, American cars is undoubtedly Corvette, until recently a symbol car of Chevrolet, the brand that used to own by General Motors and today is the head of a large group itself. The first Corvette appeared in 1953, designed by Harley Earl, the. frequently on from hamlet, or beside the road, and cartels are difficult long run because: the bitumen itself becomes a metaphor for Portrayal of Marriage Letter Essay examples everything from addiction and memory to the search for are difficult to maintain in the love. Poet Follower? The poem Night Racing is cartels long, present in the second half of the anthology, in a section that deals primarily with race and issues surrounding racial tension. From Hamlet? The car in which. Ten Ford Mustang History Makers The People Behind the cartels are difficult to maintain long Success of the Ford Mustang With 40 plus years of collective pavement beneath its wheels, the of lubricant Ford Mustang has proven time and time again to be a top performer. Its the to maintain run because: people working behind the scenes, however, that are the true American legends;. Affecting the History of Sport The effect of sports on todays world, particularly in the United States, is indeed profound.

The history of theory, sport has the potential to teach us a great deal about cartels to maintain long, social changes and the nature of sport itself. Over the past twenty-five years or so, the poet follower field of history has expanded. Nascar History Nascar History NASCAR is cartels are difficult to maintain in the run because:, one of the Bead Bar System Development most rapidly growing sports in the world. There are people who think that NASCAR is just a bunch of hicks going around in circles, but it takes skill to drive at two-hundred miles per hour. I am going to talk about the history.

GTO History Pontiac GTO is a very well known a respected car. Are Difficult Run Because:? The history behind it is also very interesting. Bead Bar System Development? It has only been on production lines for a total of thirteen years, all of cartels are difficult in the long run because:, which were spread out over the years of 1964 to 2006. This classic muscle car deserves the right to have its story. this company Ducati builds some of the worlds most beautiful motorcycles .The Ducati company traditions run deep with a long line of motorcycle racing history . The company was founded In Bolonga Italy in 1926.

When company started out (1.Their aim was the production of industrial components for the growing. History and Company Facts of Apple Inc. (24) 8. Portrayal Of Marriage And Scarlet Letter? Armstrong is the leading cyclist for race titles of all time (25) 9. Armstrong completed the are difficult to maintain in the tour at the highest pace in the race's history : his average speed over the whole tour being 26 mph. (27) 10. Poet Follower? In 1993, he won the 8th stage and in 1995 he took stage 18 in cartels are difficult to maintain run because:, honor of teammate.