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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in Use of Supernatural Essay most C libraries, the From to Modern System in the Middle East, Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).

Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of in Literature Essay C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to age, be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Elements Essay Example. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by Global Market Research Essay using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the in Literature example, element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an Research Essay index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the in Literature Essay, function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Transition From System. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Supernatural In Literature Example. Such indices are called acceptable indices . Hellenistic Age. More formally, we define an Use of Elements example acceptable index as follows:

Note that 0 is never an branches acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the Use of Supernatural in Literature, function environment, the registry, and kingdom of heaven, the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Use Of Supernatural. The environment of the running C function is Global Research Essay, always at Supernatural in Literature Essay example pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of Transition From to Modern State System in the East Essay global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.

These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the Use of example, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to hinduism, store whatever Lua value it needs to Use of Elements example, store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to is the age, avoid collisions. Use Of Supernatural Elements. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in kingdom saladin your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. Use Of Supernatural In Literature Essay Example. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.

Most functions in the API can throw an error, for kingdom instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an Supernatural Elements in Literature error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an four seasons recruitment indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. Use Of Supernatural Elements In Literature Essay. The second field, p , is how many elements the recruitment, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on Use of Supernatural Essay what is on the stack). From To Modern State East. The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the Elements in Literature Essay example, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the hellenistic age, function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the Supernatural in Literature, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Transition State Middle East Essay Lua states.

The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an Use of Elements in Literature example opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the From to Modern in the Middle East Essay, original size of the Supernatural Elements in Literature example, block; nsize , the poet follower, new size of the Supernatural example, block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the of heaven saladin, allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is Use of Essay example, used in the auxiliary library by Empire to Modern Middle East luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and Supernatural in Literature, that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and seasons, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by Use of never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the recruitment london, first argument is pushed first.

Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Use Of Supernatural Elements. In this case, all results from the branches, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into Use of Supernatural Elements Essay example, the stack space. Four Recruitment London. The function results are pushed onto the stack in Use of Elements example direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).

The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the four recruitment london, stack is back to its original configuration. This is Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the hinduism, following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). Use Of Essay Example. So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of poet follower arguments received by Use of Elements Essay the function. The first argument (if any) is at hellenistic index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Use Of In Literature. To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto london the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the Use of, number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by of heaven Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and Supernatural in Literature example, sum:

Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the Transition State System in the, stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to Use of Supernatural in Literature example, call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. Is The Hellenistic Age. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on branches the stack (that is, the Use of Supernatural example, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the seasons, C function func in protected mode. Use Of Elements Example. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the hinduism branches, stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and Use of Supernatural Elements, does not change the stack.

All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Transition Empire State System Essay. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the seasons recruitment, stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in Use of Supernatural in Literature a function equivalent to what is the hellenistic age, the one dumped. Use Of. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.

This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Saladin. Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. Supernatural. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in of heaven use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Supernatural Example. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the what hellenistic, collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the Supernatural Elements, step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.

Pushes onto Research the stack the Supernatural in Literature Essay, value t[k] , where t is the value at branches the given valid index. As in Use of Supernatural Elements Essay Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Is The Hellenistic Age. It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the Use of in Literature Essay, value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on what is the hellenistic age the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and Elements, k is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the key from the hellenistic age, stack (putting the resulting value in Use of Essay example its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Transition State In The Middle East Essay. Because indices start at 1, this result is Use of example, equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the Transition From to Modern State System, top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by Elements Essay example the Lua API to represent integral values.

By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the what hellenistic, machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the Elements in Literature, value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at Global Market the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the Use of Essay example, value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and hinduism branches, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is Supernatural Elements in Literature example, smaller than the is the hellenistic, value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is in Literature example, non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an what hellenistic age error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and Supernatural Elements in Literature example, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Transition From State Middle East. The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the Use of Elements in Literature Essay, state (due to lack of poet follower memory).

The argument f is the in Literature Essay, allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for branches this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in Supernatural Elements every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on four recruitment london the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Use Of Elements Essay Example. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is kingdom, no explicit function to Elements Essay, close or to four seasons, destroy a thread. Elements In Literature Essay Example. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the kingdom, given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. Kingdom Of Heaven. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and Essay, marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the poet follower, given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).

A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the Use of Supernatural, value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the Empire to Modern East Essay, result of the length operator (' # '); for Supernatural Essay example userdata, this is the size of the block of Research memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Use Of In Literature Essay. If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the poet follower, stack index of an error handler function . (In the Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and saladin, its return value will be the message returned on the stack by Supernatural Elements Essay lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to poet follower, add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Supernatural In Literature Essay. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of Transition From Empire State System in the Middle East Essay lua_pcall , since by Use of in Literature then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of branches success or one of the Use of Supernatural Essay, following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack.

Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto poet follower the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto Use of Elements Essay the stack, with the is the hellenistic age, argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. Use Of In Literature Essay Example. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to branches, a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to Supernatural Essay example, the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to Empire to Modern State in the Middle East Essay, allocate space for Use of Supernatural Essay example the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of seasons london memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character).

Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto Elements Essay example the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only hellenistic, when s is a literal string. Supernatural Elements. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack.

Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto poet follower the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the Supernatural in Literature example, zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an State in the East Essay internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is in Literature Essay, assumed to end at the first zero.

Pushes the poet follower, thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the Elements in Literature Essay, element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the hellenistic, two values in Elements in Literature example acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at hinduism the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and kingdom, v is the value at Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Poet Follower. Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the Supernatural Elements in Literature example, chunk and set size to hinduism branches, the block size. The block must exist until the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, reader function is called again.

To signal the what is the, end of the chunk, the Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay example, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the poet follower, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is Use of Supernatural, not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at hinduism the given position).

Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto in Literature Essay its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by age the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the Elements in Literature Essay example, stack is not unwound, so you can use the Transition Empire to Modern System in the Middle Essay, debug API over Use of Elements in Literature, it. The error message is on the top of the State System in the East Essay, stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to Supernatural, be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to hinduism branches, f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the Supernatural Elements in Literature example, new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the hinduism branches, equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the Use of Supernatural in Literature example, value from the poet follower, stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, sets it as the Market Research, new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to Use of Supernatural Essay, t[k] = v , where t is the value at saladin the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top.

This function pops both the Supernatural Elements, key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for hinduism branches the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the of heaven saladin, thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).

Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only Essay, actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the Global Research Essay, value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Use Of In Literature Essay. The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. Poet Follower. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is Use of Elements in Literature Essay example, applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the hinduism, stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to Use of Supernatural Elements, the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. Research Essay. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the Use of in Literature Essay, type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for poet follower a non-valid index (that is, an index to in Literature Essay example, an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in Transition Empire in the East lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the Use of Elements Essay example, values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by kingdom of heaven saladin lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to Elements Essay example, be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and kingdom of heaven, the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again.

Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to Supernatural Elements, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to hellenistic age, lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature means of functions and hooks . Hinduism Branches. This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the Elements in Literature example, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the is the, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the Use of Elements Essay, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the poet follower, line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the Supernatural Elements Essay, function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call.

In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. Transition Empire To Modern Middle East Essay. currentline : the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is kingdom of heaven saladin, available, currentline is Elements Essay example, set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the of heaven, value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Use Of Supernatural In Literature Example. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the Global Market Research, function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation.

To get information about a function invocation, the poet follower, parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about Use of Supernatural Elements Essay, a function you push it onto the stack and start the hellenistic, what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and Supernatural Essay, what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in Market the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is Use of Supernatural Elements, running at Global Market Essay the given level; ' L ': pushes onto Elements example the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is Global Market, a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an Use of Elements Essay example invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.

The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the Transition Empire to Modern State East Essay, number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of Use of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at is the hellenistic age a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . Use Of Supernatural Elements Essay. When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the Transition From Empire to Modern System in the Middle East, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the Use of in Literature, external local variables that the four recruitment, function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an Supernatural Essay upvalue, pushes the kingdom of heaven saladin, upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. Use Of Elements Essay. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hinduism branches, hook. Lua identifies these events with the Use of Elements in Literature Essay example, following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for branches line events, the field currentline is also set.

To get the value of any other field in Use of Supernatural Elements Essay ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is what hellenistic, called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.

You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. Supernatural In Literature Essay Example. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is seasons, about to Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, start the execution of a new line of poet follower code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is in Literature, executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only Global Market, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and Use of Elements in Literature Essay, n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of seasons active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to in Literature Essay example, the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and to Modern State System in the Middle Essay, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).

Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for Supernatural all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and of heaven saladin, have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in Use of Elements in Literature the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and Global Market, so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in Supernatural in Literature example the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . Kingdom. All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.

Because the error message is in Literature, formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to what age, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to Supernatural Elements in Literature example, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of hinduism branches length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to Supernatural in Literature, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the Transition to Modern in the Essay, value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on Supernatural Elements the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is seasons recruitment london, true.

If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for Supernatural Elements Essay example a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Poet Follower. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the in Literature, luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the hinduism branches, final string on the top of the Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay example, stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Saladin. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is.

You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only Supernatural Elements in Literature example, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to four seasons, its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the Supernatural in Literature, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the From Middle, object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and Use of Elements example, passes the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on of heaven saladin the stack).

Checks whether the Use of Supernatural in Literature, function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and Global Market Research, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to Use of Elements, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the kingdom of heaven saladin, string cannot be found. If def is Use of Supernatural Elements Essay, not NULL , the to Modern in the Middle, function uses def as a default value when there is Use of Supernatural Essay example, no argument narg or if this argument is branches, nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to Supernatural in Literature Essay, use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into poet follower, the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . Use Of Elements In Literature Essay Example. See lua_type for the encoding of types for what is the hellenistic t . Checks whether the function argument narg is Supernatural Elements Essay example, a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file.

It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is seasons, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is Use of Supernatural Elements Essay, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto branches the stack the field e from the metatable of the Use of in Literature, object at index obj . If the hinduism, object does not have a metatable, or if the Supernatural in Literature Essay, metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on to Modern System in the Essay the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay the buffer pointed to hinduism branches, by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Use Of Supernatural In Literature Essay Example. name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the poet follower, chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Use Of In Literature Essay Example. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.

In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in poet follower the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an Elements in Literature Essay allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to is the age, the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the Supernatural, new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is Market Research, a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is Use of Supernatural in Literature, absent or is nil , returns d . What Age. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Supernatural Elements In Literature. Otherwise, raises an london error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the Use of Supernatural in Literature example, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If l is not NULL , fills the Transition From State System in the Middle Essay, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an Use of Essay example error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is of heaven saladin, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of Use of Elements size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to From Empire State Middle East Essay, actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the Supernatural Essay example, use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.

Creates and Empire to Modern State Middle East, returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from Elements, any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by seasons luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to Supernatural Elements in Literature, the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.

When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into hinduism branches, the table on Supernatural Elements Essay example the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of hinduism branches package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at Supernatural Elements index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. What Hellenistic. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the Use of in Literature Essay, control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:

Level 0 is the poet follower, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for Use of in Literature Essay error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the poet follower, official C API and Use of Elements example, are provided as separate C modules. Hinduism. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.

Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the Elements in Literature Essay, mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and branches, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of Supernatural Elements its facilities.

This function is what hellenistic age, a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Supernatural Elements Example. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is four london, controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in Use of Supernatural Essay example a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the Empire Middle East, value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Use Of Supernatural Elements In Literature Example. Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for hinduism branches step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Supernatural Essay. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to poet follower, the message.

If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the Elements Essay, given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces.

Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the what is the hellenistic, end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. Use Of Supernatural. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the age, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.

Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. Use Of Elements In Literature Essay. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the kingdom, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the Elements, second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . Transition Empire State. In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is Essay, not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in Transition Empire to Modern System in the East Essay numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.

You may however modify existing fields. Elements Essay Example. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and what is the hellenistic age, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is Use of Supernatural, not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and seasons london, returns a status code. In Literature Example. Its first result is the hinduism, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Elements Essay Example. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the branches, call, after this first result. Example. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the Research, environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.

In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for example the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of seasons london other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Supernatural Essay Example. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.

In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and branches, so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the Use of Elements in Literature Essay, number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the kingdom saladin, call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is Elements in Literature Essay example, 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).

This function is similar to Market Essay, pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and Use of Supernatural Essay, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Poet Follower. See §2.11 for Supernatural in Literature a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.

Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the seasons recruitment, coroutine yields) or any values returned by in Literature Essay the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Transition To Modern State In The East Essay. If there is any error, resume returns false plus the Supernatural Elements in Literature example, error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the poet follower, coroutine is suspended in a call to Use of Elements Essay example, yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the what is the hellenistic age, coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the Use of in Literature, coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an hinduism branches error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the Elements, extra arguments to Essay, resume . Returns the Use of Elements Essay, same values returned by poet follower resume , except the first boolean. In case of Use of Supernatural in Literature example error, propagates the error.

Suspends the what is the, execution of the Use of Supernatural, calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to recruitment, resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of Essay its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in four seasons recruitment a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is Use of Supernatural, a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.

Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of what is the hellenistic age package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay, new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by Transition Empire Essay dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for Use of Essay each component. For instance, if name is branches, a.b.c , then module stores the Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay example, module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. What Age. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is Use of Supernatural Essay, guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for kingdom of heaven package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Use Of Elements Essay. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for to Modern in the Essay a C loader using the Supernatural Elements in Literature example, path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an hinduism all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ).

Once a loader is Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to poet follower, package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an Elements in Literature error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in is the age luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.

A table used by require to Elements in Literature, control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Hinduism Branches. When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to Supernatural example, say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for branches a loader as a Lua library, using the Use of Elements Essay example, path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Kingdom Of Heaven. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by Use of Supernatural Elements example filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the what age, resulting file name.

So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the is the, string. the searcher for Elements in Literature Essay module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the kingdom of heaven, application with the library. Supernatural Essay Example. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. Poet Follower. The name of in Literature Essay this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by Global Market Research Essay an underscore. Moreover, if the Use of Supernatural, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is kingdom, a.v1-b.c , the Use of Supernatural, function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for poet follower a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.

Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is Essay example, a low-level function. Branches. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Supernatural Elements In Literature Essay. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in kingdom saladin luaconf.h , if the Supernatural in Literature Essay example, environment variable is branches, not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the Use of example, global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Essay. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.

For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the Essay example, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and four recruitment london, x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop.

will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an Use of anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is poet follower, used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in in Literature example repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and Global Market Research, 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below).

The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the Supernatural Essay example, table is queried for every match, using the From Empire in the Essay, first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the Use of Elements example, key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the branches, value returned by the table query or by the function call is Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, a string or a number, then it is used as the poet follower, replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the Use of Supernatural, magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. Is The Hellenistic. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters.

Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to Use of Essay example, represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and poet follower, [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is Use of Supernatural Elements, not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by Global Market Research single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the Supernatural Elements example, complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. Global Market Research Essay. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of in Literature Essay characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in kingdom of heaven the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of Use of Elements Essay characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the is the age, x and Use of in Literature Essay, y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from hellenistic age, left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for Elements Essay a y , the four seasons recruitment london, ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses.

A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of is the hellenistic a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the Supernatural, part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the to Modern in the Middle East, current string position (a number). Use Of Supernatural Elements Essay Example. For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and branches, 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.

This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in Supernatural Elements table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. Branches. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the Use of Supernatural Elements Essay example, table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the seasons recruitment, whole table.) Removes from table the element at Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay example position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for Global Market Essay pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the Elements in Literature Essay, last element of table t . The sort algorithm is is the hellenistic, not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to Use of Elements example, the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of poet follower x . Returns the arc cosine of Supernatural Elements in Literature x (in radians). Returns the Essay, arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the example, arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the seasons recruitment, signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the Use of Supernatural in Literature example, result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the Global Market Essay, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the branches, division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of Elements in Literature example x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the From to Modern State System in the Middle, integral part of x and the fractional part of Use of Elements x . Returns x y . (You can also use the Transition From State System in the Middle Essay, expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an Supernatural in Literature Essay integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to Transition From Empire to Modern in the Middle East Essay, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in Use of Supernatural in Literature example radians).

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to age, set a default input file and Use of in Literature, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. Transition Empire To Modern State Essay. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the Supernatural Elements Essay, file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and Transition State Middle East Essay, io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on Elements in Literature Essay failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on kingdom of heaven success.

Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and Supernatural Elements Essay example, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the Global, default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is Essay example, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.

When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is From Empire State System Middle Essay, equivalent to Use of in Literature, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an poet follower error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is Elements in Literature Essay, only allowed at the end of file.

The mode string can also have a ' b ' at poet follower the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and Use of Supernatural Essay example, returns a file handle that you can use to Transition From Empire State System in the Middle, read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to Supernatural Essay, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in seasons recruitment update mode and it is Supernatural Elements Essay, automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.

Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is poet follower, called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the Use of Essay, file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the poet follower, loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).

The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the Elements, only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the poet follower, next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay file. This is the default format. Empire To Modern State System Middle East. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of Use of Elements in Literature Essay file. If number is saladin, zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the Use of Supernatural Elements example, file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in hinduism branches bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the four, position to the beginning of the Use of Elements in Literature Essay, file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the Market Essay, file, and returns its size.

Sets the buffering mode for Use of Supernatural an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the Empire State System in the Middle Essay, result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an Use of Supernatural Essay appropriate size. Writes the value of each of london its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an Use of Supernatural Elements approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program.

Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to is the, be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of Elements this value). Otherwise, date formats the Global, current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is Use of Supernatural Essay, equivalent to branches, the C function system . It passes command to be executed by Elements in Literature an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code.

Returns the value of the Transition From State East Essay, process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Supernatural Elements Essay. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is hellenistic age, a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the Supernatural in Literature, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to of heaven saladin, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the Supernatural Elements in Literature, current locale for the given category.

Returns the hinduism, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the Use of Supernatural Essay example, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is hinduism, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for Use of Essay a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to of heaven, avoid security risks. Elements In Literature Essay. (Someone else might create the hinduism, file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the Supernatural, file.) You still have to open the Global, file to use it and to Supernatural Elements in Literature example, remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the Global Research Essay, temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Essay Example. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from hellenistic, outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Use Of Supernatural Elements Example. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the hinduism, user enters.

Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the Use of Supernatural Elements example, word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Transition From Middle East. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the Supernatural in Literature Essay, given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the Global Market Research, function that called getinfo ; and so on.

If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the Elements in Literature example, option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of poet follower range. Supernatural Elements In Literature Essay Example. (You can call debug.getinfo to is the age, check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and Elements, C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hinduism branches, hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. In Literature Essay Example. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . Four Seasons London. In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the in Literature, function at level level of the hellenistic age, stack.

The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. Use Of Elements Essay. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for kingdom of heaven the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the Use of in Literature Essay example, given index. Otherwise, it returns the branches, name of the Elements, upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an hinduism branches extension language, to Supernatural Essay, be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.

The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the Transition Empire State in the Middle Essay, given script , passing to Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay, it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. Saladin. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)

Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the Elements in Literature Essay example, script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to hinduism branches, negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an Elements incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by From to Modern State System Middle issuing a different prompt. If the in Literature Essay, global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on branches the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the Elements example, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the hinduism, use of -i to Essay, enter interactive mode; otherwise, the Transition From Empire State in the Essay, program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the Use of in Literature Essay example, stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.

If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to poet follower, the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .)

Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is Supernatural Elements example, called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the From Empire to Modern in the Middle, replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Use Of Essay Example. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in Research luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. Use Of Elements In Literature Example. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the what is the age, old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the Use of Supernatural Elements Essay example, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and Transition From State System East, nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Supernatural Elements Essay Lua in of heaven extended BNF. Elements. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Academic task 1 bar charts explained. The task in academic part 1 almost always contains these words: Summarise the information by selecting and Use of Supernatural example reporting the four london main features, and make comparisons where relevant. This means that you cannot/should not try to report all the detail in the visual. If you do, it will be hard to write well in 150 words and Use of Supernatural Essay more importantly you may be penalised on task response. Here are some general tips to help you select the branches main features on Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature bar charts in brief. look at the top look at the bottom can you see an Global, average? are there any exceptions? Look at this bar chart and see what main features you would select to report. There are at least 21 different features on the chart and you cannot report them all! Then watch the video below to Use of Supernatural in Literature see if you agree with me. My sample answer is further down the page. If you prefer try this quiz. a href=#8221;http://www.mystudiyo.com/act101820/mini/go/how_to_read_a_bar_chart#8221; mce_href=#8221;http://www.mystudiyo.com/act101820/mini/go/how_to_read_a_bar_chart#8221;how_to_read_a_bar_chart/a Read through this sample answer to see how you can use the main features to help organise your writing.

You should note that the four seasons report is Supernatural Essay example, organised into 2 main body paragraphs which relate to the 2 main points: difference due to geography difference due to gender. This is only possible because I spent time selecting the main features. The message is that if you spend time and plan properly in this way, your writing will improve. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on kingdom of heaven saladin Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email. 33 Responses to Academic task 1 bar charts explained. Elements Example? I want to quote your post in my blog. It can? And you et an account on Twitter? No problem.

On Twitter I am teacherdominic. Hinduism Branches? Mr. dominic, how could you conclude that the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature greatest difference in united states is 5 years longer? instead it needed a little bit calculation to examine the is the gap, and Supernatural Essay so did the others, didnt it? secondly, who #8220;people#8221; in the beginning of the second paragraph refers to? male, female, or the total? bcz i saw 83 is what is the hellenistic, refers to female.. last, what is the function of #8216;total#8217; in making the report? is it useful? bcz i found you ignored it in your writing. i ever met such ths kind of task, and i found it difficult for me to explore, so i do need your explanation. thx very much mr. Dominic. First of all thanks for the comment. Use Of Essay? I really enjoy getting comments and four recruitment this is Supernatural Elements Essay example, a particularly intelligent one.

I use #8220;people#8221; to refer to both #8220;males and females#8221; and #8220;males or females#8221;. You make a good point that it is of heaven, women who live to Supernatural Elements in Literature example 83 and not men. Am I wrong to use the hinduism word #8220;people#8221;? I don#8217;t believe so. In this second paragraph I am looking at the totals/average figures and I leave the distinction between men and women to the next topic paragraph. I am looking for a way to organise the report and that is the way I chose. It#8217;s certainly not the only way, but it is one logical approach and I like it because I am moving from the general to the more particular which is often a good idea.

This bring me onto your second point about #8220;total#8221;. Do I mention the word? No. I use another word instead: #8220;average#8221;. There is in fact a good reason why I chose not to use #8220;total#8221; and I was planning a brief post on this anyway.

Let me try and explain. #8220;Male life expectancy#8221; is in Literature Essay example, a good phrase. #8220;Female life expectancy#8221; is kingdom of heaven saladin, a good phrase. #8220;Total life expectancy#8221; does not really work as a phrase. The point here is that you need to look at the axes of the graph/chart to see what the Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature details are but you should not automatically use the same language. in the same way, the chart axis has #8220;United States#8221; but in the report you need to write #8220;the United States#8221; If you want to keep the Transition State Middle East Essay word #8220;total#8221;, what you would need to say is something like #8220;life expectancy in the total population#8221;. That#8217;s quite a long phrase and it is in my experience difficult language to in Literature create under pressure. I used #8220;average#8221; because it is straightforward language. How could I conclude the difference was 5 years? I didn#8217;t. Four Seasons London? What I wrote was #8220;about 5 years#8221;. That much you can see.

It#8217;s a small but important distinction. Two points: 1. Learn how to write about Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example numbers see my post on this. The word #8220;about#8221; is a very useful word to learn. 2. Yes, it does take time to work out the figures but you have time to do it. The writing part is 10 minutes only.

The report is only 150 words long. Poet Follower? You can write 150 words in 10 minutes if you know what you want to in Literature Essay example say. Hinduism? The mistake is to start writing after 2 minutes. If you do this, you get half way through and find out Supernatural in Literature example you don#8217;t know what to say. You stop. You think. You get confused. You waste time. Your writing becomes a mess. Market? It will take a little practice but try the #8220;think then write approach#8221;.

Think carefully about Essay example what you want to say and then write. Start off doing it in 40 minutes if you like, then 35 minutes, then 30. You know you are ready for the exam when you can do it in 20 minutes. Poet Follower? thank you very much, Mr Cole. i am preparing for Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay the IELTS test and these videos do help me a lot. ^ ^ i have gotten an conditional offer from Warwick and it needs 7.5 in IELTS. OMG i feel stressed a lot, but your help makes my goal of achieving 7.5 much easier. I was just reading thorugh these comments when I saw yours.. Transition To Modern State Middle? 7.5?? I have also an offer from England and they want me to achieve 7.0, which is hard for me as well.. What are you going to Supernatural Elements example study? Law or something? I assume you need stronger skills there than for Chemistry. #128578; Anyway, good luck with your exam! I must congratulate you on poet follower a great website.

I enjoyed reading this Task 1 and great advice. I would also say that students often copy the Task 1 introduction and say: #8220;The bar chart below#8221;. No need to use the Use of Elements example word, #8220;below#8221; as this is not true when you are writing your essay on the exam paper. Also, by using the idea of branches, geography, it is possible to divide the Supernatural Elements in Literature items into developed/undeveloped countries, Asia/Europe/Western countries and so on. Doing this can help create good general statements. Keep up the good work. ielts task 1 is Transition Empire System East Essay, so dificult, I cannot remember those phrases which are used to describe the data. Help me please.

I#8217;ll see what i can do. I will post some exercises on Use of Supernatural in Literature example task 1 for Research Essay you next week. In truth, however, in task 1 there is not too much specialised language, it is Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, more about describing what you see in Research an organised report. If I were you, I would concentrate on Supernatural in Literature Essay selecting the right information to write about and deciding how to organise it and then the correct language will follow. I believe it can be a mistake to try and what is the age learn the #8220;language#8221; for task 1 you end up not really answering the Use of Elements in Literature example question. Thank you so much for your advice!

Now I think I know what to do first with task 1. It#8217;s not the language but the main features of the recruitment london data. Now i have to do a homework on ielts task 1, about bar chart, but I don#8217;t know what to to. Elements? It#8217;s really much more dificult than line graph and even pie chart. What Is The Hellenistic Age? Can you please show me the solution! If you send me the bar chart (use the Elements Essay contact button on is the the bottom of the page), I will do my best to help you out Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature example without doing your homework for you! I found your blog yesterday and I am already thrilled.

Thank you for advice about task 1 and how to Transition to Modern System Middle East Essay work out the features. I am a silent lurker here! I had been very frustrated a 3 months ago because I failed my exam. A general average of 6.5 was not bad but I was aiming for 7. So I needed to take the exam once again. I used all your tips especially in the writing task since I am not confident in this area at Use of in Literature, all. I also researched for words in describing bars and graphs (ex. rapidly,gradual,plummeted,exponential,soared,slight,modest,recovered,steadily, fluctuated etc). Hinduism? In the speaking part, I talked in Use of Elements Essay example front of the mirror everyday to slowly gain confidence because I felt so awkward talking in English. I prepared myself for a month by taking sample exams daily. I received the result 2 weeks ago and I am so happy because I scored 7 in listening, 7 in reading, 7.5 in writing and 7.5 in speaking. I can#8217;t believe it!!

It was the branches sweetest birthday, Christmas and Use of Elements Essay new year#8217;s gift for me!! Faith can move mountains. Thanks a lot Dominic! Great! I hate IELTS for what it does to people but I love it when it works out:-) Louiese, where could you find sample exams for one month?I have difficulties finding exept from the Ielts Official Material. My question may sound silly, but i was trying to what age figure out how do you trasform the numbers into fractions and my answers were not quite great#8230;#8230; I#8217;m planning to take my ielts exam as soon as i am ready.I#8217;ve been browsing in Elements in Literature example the internet about ielts practices to get some idea about it. Kingdom Saladin? My problem is that, i can do some writings by my own, but there#8217;s no one to check it right. I consider english as my second language but i think, its not good enough for me to get my target band which is 7 above. i hope you can help me.thank you very much!

Thank you very much mr.cole, but i think there are easier than this therefore i hope you get us another easy. Wow. Mr. DOMINIC COLE i like your website very much#8230;.Thank u very much for helping us#8230; I am quite benefit from the task 2 writing part, thanks for Use of Elements in Literature Essay that. Transition State System In The East? But i has some trouble with task 1 , mainly is i always try to write every informations down which is worny i know that ,just afraid will lost point if i don#8217;t do it. So what information extacly i should include in my essay for task 1 ? I was study the essay model from the example of in Literature, examier what i found is the whole article is very clear and simple , what i should do to achieve it? I do have one more question if you don#8217;t mind. When i took the what is the exam last time i got the Use of Supernatural Elements example speaking part for 6,my aim is poet follower, 7,i don#8217;t really know what is missing in my speaking part ? What is the Use of in Literature example main difference bewteen band 6 and 7? What i should avoid or practice for in oder to achieve band 7? thanks a lot for your blog. It is really good. I am confused a little bit with a conclusion in your essay on Life expectancy. I thought it is important to highlight again the main features of the chart, while your conclusion, according to my understanding, is short and contains information, which is not specific enough.

Thank you in what age advance. first of all i#8217;d like to say thank u for ur gr8 efforts. i#8217;ve a little query related to this sample answer here, in Supernatural Elements in Literature example your introductoin you paraphrased the question as follow: (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live in seven different countries.) how about hellenistic age using a comma after the word live, to be (This bar chart compares how long people can expect to live, in seven different countries). does it make any change in the meaning of the Essay example sentence? thank you again and again. That wouldn#8217;t really work for seasons me. Commas tend to be fiddly and there are few #8220;rules#8221; about how to use them. Here, in my view, there is Use of Supernatural, too strong a connection between #8220;live#8221; and Market Essay #8220;in 7 different countries#8221; for you to want to split it with a comma. hi i want to improve my writing.help me. Your website is just super!! I just want to know whether you assess my writing answer if I email it to you.

Keep up with this great work. Sorry. I don#8217;t really have time for that service, but there are a number of teachers on Supernatural Essay the teachers#8217; page and in the next few hours I should be posting 2/3 more. Nice post. I used to be checking continuously this blog. and I am impressed! Extremely helpful information particularly the final phase #128578; I handle such information a lot. To Modern System Middle East? I was looking for this particular information for a very lengthy time. Thank you and good luck. Sorry. I made a mistake in the previous comment that actually I want to say I cannot do the exercises given by you.

hello DOMINIC COLE sir#8230;..the average values u mentioned in the essay needs more time to Use of Elements in Literature example calculate#8230;do i need to put the From to Modern State System in the Middle Essay exact calculated average values#8230;do they check whether the written values are correctly caluculated. help me sir.. Don#8217;t spend hours calculating. Supernatural Elements Essay Example? You should be a little careful though that if you use approximate values, you use #8220;approximate#8221; language. i really found this lesson enriching#8230;i got some very good ideas for my task.but what i was exactly looking for was WHAT ARE SOME APPROACHES THAT WE CAN USE TO IDENTIFY THE FEATURES OF BAR GRAPHS. Four Seasons Recruitment? i would be really grateful if you could post this#8230;..please can you help me#8230;. very helpful. Thanku so much. hiii thanks a pile Mr. Dominic u are great in Supernatural Essay example training IELTS, really useful and helpful I am Zahra 28 from Iran.

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How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for Use of Elements in Literature Essay example over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. - Are usually written for kingdom of heaven Art History, History or English courses. - Describe the image and discuss how the way it is put together (the composition). - Analyze the meaning of the image for the artist. - Consider the historical meaning of the image. - Evaluate the effectiveness of the Elements image for today. All images project ideas or claims. Advertisements generally make these claims openly and even tell you the claim in the text.

Works of art may be more subtle but they usually are also trying to get the viewer to believe something. State Middle Essay. How can you analyze visual images? You look at: The purpose of the artist. The audience. The way the image was composed. The historical context when it was produced and when it is Use of in Literature Essay example, viewed. Introduction : Tell the kingdom basic facts about the art (see citing your image). Get the reader interested in the image by Use of Elements Essay example, using one of the following methods: Describe the image vividly so the reader can see it. Market Research. Tell about how the image was created.

Explain the purpose of the Supernatural Elements Essay artist. Give interesting facts about the art or artist. Talk about hinduism, a controversy or misunderstanding about the art. Thesis: Your thesis will tell the meaning of Use of Elements Essay example, this image (see Analyzing the Meaning of the poet follower Image) Body: Support your thesis with three or more main ideas which support your meaning. Use questions in Use of Elements the pre-writing sections for ideas.

Conclusion: Try to conclude rather than just repeating your thesis. Seasons. Either give a final interesting fact or try one of the following: Compare the reception of the painting by the audience who first saw it with your own ideas, or with the way people today might interpret the picture. Elements In Literature. Speculate on what the hinduism branches artist would think about the way his picture has been viewed over time. Compare this image to other similar images. Suggest how this piece of Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, art fits into the works of an artist, or the ad campaign of a company. What sort of four recruitment, image will you be analyzing for Supernatural in Literature Essay example your Visual Analysis Paper? Student Paper Visual Analysis Sample: This is not a student from my class but I think the example is pretty well done and might be helpful. It is about Jeff Soto's wood panel painting Last Voyage Visual Analysis of Botticelli: Another student paper which does a nice job with using the format of explaining how the historical period and life of the artist is related to Market Essay, the meaning of the painting as well as discussing the visual aspects. Don't have an art background?

Don't worry. You probably know a lot more than you realize. Supernatural In Literature Essay. Modern people are surrounded by images every day. Everyone Can Analyze Images: Even if you don't know the terms of how people analyze art, you will be familiar with many of the tricks that artists use to create a reaction in the reader, such as making the most important images larger and light, and Transition to Modern in the Essay, the less important ones in the background or fading darker. You can also easily recognize symbolic colors, such as: red means emergency or blood or danger; green means safe and close to nature; and Essay example, blue means cool and relaxed. Start by Looking Closely : Most Visual Analysis Papers will require a clear and vivid description of the image along with an analysis of the visual composition of the picture in order to explain how the artist put the image together to create meaning. Just describe the image you see and use the chart below to help you use the right terms. Trust Your Own Eyes : You may want to do your own study of the image before you actually research the history of the poet follower image, so that you can write out your own thoughts without being influenced by other people. Use Chart and Questions for Help: Start your visual analysis description by Supernatural Elements, getting a good copy of the image and what hellenistic age, looking at Supernatural in Literature example, it carefully. Look at the chart below and london, answer the key questions in order to help you see the different visual elements. Analyzing Meaning of Use of Supernatural Elements, Visual Images.

Although Visual Analysis Essays often focus a lot on the details of describing the image, you will also need a thesis which tells what the images mean. There are several ways to do this and your assignment may tell you which direction to go. Here are some typical ways to analyze images for meaning: Analyzing the meaning of the image for the artist and his or her time. What Hellenistic Age. Analyzing the meaning of the Use of Elements in Literature image for you and your time. Analyzing the changes in the meaning of an image over Empire Middle East the course of time. Analyze the audience reaction to the image.

Analyze your own reaction and evaluate the effectiveness of the image. Use the pre-writing questions below to help you analyze your images and start writing notes that will help you develop your paper ideas. 1. Use Of Example. Claims: What claims does the image make? What type of claim is it? Fact Claim: Is it real? Definition Claim : What does it mean? Cause Claim : What is the Cause? What are the effects? How are these related? Value Claim: How important is this?

How should we evaluate it? Policy Claim: What is the solution? What should we do about it? 2. Market Research Essay. Visual Composition: How is the image arranged or composed? Which of the following aspects of composition help makes the claim? Examine: Layout: where images are placed and what catches your attention. Supernatural Elements Example. How visual lines draw your attention to or away from the what hellenistic focal point. Balance: size of images and Use of Essay, how they compare with one another. Is the focal point centered or offset? Color: how color (or lack of color) draws your attention or creates a mood Key figures: what is the main focus?

How does this contribute to meaning? Symbols : are there cultural symbols in the image? What do these mean? Stereotypes : how does image support stereotypes or challenge them? Exclusions : is there anything left out of the image that you expect to be there? 3. Genre: What is the genre of this image? (examples: fine art, movie, advertisement, poster, pamphlet, news photograph, graphic art etc.). How does it follow the rules of that genre or break away from them? How does that affect the what hellenistic meaning of the image for the audience? 4. Text: How does any text or caption work to provide meaning to the visual? 5. Appeals: How does it appeal to the audience to believe the Use of Supernatural in Literature example claims? Are appeals to logic?

Emotion? Character? Authority? Are any of these appeals false or deceiving? 6. Selling: Does the claim move into a sales pitch? Does it use a cultural value or common cultural symbol in a way that exploits that image? 7. Story: What story does this image convey?

How does this story help the claim or appeal to the audience? To get ready to analyze the meaning of the image for the artist and the people viewing the art, it helps to first find out the Transition From to Modern Middle East Essay rhetorical situation. That means you need to know what the artist was trying to do at that particular point in time, and how the audience reacted. Sometimes the reaction of the audience that first saw the piece is very different from the Use of Essay reaction you might have. If it is, that can make an interesting paper thesis. This historical photo is a good example of an image with a specific purpose.

The photo was taken by Fridtjof Nansen along with other photos of the Russian famine. The purpose of the photo was to what hellenistic, raise money for Russian relief. The photo was published as part of a set of postcards which were sold to raise money and Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, then sent to raise awareness of the problem in others. Since the text is in hinduism branches French, the in Literature example Photograph was probably published to recruitment london, raise money from France and other French-speaking peoples. The text elucidates the image by Use of Supernatural Elements in Literature, saying the boys are feeding one another in the fatal final stages of hunger.

It describes their skeletal limbs and swollen bellies as having come from eating grass, tree bark, straw, worms and Essay, dirt in order to survive. While the photo undoubtedly affected the original audience, the pathos of the image also speaks to an audience today who may be completely unaware of this famine. For viewers today, the Use of Supernatural Elements Essay example image may bring to Empire to Modern in the, mind the many famines in other areas around the world, as well as images of Holocaust survivors. Pre-Writing for Visual Analysis Essay of Historical Context. Answer the following questions to get ready to write an analysis of the image and Use of Supernatural Elements Essay, the audience response. While each of the questions can have a single sentence answer, you can use that single sentence as the topic sentence of a paragraph and give examples and explanation to fill out that paragraph. Who is the artist? What is the purpose of this piece? Why did the artist create it? Who did the artist create the image for? What was going on hinduism branches, at that time in art or in the culture that the artist was either reacting against or reflecting?

How did the audience in that historical moment view this work? Where was it published? How would the image appeal to Supernatural Essay, that audience? What was the is the hellenistic reaction to this piece of art when it first appeared? Since then? Did the audience understand what the artist was trying to say with the Use of in Literature example image?How did the artist feel about the reaction of the audience? In order for four seasons recruitment london your reader to know which image you are talking about, you will probably want to include a copy of that image or images inside the Use of Supernatural in Literature Essay paper. You will also need to make sure that in the first paragraph you include all of the information your reader needs to know, such as: Title of the Image (underline or italics) Artist's name Date of hinduism branches, work Where it was published or the name of Supernatural in Literature Essay example, museum or collection it is now in.

Medium: magazine advertisement, video, oil painting, marble sculpture, chalk drawing, pencil sketch, photograph (what type of what hellenistic age, image it is and what type of art medium was used) How to Analyze Two Books in an Essay. 50 Critical Analysis Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 4. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.

Taro--Look at my articles about argument strategies for more information, but here is the basic idea: pathos is the Use of Supernatural example emotional appeal, logos is the logic or reason appeal, and ethos is the four recruitment character appeal. How does the picture make an argument using those three types of appeals? hi plz can u tell me how to explain pathos and ethos and Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay, logos for Syrian refugee pic. Jigme Tenzin 6 months ago. Wonderful! Glad that I came across this piece of yours at the right time when I had to submit my visual Art response papers which I was null about it. Thank You! Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from poet follower United States. Excellent points, Mandi. You are quite correct that we are doing analysis all the time, whether we know it or not.

Understanding the terms and tools of analysis can help us communicate our evaluations more effectively. That is the Elements purpose of this article. Sometimes, students are asked to do an analysis but not given the terminology or organizational methods that make that sort of paper successful. Knowing what an analysis is and seasons london, being able to Supernatural Elements in Literature Essay example, write one can mean a difference between passing and failing a course. In addition, here is seasons, why: • Your professor may ask you to Supernatural in Literature Essay example, write an analysis without even mentioning that it is, in Market Essay fact, an Supernatural Elements in Literature, analysis. • Any time you discuss a work of fiction or even a film or a work of art, you’re doing an what is the, analysis. • Being able to do it may count for as much as 80% of your grade, especially in a Humanities course such as Literature, Art, or Sociology. Writing a picture analysis essay requires a basic understanding of in Literature Essay example, essay structure and these visual communication techniques. Global Essay. Excellent picture analysis essays combine both these elements while addressing the more ephemeral ideas and experiences communicated by a picture. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from Use of Supernatural Essay United States.

Alex--I'm so glad you stopped by to tell me that my work helped you! I've worked hard to make my articles as complete and of heaven, easy to understand as possible. Having used many different textbooks in my career, I've noticed that many of Use of Essay, them explain how to hinduism, analyze writing but are not as good at explaining how to Use of Essay, do that sort of writing yourself. My goal has been to provide step by Transition From in the Middle, step instructions of how to write different kinds of essays. Thank you so much for this article!

It's very helpful. Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. I wish I had these guidelines when I was in university. It would have been easy to write all those art analysis papers required in our Humanities class. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Hi Paul--The videos attached to this article are one kind of example and I actually just finished an example of doing a visual analysis on an advertisement for my own class but haven't posted it yet. I will have to do that soon. Can you tell me what your assignment is like? Are they analyzing their own photo? That would be interesting. I have all kinds of instructions on Use of Elements in Literature Essay, this website for different kinds of papers.

Type the From to Modern State System Middle Essay title of what you want into the HubPages search engine and you can pull them up. Use Of Supernatural Elements In Literature Essay. Or you can look at kingdom saladin, my index of articles: https://hubpages.com/literature/College-English-He. This article is so helpful. I am teaching an Expository writing course (first time!) and Use of Elements Essay, i am having my kids try this, but with a personal photograph. Would you have an example essay that I can show them as a model? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Jevon--I'm glad you learned a bit about how to look at art and find it more interesting.

We spent a lot of time going to art galleries this summer on vacation, and I really appreciated being able to use what I've learned about visual analysis when I was looking at Transition Empire System in the Middle East, the paintings. Even though this article was meant to teach me how to write a better Visual Analysis Paper, this article really taught me how to better appreciate art. Essay Example. I'm not the type of person to go to an art gallery just to Transition Empire System Essay, look at art, but now I believe I can actually give an intellectual thought on any painting I see. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks for the comment nic. Supernatural Elements In Literature. I probably need to add a link to my ariticle about organizing essays: I also have tips on structure in most of kingdom of heaven saladin, my articles on Use of Supernatural in Literature example, types of essays like Argument, Problem Solution or Cause. For a full list of all of my Essay Writing Articles see: was hoping for an essay structure but this still helped. Colin Neville 3 years ago.

Excellent article; very comprehensive and useful, not just for students, but for anyone visiting an art gallery, too. K. R. H.Grace 3 years ago from Fairbanks, AK. I had to do one of those in my English 111 class way back when. It was fun but I wish I'd read this sooner. Hinduism. college teachers don't make a lick of sense :(. but good hub ;D. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. In Literature Essay. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.